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H Cao, T W Ji, Q Lan, F Lin, Y Dong, A J Xu, J Liu, H Y Ding, H M Fan, Z M Liu
Objective: To evaluate the changes of rat renal function and cardiac function after transabdominal subtotal nephrectomy (STNx) and provide an ideal animal model for the study of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Methods: The SD rats (male, 5-6 weeks) were randomly divided into Sham group ( n= 10) and STNx group ( n= 10). The rats from Sham group underwent sham surgery, and the right nephrectomy plus the 2/3 left kidney artery ligation through abdominal incision were performed in the rats from STNx group...
February 12, 2019: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Cherrie H T Kong, Simon M Bryant, Judy J Watson, David M Roth, Hemal H Patel, Mark B Cannell, Andrew F James, Clive H Orchard
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Overexpression of caveolin-3 (Cav-3 OE) appears to protect the heart against many of the features of heart failure (HF) normally observed in vivo. The present study investigates the cellular basis of this protection. What is the main finding and its importance? Cav-3 OE has little effect in normal ventricular myocytes but reduces cellular hypertrophy and preserves t-tubular ICa, but not local t-tubular Ca release, in HF induced by pressure-overload in mice...
February 20, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Lindsey Burggraaff, Paul Oranje, Robin Gouka, Pieter van der Pijl, Marian Geldof, Herman W T van Vlijmen, Adriaan P IJzerman, Gerard J P van Westen
Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) is a solute carrier responsible for active glucose absorption. SGLT1 is present in both the renal tubules and small intestine. In contrast, the closely related sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), a protein that is targeted in the treatment of diabetes type II, is only expressed in the renal tubules. Although dual inhibitors for both SGLT1 and SGLT2 have been developed, no drugs on the market are targeted at decreasing dietary glucose uptake by SGLT1 in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cheminformatics
Aliasghar Moghaddam, Mohammad Panah, Manochehr Souri
The effect of an ad libitum supplementary feeding on some reproductive characteristics of ram lambs were evaluated. Twelve Sanjabi rams were allocated to one of two groups: control (C) and treatment (T). The control group received hay and the treatment group received hay and concentrate with gross energy and crude protein concentration of 4.52 Mcal and 16% of dry matter, respectively. At the end of experiment, after taking blood samples for determination of testosterone concentration (TC), all lambs were castrated and the testicular weight (TWT), testicular volume (TV), testicular length (TL), and testicular width (TW) were measured...
February 13, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
E Ntemou, P Kadam, D Van Saen, J Wistuba, R T Mitchell, S Schlatt, E Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: Can full spermatogenesis be achieved after xenotransplantation of prepubertal primate testis tissue to the mouse, in testis or subcutaneously? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intratesticular xenotransplantation supported the differentiation of immature germ cells from marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) into spermatids and spermatozoa at 4 and 9 months post-transplantation, while in subcutaneous transplants, spermatogenic arrest was observed at 4 months and none of the transplants survived at 9 months...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction
Shireen-A Davies, Pablo Cabrero, Richard Marley, Guillermo Martinez Corrales, Saurav Ghimire, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow
The insect renal (Malpighian) tubule has long been a model system for the study of fluid secretion and its neurohormonal control, as well as studies on ion transport mechanisms. To extend these studies beyond the boundaries of classical physiology, a molecular genetic approach together with the 'omics technologies is required. To achieve this in any vertebrate transporting epithelium remains a daunting task, as the genetic tools available are still relatively unsophisticated. Drosophila melanogaster, however, is an outstanding model organism for molecular genetics...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Adriana B Almeida, Perla F Araújo, Francisco M Bernal, Ana de Cassia Rosa, Sebastião A Valente, Antonio R L Teixeira
American trypanosomiasis is transmitted to humans by triatomine bugs through the ingestion of contaminated food, by blood transfusions or accidently in hospitals and research laboratories. In addition, the Trypanosoma cruzi infection is transmitted congenitally from a chagasic mother to her offspring, but the male partner's contribution to in utero contamination is unknown. The findings of nests and clumps of amastigotes and of trypomastigotes in the theca cells of the ovary, in the goniablasts and in the lumen of seminiferous tubules suggest that T...
January 27, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fatma Y Meligy, Amal T Abo Elgheed, Shymaa M Alghareeb
Infertility represents a major medical, economic, and psychological problem. Stem cells therapy for infertility has a great interest nowadays especially for cancer survivors at pre-reproductive and reproductive age.  Thirty-two adult male albino rats were used, divided equally into four groups; Group I (Control group) received isotonic saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) as vehicle. Group II (Cisplatin-treated group) received Cisplatin (i.p.) at a single dose of 7 mg/kg, and then were sacrificed after 5 days...
February 9, 2019: Ultrastructural Pathology
D F Oda, M A H Duarte, F B Andrade, L T Moriyama, V S Bagnato, I G de Moraes
AIM: To evaluate the capacity of carbopol gel to maintain the intensity of a LED curing light (blueLED) along the length of prepared root canals in bovine teeth, and to assess the antimicrobial capacity of curcumin photoactivated by a LED curing light in the presence of carbopol gel. METHODOLOGY: Experiment 1: Eight straight roots of bovine incisors were standardized to a length of 15 mm, and the root canals instrumented up to a size 120 K-file. The LED curing light was irradiated inside the root canals using an aluminium collimator (1...
February 5, 2019: International Endodontic Journal
R Uemura, J Miura, T Ishimoto, K Yagi, Y Matsuda, M Shimizu, T Nakano, M Hayashi
Root caries is an increasingly problem in aging societies with severe implications for the general health and wellbeing of large numbers of people. Strengthening type-I collagen, a major organic component of human dentin, has proved effective in preventing root caries. This study sought to determine whether exposure to riboflavin followed by UVA irradiation (RF/UVA) could promote additional collagen crosslinking, and thus improve the acid and enzymatic resistance of human dentin under simulated oral environments...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kenichi Ishizawa, Qin Wang, Jinping Li, Osamu Yamazaki, Yoshifuru Tamura, Yoshihide Fujigaki, Shunya Uchida, Richard P Lifton, Shigeru Shibata
Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-regulated phosphatase known for its role in activation of T cells following engagement of the T cell receptor. Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are widely used as immunosuppressive agents; common adverse effects of CNIs are hypertension and hyperkalemia. While previous studies have implicated activation of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) in this toxicity, the molecular mechanism of this effect is unknown. The renal effects of CNIs mimic the hypertension and hyperkalemia that result from germ-line mutations in with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases and the Kelch-like 3 (KLHL3)-CUL3 ubiquitin ligase complex...
February 4, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Danica W Ito, Karen I Hannigan, Debapriya Ghosh, Bing Xu, Silvia G Del Villar, Yang K Xiang, Eamonn J Dickson, Manuel F Navedo, Rose E Dixon
Voltage-dependent L-type CaV 1.2 channels play an indispensable role in cardiac excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Activation of the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR)/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway leads to enhanced CaV 1.2 activity resulting in increased Ca2+ influx into ventricular myocytes, and a positive inotropic response. CaV 1.2 channels exhibit a clustered distribution along the T-tubule sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes where nanometer proximity between channels permits Ca2+ -dependent cooperative gating behaviour mediated by dynamic, physical, allosteric interactions between adjacent channel C-terminal tails...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Weishi Yan, Carolina Montoya, Marit Øilo, Alex Ossa, Avina Paranjpe, Hai Zhang, Dwayne D Arola
INTRODUCTION: Although the strength and toughness of dentin decrease with age, no study has explored if restorative treatments are a contributing factor. METHODS: Multiple extracted teeth were obtained from randomly selected donors and categorized according to donor age and prior root canal treatment. The microstructure and chemical composition of radicular dentin were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively, and the strength was evaluated in 4-point flexure to failure...
February 2019: Journal of Endodontics
D B Lipsett, M Frisk, J M Aronsen, E S Nordén, O R Buonarati, A Cataliotti, J W Hell, I Sjaastad, G Christensen, W E Louch
KEY POINTS: As reactivation of the foetal gene program has been implicated in pathological remodelling during heart failure (HF), we examined whether cardiomyocyte subcellular structure and function revert to an immature phenotype during this disease. Surface and internal membrane structures appeared gradually during development, and returned to a juvenile state during HF. Similarly, dyadic junctions between the cell membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum were progressively 'packed' with L-type Ca2+ channels and Ryanodine Receptors during development, and 'unpacked' during HF...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Amandine Krzesiak, Christian Cognard, Stéphane Sebille, Grégoire Carre, Laurent Bosquet, Nathalie Delpech
Exercise training offers possible non-pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. High intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training has been shown to have as much or even more beneficial cardiovascular effect in patients with cardiovascular diseases than moderate intensity continuous exercise (CMIE) training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the two types of training on cardiac remodeling of SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats) induced by hypertension...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Frederik M Jacobsen, Mikkel Fode, Jens Sønksen, Dana A Ohl, Christian Fuglesang S Jensen
We present a case where microdissection testicular sperm extraction (m.T.E.S.E.) was used in a 36-year-old man after non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma treated with 2.5 years of chemotherapy, radiation therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (B.M.T.). During m.T.E.S.E. two areas of testis tissue with dilated seminiferous tubules were found both containing several sperm cells. These were cryopreserved and subsequently used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, resulting in a pregnancy. Although the prognosis for sperm retrieval appears to be poor in most men who have undergone B...
January 30, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Sergio De la Fuente, Shey-Shing Sheu
In adult cardiomyocytes, T-tubules, junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR), and mitochondria juxtapose each other and form a unique and highly repetitive functional structure along the cell. The close apposition between jSR and mitochondria creates high Ca2+ microdomains at the contact sites, increasing the efficiency of the excitation-contraction-bioenergetics coupling, where the Ca2+ transfer from SR to mitochondria plays a critical role. The SR-mitochondria contacts are established through protein tethers, with mitofusin 2 the most studied SR-mitochondrial "bridge", albeit controversial...
January 24, 2019: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Khaleel I Al-Obaidy, Muhammad T Idrees, David J Grignon, Thomas M Ulbright
Adenocarcinoma of the rete testis is rare and its etiological and pathologic characteristics are not well studied. We therefore investigated the clinical, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features of 6 cases diagnosed at our institution and conducted a detailed review of the literature. The mean age was 64 years. All patients presented with testicular masses; 4 were right-sided. On gross examination, all tumors were centered in the hilum and had solid and cystic cut surfaces. Microscopically, all had intrarete and invasive growth and showed multiple patterns, with a variable proportion of papillary, solid and glandular morphology, the latter varying from slit-like lumens to well-formed glands and tubules...
January 22, 2019: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Jelle Vriend, Charlotte A Hoogstraten, Kevin R Venrooij, Bartholomeus T van den Berge, Larissa P Govers, Arno van Rooij, Marleen C D G Huigen, Tom J J Schirris, Frans G M Russel, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Martijn J Wilmer
Organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and 3 are, besides uptake transporters, key in several cellular metabolic pathways. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Hence, we used human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) overexpressing OAT1 or OAT3 to gain insight into these mechanisms. In ciPTEC-OAT1 and -OAT3, extracellular lactate levels were decreased (by 77% and 71%, respectively), while intracellular ATP levels remained unchanged, suggesting a shift towards an oxidative phenotype upon OAT1 or OAT3 overexpression...
December 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
T Needham, H Lambrechts, L C Hoffman
Immunocastration improves the welfare of castrated commercial slaughter lambs; however, the time-point at which this technique influences semen quality and sperm production has not yet been established for various vaccination schedules. Furthermore, the effect of extended intervals between second vaccination and slaughter needs to be investigated regarding continued testosterone suppression in immunocastrated lambs. The effect of extending the interval between second immunocastration vaccination and slaughter from four to six weeks on the reproductive capacity of Dohne Merino lambs was examined...
January 17, 2019: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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