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Immune mechanics

Marcelo Henrique Matias da Silva, Raiza Nara Cunha Moises, Brenda Elen Bizerra Alves, Hannaly Wana Bezerra Pereira, Anne Aline Pereira de Paiva, Ingryd Câmara Morais, Yasmim Mesquita Nascimento, Joelma Dantas Monteiro, Janeusa Trindade de Souto, Manuela Sales Lima Nascimento, Josélio Maria Galvão de Araújo, Paulo Marcos Matta da Guedes, José Veríssimo Fernandes
Innate immunity receptors (Toll-like receptors/TLRs and RIG-like receptors/RLRs) are important for the initial recognition of Zika virus (ZIKV), modulation of protective immune response, and IFN-α and IFN-β production. Immunological mechanisms involved in protection or pathology during ZIKV infection have not yet been determined. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression of innate immune receptors (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5/MDA-5, and retinoic acid inducible gene/RIG-1), its adapter molecules (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88/Myd88, Toll/IL-1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor-Inducing IFN-β/TRIF), and cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ) in the acute phase of patients infected by ZIKV using real-time PCR in peripheral blood...
March 16, 2019: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Jingpu Yang, Wei Zhong, Kai Xue, Zonggui Wang
The importance of epigenetics has increased due to identification of its role in the pathophysiology of a number of diseases including allergic rhinitis. Amongst the different epigenetic changes in allergic retinitis, deacetylation of histone proteins by histone deacetylase (HDACs), hypermethylation of DNA by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) and alteration in post-transcriptional process by the changes in the levels of miRNA are widely studied. Studies conducted related to allergic rhinitis have shown the elevation in the levels of HDAC1, 3 and 11 in the nasal epithelia and HDAC inhibitors have shown effectiveness in decreasing the symptoms of rhinitis...
March 14, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Wei-Lin Wan, Katja Fröhlich, Rory N Pruitt, Thorsten Nürnberger, Lisha Zhang
Plant plasma membrane pattern recognition receptors are key to microbe sensing and activation of immunity to microbial invasion. Plants employ several types of such receptors that differ mainly in the structure of their ectodomains and the presence or absence of a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain. Plant immune receptors do not function as single entities, but form larger complexes which undergo compositional changes in a ligand-dependent manner. Here, we highlight current knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying receptor complex dynamics and regulation, and cover early signaling networks implicated in the activation of generic plant immune responses...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Sourav Kumar Sasmal, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Shinji Nakaoka
Dengue infection results in a significant number of deaths, mostly in the tropical and subtropical regions across the world. Yet, despite the seriousness of this disease, vaccine, and antiviral drugs that could be employed in dengue treatment remain elusive. The desire to establish the factors determining the disease severity and the growing need for efficient drugs has prompted extensive research interest in within-host viral dynamics. However, very few mathematical models of within-host dengue dynamics pertaining to secondary dengue infection with another serotype are presently available...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Gan Zhao, Shuai Guo, Kangfeng Jiang, Tao Zhang, Haichong Wu, Changwei Qiu, Ganzhen Deng
Exosomes, one kind of extracellular vesicles, are released under abnormal and normal physiological conditions. An understanding of plasma-derived exosomal microRNA (miRNA) profiles during pregnancy will significantly contribute to knowledge of maternal-fetal communication in ruminants. In this study, we isolated plasma-derived exosomes from dairy cows during early (∼60 days, gestational day (G_D) 60), mid (∼150 days, G_D 150) and late (∼240 days, G_D 240) pregnancy. Exosomal miRNA profiles were revealed using RNA sequencing technology, and the abundance of exosomal miRNAs between each stage were compared...
March 7, 2019: Theriogenology
Kazumasa Iwamoto, Masaya Moriwaki, Ryu Miyake, Michihiro Hide
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic skin disease. The presence of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is frequently detected on skin affected with AD. In this review, we focused on the characteristics of S. aureus strains isolated from AD skin, particularly the proteins on the cell surface that modulates the interactions between Langerhans cell, keratinocyte, and S. aureus. The skin microbiome plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis of the skin, and colonization of S. aureus in AD is considered to be deeply involved in the clinical manifestation and pathogenesis of skin flares...
March 13, 2019: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Blanca I Aldana
The high energetic demand of the brain deems this organ rather sensitive to changes in energy supply. Therefore, even minor alterations in energy metabolism may underlie detrimental disturbances in brain function, contributing to the generation and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Considerable evidence supports the key role of deficits in cerebral energy metabolism, particularly hypometabolism of glucose and mitochondrial dysfunction, in the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Major breakthroughs in the field of bioenergetics and neurodegeneration have been achieved through the use of in vitro and in vivo models of disease as well as sophisticated neuroimaging techniques in patients, yet these have been mainly focused on neuron and astrocyte function...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular Biology
F Szymanowski, G E Balatti, E Ambroggio, A A Hugo, M F Martini, G D Fidelio, A Gómez-Zavaglia, M Pickholz, P F Pérez
Eukaryotic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) interact with plasma membrane of bacteria, fungi and eukaryotic parasites. Noteworthy, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (CIDCA 133) and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CIDCA 331) show different susceptibility to human beta-defensins (β-sheet peptides). In the present work we extended the study to α-helical peptides from anuran amphibian (Aurein 1.2, Citropin 1.1 and Maculatin 1.1). We studied the effect on whole bacteria and liposomes formulated with bacterial lipids through growth kinetics, flow cytometry, leakage of liposome content and studies of peptide insertion in lipid monolayers...
March 13, 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Biomembranes
Xiaohan Ning, Yutao Wang, Miao Jing, Mengyin Sha, Mengze Lv, Pengfei Gao, Rui Zhang, Xiaojun Huang, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Viral infection triggers host defenses through pattern-recognition receptor-mediated cytokine production, inflammasome activation, and apoptosis of the infected cells. Inflammasome-activated caspases are known to cleave cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Here, we found that apoptotic caspases are critically involved in regulating both DNA and RNA virus-triggered host defenses, in which activated caspase-3 cleaved cGAS, MAVS, and IRF3 to prevent cytokine overproduction. Caspase-3 was exclusively required in human cells, whereas caspase-7 was involved only in murine cells to inactivate cGAS, reflecting distinct regulatory mechanisms in different species...
March 11, 2019: Molecular Cell
C Diezma-Díaz, I Ferre, M Re, A Jiménez-Meléndez, E Tabanera, M González-Huecas, M Pizarro-Díaz, D Yanguas-Pérez, P L Brum, J Blanco-Murcia, L M Ortega-Mora, G Álvarez-García
In a previous attempt, an experimental model of bovine besnoitiosis was established in calves that were intravenously inoculated with different doses of Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites. Despite the fact that all infected calves developed the acute stage of disease, only microscopic findings characteristic of chronic besnoitiosis were reported. In the present study, calves were inoculated by subcutaneous and intradermal routes with B. besnoiti tachyzoites with the aim of developing clinical signs and macroscopic lesions characteristic of chronic besnoitiosis...
March 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
A M Lebedeva, A V Shpektor, E Yu Vasilieva, L B Margolis
Atherosclerosis underlies the development of many cardiovascular diseases that continue to hold a leading place among the causes of death in developed countries. The role of activated immune cells in atherosclerosis progression has been convincingly demonstrated, but the mechanism of their action remains poorly investigated. Since atherosclerosis is associated with chronic inflammatory response, involvement of viral and bacterial infections in atherogenesis has been examined. A special place among the infectious agents is held by human herpesviruses as the most common persistent viruses in human population coupled to chronic inflammation during atherosclerosis...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Jelli Venkatesh, Byoung-Cheorl Kang
Elevated ambient temperatures will likely be a key consequence of climate change over the next few decades. Adverse climatic changes could make crop plants more vulnerable to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, which would have a major impact on worldwide food production in the future. Recent studies have indicated that elevated temperatures directly and/or indirectly affect plant-pathogen interactions. Elevated temperatures alter multiple signal transduction pathways related to stress responses in the host plant...
March 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Lu Liu, Bingwei Sun
Pyroptosis is a caspase-1 or caspase-4/5/11-dependent programmed cell death associated with inflammation, which is initiated by inflammasomes or cytosolic LPS in innate immunity. Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by an imbalance in the body's response to infection. It is a complex interaction between the pathogen and the host's immune system. Neutrophils play the role of a double-edged sword in sepsis, and a number of studies have previously shown that regulation of neutrophils is the most crucial part of sepsis treatment...
March 14, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Rebecca E Koch, Molly Staley, Andreas N Kavazis, Dennis Hasselquist, Matthew B Toomey, Geofsfrey E Hill
Carotenoid-based coloration in birds is widely considered an honest signal of individual condition, but the mechanisms responsible for condition dependency in such ornaments remain debated. Currently, the most common explanation for how carotenoid coloration serves as a reliable signal of condition is the resource tradeoff hypothesis, which proposes that use of carotenoids for ornaments reduces their availability for use by the immune system or for protection from oxidative damage. However, two main assumptions of the hypothesis remain in question: whether carotenoids boost the performance of internal processes like immune and antioxidant defenses, and whether allocating carotenoids to ornaments imposes a trade-off with such benefits...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Quigly Dragotakes, Man Shun Fu, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast capable of a unique and intriguing form of cell-to-cell transfer between macrophage cells. The mechanism for cell-to-cell transfer is not understood. In this study, we imaged mouse macrophages with CellTracker Green 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate-labeled cytosol to ascertain whether cytosol was shared between donor and acceptor macrophages. Analysis of several transfer events detected no transfer of cytosol from donor-to-acceptor mouse macrophages. However, blocking Fc and complement receptors resulted in a major diminution of cell-to-cell transfer events...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Meimei Zhang, Yingxue Qin, Lixing Huang, Qingpi Yan, Leilei Mao, Xiaojin Xu, Suyun Wang, Mengmeng Zhang, Liwei Chen
Several bacteria have been defined as extracellular pathogens; however, in recent years, it has been confirmed that they have the ability to survive and escape the attack of host phagocytes, thus causing further infection. Previous studies have shown that Aeromonas hydrophila could survive in fish macrophages; however, the mechanism remains unknown. In this study, sodA and sodB of the strain A. hydrophila B11 were stable silenced by shRNA. The survival rates of intracellular sodA-RNAi and sodB-RNAi decreased by 91...
March 12, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Renata Grzywa, Adam Lesner, Brice Korkmaz, Marcin Sieńczyk
Neutrophils are one of the most important military services of the armed forces of the immune system, a crucial line of defense against bacterial or fungal onslaughts. One of their mechanisms of action relies on the production of serine proteases. One of these enzymes is proteinase 3 (PR3), which is engaged in the processing of pro-inflammatory cytokines, receptors, heat shock proteins and in the generation of antibacterial peptides. Despite its protective function, uncontrolled activity of PR3 has been associated with the progression of inflammation and tissue injury...
March 12, 2019: Biochimie
Fang Liu, Zhuanzi Wang, Wenjian Li, Libin Zhou, Yang Du, Miaomiao Zhang, Yanting Wei
S. cerevisiae-derived-beta-d-glucan (S. cerevisiae-BG) is a natural polysaccharide with various biological effects. The present study was to investigate the protective effect of S. cerevisiae-BG on the injury induced by high linear-energy-transfer (LET) carbon ion irradiation and to reveal the protective mechanisms. Female mice were orally administrated with S. cerevisiae-BG before irradiation. 30-day survival of 6 Gy irradiated-mice was monitored. The damage and recovery of hematopoietic system were evaluated after 2 Gy irradiation, cytokines in plasma were detected, transcriptomics of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) were detected and analyzed...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tomas Castro-Dopico, Thomas W Dennison, John R Ferdinand, Rebeccah J Mathews, Aaron Fleming, Dean Clift, Benjamin J Stewart, Chenzhi Jing, Konstantina Strongili, Larisa I Labzin, Edward J M Monk, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Clare E Bryant, Simon Clare, Miles Parkes, Menna R Clatworthy
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic, relapsing condition with two subtypes, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in UC implicate a FCGR2A variant that alters the binding affinity of the antibody receptor it encodes, FcγRIIA, for immunoglobulin G (IgG). Here, we aimed to understand the mechanisms whereby changes in FcγRIIA affinity would affect inflammation in an IgA-dominated organ. We found a profound induction of anti-commensal IgG and a concomitant increase in activating FcγR signaling in the colonic mucosa of UC patients...
February 27, 2019: Immunity
Matthias Boerger, Sebastian Funke, Andreas Leha, Anna-Elisa Roser, Ann-Katrin Wuestemann, Fabian Maass, Mathias Bähr, Franz Grus, Paul Lingor
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is still challenging and biomarkers could contribute to an improved diagnostic accuracy. Tear fluid (TF) is an easily accessible body fluid reflecting pathophysiological changes in systemic and ocular diseases and is already used as a biomarker source for several ophthalmological disorders. Here, we analyzed the TF of patients with PD and controls (CTR) to describe disease-related changes in TF and identify putative biomarkers for the diagnosis of PD...
March 6, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
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