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Daniele Ramazzotti, Peter Clardy, Leo Anthony Celi, David J Stone, Robert S Rudin
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients may die despite invasive intervention. In this study, we examine trends in the application of two such treatments over a decade, namely, endotracheal ventilation and vasopressors and inotropes administration, as well as the impact of these trends on survival durations in patients who die within a month of ICU admission. METHODS: We considered observational data available from the MIMIC-III open-access ICU database and collected within a study period between year 2002 up to 2011...
2019: PloS One
Jinyang Li, Si Wu, Eunkyoung Kim, Kun Yan, Huan Liu, Changsheng Liu, Hua Dong, Xue Qu, Xiaowen Shi, Jana Shen, William E Bentley, Gregory F Payne
While conventional materials fabrication methods focus on form and strength to achieve function, the fabrication of materials systems for emerging life science applications will need to satisfy a more subtle set of requirements. A common goal for biofabrication is to recapitulate complex biological contexts (e.g., tissue) for applications that range from animal-on-a-chip to regenerative medicine. In these cases, the materials systems will need to: (i) present appropriate surface functionalities over a hierarchy of length scales (e...
February 13, 2019: Biofabrication
Deepak A Kaji, John R Zech, Jun S Kim, Samuel K Cho, Neha S Dangayach, Anthony B Costa, Eric K Oermann
This study trained long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) incorporating an attention mechanism to predict daily sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI), and vancomycin antibiotic administration over two week patient ICU courses in the MIMIC-III dataset. These models achieved next-day predictive AUC of 0.876 for sepsis, 0.823 for MI, and 0.833 for vancomycin administration. Attention maps built from these models highlighted those times when input variables most influenced predictions and could provide a degree of interpretability to clinicians...
2019: PloS One
Namrata Singh, Mohammed Azharuddin Savanur, Shubhi Srivastava, Patrick D'Silva, Govindasamy Mugesh
Biocompatible nanoparticles with an intrinsic ability to mimic the cellular antioxidant enzymes are potential candidates for the development of new therapeutics for various oxidative stress related disorders. However, the understanding of the interaction and the mechanistic crosstalk between the nanoparticles and the cellular biomolecules is limited. Here we show that the multienzyme mimic manganese(ii,iii) oxide, Mn3O4, in nanoform (Mp) rescues the cells from oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
February 13, 2019: Nanoscale
Mariano Larzábal, Hector A Baldoni, Fernando D Suvire, Lucrecia M Curto, Gabriela E Gomez, Wanderson Marques Da Silva, Silvana L Giudicessi, Silvia A Camperi, Jose M Delfino, Angel A Cataldi, Daniel Enriz
Human pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, such as enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), rely on type III secretion systems (T3SS) to translocate virulence factors directly into host cells. The coiled-coil domains present in the structural proteins of T3SS are conformed by amphipathic alpha-helical structures that play an important role in the protein-protein interaction and are essential for the assembly of the translocation complex. To investigate the inhibitory capacity of these domains on the T3SS of EPEC, we synthesized peptides between 7 and 34 amino acids based on the coiled-coil domains of proteins that make up this secretion system...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Ting Ting Zhao, Zhong Wei Jiang, Shu Jun Zhen, Cheng Zhi Huang, Yuan Fang Li
A bimetallic organic gel was prepared by mixing the bridging ligand 2,4,6-tri(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine with Cu(II) and Co(II) ions at room temperature. The resulting metal-organic gel (MOG) shows enhanced peroxidase-like activity, most likely due to the synergetic redox cycling between Co(III)/Co(II) and Cu(II)/Cu(I) pairs. These accelerate interfacial electron transfer and generation of hydroxy radicals. The MOG can catalyze the reaction of H2 O2 with terephthalic acid (TPA), producing a blue fluorescence product with the maximum excitation/emission at 315/446 nm...
February 9, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Tanaya Walimbe, Sarah Calve, Alyssa Panitch, M Preeti Sivasankar
Vocal fold scarring is the fibrotic manifestation of a variety of voice disorders, and is difficult to treat. Tissue engineering therapies provide a potential strategy to regenerate the native tissue microenvironment in order to restore vocal fold functionality. However, major challenges remain in capturing the complexity of the native tissue and sustaining regeneration. We hypothesized that hydrogels with tunable viscoelastic properties that present relevant biological cues to cells might be better suited as therapeutics...
January 29, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Lindsay P Zimmerman, Paul A Reyfman, Angela D R Smith, Zexian Zeng, Abel Kho, L Nelson Sanchez-Pinto, Yuan Luo
BACKGROUND: The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) during an intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Our objective was to develop and validate a data driven multivariable clinical predictive model for early detection of AKI among a large cohort of adult critical care patients. We utilized data form the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) for all patients who had a creatinine measured for 3 days following ICU admission and excluded patients with pre-existing condition of Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury on admission...
January 31, 2019: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Jie Li, Zhao-Ping Chu, Hua Han, Yuan Zhang, Fei Tian, Jun-Qin Zhang, Xiang-Hua Huang
This study explores the role of miR-93-5p in high-risk HPV-positive (HR-HPV) cervical cancer by targeting of BTG3. Cervical tissues were collected from 332 patients with conditions of chronic cervicitis (n = 42), low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I, n = 51), CIN II (n = 49), CIN III (n = 43), cervical cancer (n = 90), and normal cervical tissues (n = 57). HR-HPV DNA was detected by Hybrid Capture 2, and the expressions of miR-93-5p and BTG3 were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot...
January 28, 2019: Human Cell
Chien-Wei Wu, Binesh Unnikrishnan, Yu-Ting Tseng, Shih-Chun Wei, Huan-Tsung Chang, Chih-Ching Huang
Nanomaterials possessing enzyme-like activity have been extensively studied owing to their high stability and tunable catalytic properties. In this work, a simple method has been developed for the synthesis of porous manganese oxide/manganese ferrite (MnOx /MnFe2 O4 ) nanopopcorns (MFNPs) in neutral media. The MFNPs exhibit dual enzymatic activities towards selective oxidation of ketoses followed by H2 O2 -induced decline of its catalytic activity. MFNPs, with MnFe2 O4 as the core material and an outer layer rich in MnOx , were synthesized from ammonium iron(III) citrate and potassium permanganate at 70 °C for 12 h followed by annealing at 300 °C for 6 h...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Joel C Davies, Harley H L Chan, Yelda Jozaghi, David P Goldstein, Jonathan C Irish
PURPOSE: When deforming pathology limits intraoperative plating of the mandible, three-dimensional (3D) models can be generated by digitally replacing the deformed segment of bone with an inverted segment from the contralateral unaffected mandible to adapt a reconstruction plate. The purpose of this study was to use 3D conformance analysis to evaluate the degree of accuracy of this "segmental mirroring" technique. METHODS: Using a pre-existing melanoma database (January 1, 2005-September 20, 2015), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans of the head and neck were obtained from patients without evidence of bony disease or defects involving the mandible...
December 30, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Radosław Kaczmarek
Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder (usually congenital) caused by the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (haemophilia A) or IX (haemophilia B). The genes encoding factors VIII and IX are located on the X chromosome, so the symptoms of congenital haemophilia A and B occur predominantly in males. Recurring episodes of spontaneous bleeding into joints are the main symptom of haemophilia, which lead to haemophilic artropathy. Historically, patients with haemophilia were treated with whole blood transfusions and then with blood plasma...
December 29, 2018: Postepy Biochemii
Erik Kaadt, Sidsel Alsing, Claudia R Cecchi, Christian Kroun Damgaard, Thomas J Corydon, Lars Aagaard
The expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) may result in unwanted activity from the co-processed passenger strand. Recent studies have shown that shortening the stem of conventional shRNAs abolishes passenger strand release. These Dicer-independent shRNAs, expressed from RNA polymerase III (Pol III) promoters, rely on Ago2 processing in resemblance to miR-451. Using strand-specific reporters, we tested two designs, and our results support the loss of passenger strand activity. We demonstrate that artificial primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts, expressed from Pol II promoters, can potently silence a gene of choice...
December 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Wesley Wei Wang, Maria Angulo-Ibanez, Jie Lyu, Yadagiri Kurra, Zhen Tong, Bo Wu, Ling Zhang, Vangmayee Sharma, Jennifer Zhou, Hening Lin, Yi Qin Gao, Wei Li, Katrin F Chua, Wenshe Ray Liu
Using an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase mutant together with tRNACUA Pyl , we have genetically encoded Nε -(7-azidoheptanoyl)-l-lysine (AzHeK) by amber codon in Escherichia coli for recombinant expression of a number of AzHeK-containing histone H3 proteins. We assembled in vitro acyl-nucleosomes from these recombinant acyl-H3 histones. All these acyl-nucleosomes contained an azide functionality that allowed quick click labeling with a strained alkyne dye for in-gel fluorescence analysis. Using these acyl-nucleosomes as substrates and click labeling as a detection method, we systematically investigated chromatin deacylation activities of SIRT7, a class III NAD+ -dependent histone deacylase with roles in aging and cancer biology...
February 4, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Christy Goldsmith, Melanie M Green, Brownwyn Middleton, Ian Cowley, Andrew Robinson, Nicholas P Plowman, Patricia M Price
Introduction  The underlying assumptions of the CyberKnife® (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA, US) fiducial tracking system are: i) fiducial positions are accurately detected; ii) inter-fiducial geometry remains consistent (rigid); iii) inter-fiducial geometric array changes are detected and either accommodated with corrections or treatment is interrupted. However: i) soft-tissue targets are deformable & fiducial migration is possible; ii) the accuracy of the tracking system has not previously been examined with fiducial displacement; iii) treatment interruptions may occur due to inter-fiducial geometric changes, but there is little information available to assist subsequent troubleshooting...
October 30, 2018: Curēus
Deborah D Gordon, Ihsaan Patel, Amelia M Pellegrini, Roy H Perlis
Importance: The extent to which financial considerations alter intensive care unit (ICU) decision making is poorly understood. Objectives: To characterize the prevalence and nature of financial considerations documented in narrative clinical records and their association with patient-level demographic and clinical features. Design, Setting, and Participants: In silico cohort study applying natural language processing to narrative notes from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) study...
November 2, 2018: JAMA network open
Philippe Janssen, Hervé Piégay, Bernard Pont, André Evette
Riparian habitats are transitional zones where strong environmental gradients shape community. To prevent flood risks and channel migration on managed rivers, civil engineering techniques have been widely used. Recently, ecological restoration of rivers has become a major issue. However, given the alteration of natural disturbance regimes induced by human infrastructures, the real added-value of these restoration actions is questionable. Thus, a major challenge is to better understand whether changes in abiotic conditions induced by human activity influence the response of plant communities to environmental gradients...
March 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Martin Voss, Kea Franz, Joachim P Steinbach, Emmanouil Fokas, Marie-Thérèse Forster, Katharina Filipski, Elke Hattingen, Marlies Wagner, Stella Breuer
INTRODUCTION: Magnet resonance imaging (MRI) of gliomas is assessed by Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Criteria (RANO), which define new contrast-enhancing lesions as a sign for tumor recurrence. Pseudoprogression after radiotherapy may mimic tumor progression in MRI but is usually limited to the first months after irradiation. We noted a late onset pattern of new contrast-enhancing spots (NCES) appearing years after radiotherapy. METHODS: We prospectively collected 23 glioma patients with 26 NCES (three patients had two separate NCES events) between 2014 and 2016 in our weekly tumor board without further selection by diagnosis, molecular markers or pretreatment...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Lorenzo Giacani, Lawrence R Bernstein, Austin M Haynes, B Charmie Godornes, Giulia Ciccarese, Francesco Drago, Aurora Parodi, Sefora Valdevit, Luca Anselmi, Carlo Francesco Tomasini, Arthur M Baca
BACKGROUND: Gallium is a semi-metallic element known since the 1930s to have antimicrobial activity. This activity stems primarily from gallium's ability to mimic trivalent iron and disrupt specific Fe(III)-dependent pathways, particularly DNA synthesis (due to inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase). Because of its novel mechanism of action, gallium is currently being investigated as a new antibacterial agent, particularly in light of the increasing resistance of many pathogenic bacteria to existing antibiotics...
January 2, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zahra Hassannejad, Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Alexander R Vaccaro, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Omid Sabzevari
BACKGROUND: The complex pathophysiological events occurring after traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) make this devastating trauma still incurable. Peptide amphiphile (PA) hydrogels are nanobiomaterials displaying desirable properties for application in regenerative medicine because they are absorbable, injectable, allowing biofunctionalization, controlling release of trophic factors and mimic extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we explored the potentiality of the IKVAV-functionalized PA hydrogel to provide a permissive environment for cell migration and growth as well as sustained release of BDNF at the lesion after severe compression injury model...
December 19, 2018: Injury
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