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Cardiovascular infection

Jamie G Hijmans, Kelly A Stockelman, Vinicius Garcia, Ma'ayan V Levy, L Madden Brewster, Tyler D Bammert, Jared J Greiner, Brian L Stauffer, Elizabeth Connick, Christopher A DeSouza
Background Circulating microparticles have emerged as biomarkers and effectors of vascular disease. Elevated rates of cardiovascular disease are seen in HIV -1-seropositive individuals. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) if circulating microparticles are elevated in antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV -1-seropositive adults; and (2) the effects of microparticles isolated from antiretroviral therapy -treated HIV -1-seropositive adults on endothelial cell function, in vitro. Methods and Results Circulating levels of endothelial-, platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles were determined by flow cytometry in plasma from 15 healthy and 15 antiretroviral therapy-treated, virologically suppressed HIV -1-seropositive men...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Patrice Cacoub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Gastroenterology
T Revuelto Artigas, N Zaragoza Velasco, X Gómez Arbones, T Vidal Ballester, C Piñol Felis, J M Reñe Espinet, A Betriu Bars
BACKGROUND: The association between subclinical atheromatosis and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is unknown but is relevant now that antivirals are improving the survival of patients with the infection. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HCV is an independent risk factor for subclinical atheromatosis and to analyse the changes in lipid profiles according to viral RNA levels and hepatic fibrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study that included 102 HCV-positive patients and 102 HCV-negative patients with parity in terms of sex and age, with no history of cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes...
February 14, 2019: Revista Clínica Española
Taciana Pereira Sant'Ana Santos, Mariana de Menezes Pereira, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Geraldo Pedral Sampaio, Roque Aras, Maria Luiza Sousa Atta, Ajax M Atta
There appears to be an associative link between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the exact nature of the relationship between CHC and CVDs has not been elucidated. We investigated the presence of CVDs and the clinical and laboratory alterations associated with these diseases in CHC patients. Twenty-six CHC patients, 35 individuals with atherosclerosis (Athero) and 27 healthy individuals were examined for risk factors for CVD, lipid profile, atherogenic risk indexes, and insulin resistance (IR)...
February 13, 2019: Cytokine
José M Pego-Reigosa, Juliana Restrepo Vélez, Chiara Baldini, Íñigo Rúa-Figueroa Fernández de Larrinoa
The information about comorbidities (excluding lymphoma) in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is relatively scarce. Cardiovascular disease, infections, musculoskeletal conditions or malignancy are likely the most relevant comorbid conditions in pSS. Different infections (particularly oral candidal infections) and fibromyalgia are extremely frequent in the daily clinical practice. On the other hand, the incidence of cardiovascular events and cancer in pSS is low, so information about them comes from large epidemiological studies or meta-analysis...
February 15, 2019: Rheumatology
Katharina Mattishent, Menaka Thavarajah, Ashnish Sinha, Adam Peel, Matthias Egger, Joseph Solomkin, Stijn de Jonge, Asad Latif, Sean Berenholtz, Benedetta Allegranzi, Yoon Kong Loke
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended a high (80%) fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) to reduce surgical site infection in adult surgical patients undergoing general anaesthesia with tracheal intubation. However, there is ongoing debate over the safety of high FiO2 . We performed a systematic review to define the relative risk of clinically relevant adverse events (AE) associated with high FiO2 . METHODS: We reviewed potentially relevant articles from the WHO review supporting the recommendation, including an updated (July 2018) search of EMBASE and PubMed for randomised and non-randomised controlled studies reporting AE in surgical patients receiving 80% FiO2 compared with 30-35% FiO2 ...
March 2019: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Brittanny M Polanka, Suman Kundu, Kaku A So-Armah, Matthew S Freiberg, Samir K Gupta, Roger J Bedimo, Matthew J Budoff, Adeel A Butt, Chung-Chou H Chang, Stephen S Gottlieb, Vincent C Marconi, Julie A Womack, Jesse C Stewart
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the general population and is highly prevalent in people with HIV. The CVD risk conferred by insomnia in the HIV population is unknown. METHODS: Using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study-Survey Cohort, insomnia symptoms were measured and dummy coded with the item, "Difficulty falling or staying asleep?" (5-point scale from no difficulty to bothers a lot). Incident CVD event ICD-9 codes (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary artery revascularization) were identified with VA and Medicare administrative data and VA fee-for-service data...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Eman Teer, Danzil E Joseph, Natasha Driescher, Theo Nell, Leanne Dominick, Natasha Midgley, Gaurang Deshpande, Martin Page, Etheresia Pretorius, Nicholas J Woudberg, Sandrine Lecour, Richard H Glashoff, M Faadiel Essop
Although rollout of combined anti-retroviral treatment (cART) has blunted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) onset, there is increased development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in HIV-infected individuals. While most HIV-infected individuals on cART achieve viral suppression, this may not necessarily result in complete immunological recovery. This study therefore evaluated T cell-mediated changes and coagulation markers in HIV-positive individuals to ascertain their potential to increase CVD risk...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Madelein Hoffman, Hayley Ipp, Dineo V Phatlhane, Rajiv T Erasmus, Annalise E Zemlin
Background: E-selectin has been shown to play a role in atherosclerosis and to be increased in HIV-infected individuals due to chronic immune activation. There is a paucity of studies on E-selectin in HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals. Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether E-selectin levels were increased in HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals and whether these correlated with markers of disease severity, inflammation and coagulation to determine if this population is at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
David B Beck, Ivona Aksentijevich
Monogenic autoinflammatory disorders are a group of conditions defined by systemic or localized inflammation without identifiable causes, such as infection. In contrast to classical primary immunodeficiencies that manifest with impaired immune responses, these disorders are due to defects in genes that regulate innate immunity leading to constitutive activation of pro-inflammatory signaling. Through studying patients with rare autoinflammatory conditions, novel mechanisms of inflammation have been identified that bare on our understanding not only of basic signaling in inflammatory cells, but also of the pathogenesis of more common inflammatory diseases and have guided treatment modalities...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jonviea D Chamberlain, Anne Buzzell, Hans Peter Gmünder, Kerstin Hug, Xavier Jordan, André Moser, Martin Schubert, Marcel Zwahlen, Martin W G Brinkhof
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) are a neurological condition associated with reduced well-being, increased morbidity and reductions in life expectancy. Estimates of all-cause and cause-specific mortality can aid in identifying targets for prevention and management of contributors for premature mortality. OBJECTIVES: To compare all-cause and cause-specific rates of mortality to that of the Swiss general population; to identify differentials in risk of cause-specific mortality according to lesion characteristics...
February 14, 2019: Neuroepidemiology
Zobair M Younossi, Linda Henry, Janus P Ong, Atsushi Tanaka, Yuichiro Eguchi, Masashi Mizokami, Young-Suk Lim, Yock Young Dan, Ming-Lung Yu, Maria Stepanova
BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been reported from Western countries, their prevalence in East Asian countries is not well known. AIM: To perform a systematic review to quantify the prevalence of selected extrahepatic manifestations of HCV among patients from East Asia. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane and country-specific databases were reviewed according to standard guidelines for meta-analyses...
February 13, 2019: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Wei Zhao, Xueyin Wang, Amy A Deik, David B Hanna, Tao Wang, Sabina A Haberlen, Sanjiv J Shah, Jason M Lazar, Howard N Hodis, Alan L Landay, Bing Yu, Deborah Gustafson, Kathryn Anastos, Wendy S Post, Clary B Clish, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi
BACKGROUND: Ceramides have been implicated in the pathophysiology of HIV infection and cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, no study, to our knowledge, has evaluated circulating ceramide levels in association with subclinical CVD risk among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Plasma levels of four ceramide species (C16:0, C22:0, C24:0 and C24:1) were measured among 398 women (73% HIV+) and 339 men (68% HIV+) without carotid artery plaques at baseline from the Women's Interagency HIV Study and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study...
February 14, 2019: Circulation
Rıfkiye Küçükoğlu, Sıla Kılıç, Gizem Pınar Sun
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease that, may require multiagent immunosuppressive drug therapies in severe cases. In addition to the well established corticosteroid sparing agents azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate, rituximab is being increasingly used alone or in combination in the management of PV. Due to the chronic course of the disease, the cumulative effects of these therapy agents over long follow-up periods may result in various adverse reactions, including bacterial and viral infections...
February 13, 2019: Dermatologic Therapy
Daniel Vasile Balaban, Alina Dima, Ciprian Jurcut, Alina Popp, Mariana Jinga
BACKGROUND: Celiac crisis (CC), a potentially life-threatening condition, is one of the rare clinical presentations of celiac disease (CD). Several cases have been documented in the literature, mostly in children. AIM: To perform a review of CC cases reported in adult CD patients. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in two databases, PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, using the term "celiac crisis" and its variant "coeliac crisis", from January 1970 onwards...
February 6, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Martino Deidda, Christian Cadeddu Dessalvi, Selina Campus, Francesco Ortu, Paolo Piano, Pier Paolo Bassareo, Giuseppe Mercuro
Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may also be associated with cardiac dysfunction, thus negatively affecting patients' morbidity and mortality. This preliminary study aimed at evaluating whether bi-and three-dimensional (3D) strain echocardiographic facilities were able to identify alterations in the right ventricular (RV) function in highly selected - because free from cardiovascular risk factors and other comorbidities - HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Eight of these specific HIV patients (age: 32...
October 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
Susan M Graham, Junmei Chen, Jennie Le, Minhua Ling, Dominic W Chung, W Conrad Liles, José A López
Background: Endothelial activation caused by HIV-1 infection leads to release of von Willebrand factor (VWF), which enters the circulation or attaches to vessel walls and self-assembles into strings and fibers, enabling platelet adhesion; this adhesive activity is regulated by the VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Our objective was to assess VWF adhesive activity and ADAMTS13 protease activity in HIV-1 infection. Methods: We measured levels of VWF antigen, VWF activation factor (a measure of adhesive activity), ADAMTS13 antigen, ADAMTS13 activity, and apolipoprotein A1 (which interferes with VWF self-association) in serum samples from HIV-1-infected men whose infections were acute (n=10), chronic untreated (n=10), or chronic treated (n=10), compared to uninfected controls (n=10)...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Bobby Yanagawa, Subodh Verma, Girish Dwivedi, Marc Ruel
The clinical status of HIV infection has changed dramatically with the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients with HIV are now living long enough to be susceptible to chronic illnesses, such as coronary disease and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, which can be consequences of the combined antiretroviral therapy treatment itself. Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients. Increasingly, such patients might be candidates for the full range of cardiac surgical interventions, including coronary bypass, valve surgery, and heart transplantation...
November 20, 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Hong Jae Jeon, Hong Jin Bae, Young Rok Ham, Dae Eun Choi, Ki Ryang Na, Moon-Sang Ahn, Kang Wook Lee
Background: Kidney transplantation is an effective renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this study, we assessed the impact of the baseline characteristics and comorbidities of ESRD patients on the probability of deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT) and evaluated the morbidity and mortality during the time spent waiting. Methods: The study population consisted of 544 ESRD patients on the waiting list for DDKT at Chungnam National University Hospital in South Korea between February 2000 and October 2015...
February 11, 2019: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
Lucio Capurso
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was the first strain belonging to the genus Lactobacillus to be patented in 1989 thanks to its ability to survive and to proliferate at gastric acid pH and in medium containing bile, and to adhere to enterocytes. Furthermore LGG is able to produces both a biofilm that can mechanically protect the mucosa, and different soluble factors beneficial to the gut by enhancing intestinal crypt survival, diminishing apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium, and preserving cytoskeletal integrity...
March 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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