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stem signaling pathway

Seok Won Ham, Jun-Kyum Kim, Hee-Young Jeon, Eun-Jung Kim, Xiong Jin, Kiyoung Eun, Cheol Gyu Park, Seon Yong Lee, Sunyoung Seo, Jung Yun Kim, Sang-Hun Choi, Nayoung Hong, Yong Yook Lee, Hyunggee Kim
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Korean Red ginseng extract (RG) is one of the most widely used traditional health functional food in Asia, which invigorates immunity and vital energy. RG have been suggested to inhibit proliferation, invasion, and inflammation in several cancer cell lines. Correspondingly, clinical studies have raised the possibility that RG could augment therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients. However, little is known about the anti-cancer effects of RG in glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive brain tumor for which effective therapeutic regimens need to be developed...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
N A Gloushankova, I Y Zhitnyak, S N Rubtsova
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process of morphogenesis whereby epithelial cells acquire the mesenchymal phenotype. Multiple data suggest a critical role of EMT in tumor progression. In carcinomas, EMT can be initiated and promoted by many oncogenic signaling pathways, hypoxia, and signals of tumor microenvironment resulting in epithelial cells losing their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion and gaining the migratory and invasive properties. Downregulation of expression of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin is considered a poor prognostic factor in cancer...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Xia Zhang, Huiying Liu, Shiyu Wang, Zihao Huang, Herong Wang, Wenkai Niu, Yanhong Qin, Changqing Bai, Gang Liu, Huipeng Chen
Acute lung injury (ALI), a persistent lung inflammatory response syndrome, may evolve into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Characterized by rapid onset, critical features, and a complex etiology, ALI remains a challenging critical respiratory disease. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have provided a new solution for the treatment of ALI. We built a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI model in mice. After treatment with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs), FTY720, or a combination of hUC-MSCs and FTY207, the lung inflammatory response was apparently attenuated...
March 13, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Somayeh Niknazar, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Hassan Peyvandi, Omidvar Rezaei, Hosna Forooghirad, Shahrokh Khoshsirat, Ali Asghar Peyvandi
Oxidative stress plays an important role in auditory dysfunction. Exogenous cell therapy has brought new hopes for repairing mammalian inner ear hair cells. However, poor cell viability of transplanted cells under oxidative stress conditions has limited their therapeutic potential. The adipocytokine apelin-13 was isolated from a bovine stomach. Apelin-13 might protect oxidative stress-induced hair cell damage was raised considering other oxidative stress-induced injury, including brain ischemia-induced cell death...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hu Song, Linseng Shi, Yixin Xu, Teng Xu, Ruizhi Fan, Meng Cao, Wei Xu, Jun Song
The bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein BRD4 is emerging as a potential target for cancer therapy. However, BRD4 roles in regulating the stemness of gastric cancer cells are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that BRD4 expression was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues, cell spheroids, and BRD4 knockdown attenuated the stemness of gastric cancer cells characterized as the decrease of stemness markers expression, capacity of cells spheroids formation and ALDH1 activity. Importantly, BRD4 expression was negatively correlated with overall survival, first progression survival and post progression survival of gastric cancer patients...
March 12, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Linglu Jia, Yunpeng Zhang, Yawen Ji, Xiaomeng Li, Yixiao Xing, Yong Wen, Haiyun Huang, Xin Xu
Oral tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, such as periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), possess different biological characteristics, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear, which restricts their application in tissue engineering. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to be significant regulators of gene expression, but our knowledge about their roles in the regulation of stem cell biological properties is still limited. This study compared the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between PDLSCs and GMSCs through microarray analysis, and applied bioinformatics methods to analyze and predict the function and connection of differentially expressed genes, aiming to screen potential key regulators of diverse biological characteristics in PDLSCs and GMSCs...
March 12, 2019: Gene
Vladimir Beljanski, Karl-Henrik Grinnemo, Cecilia Österholm
Stem cells (SCs) have been proven to possess regenerative and immunomodulatory properties and can be used to treat diseases that involve loss of cells due to tissue damage or inflammation. For this approach to succeed, SCs or their derivatives should be able to engraft in the target tissue at least for a short period of time. Unfortunately, once injected, therapeutic SCs will encounter a hostile environment, including hypoxia, lack of nutrients and stromal support, and cells may also be targeted and rejected by the immune system...
March 12, 2019: Cytotherapy
Juan Jin, Yifen Shi, Jianguang Gong, Li Zhao, Yiwen Li, Qiang He, He Huang
BACKGROUND: It is confirmed that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation effectively relieves kidney fibrosis and type 2 diabetes disease in mice. Currently, exosome from urine-derived stem cells (USCs) can protect type 1 diabetes-mediated kidney injury and attenuate podocyte damage in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Exosome derived from USCs has evolved into the strategy for DN treatment, but the role of ADSCs-derived exosome (ADSCs-Exo) in DN remains unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the therapeutic action and molecular mechanism of ADSCs-derived exosome on DN...
March 15, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Jiangnan Hu, Lefu Chen, Xujun Huang, Ke Wu, Saidan Ding, Weikan Wang, Brian Wang, Charity Smith, Changhong Ren, Haoqi Ni, Qichuan ZhuGe, Jianjing Yang
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) protects against brain damage. However, the low survival number of transplanted BMSCs remains a pertinent challenge and can be attributed to the unfavorable microenvironment of the injured brain. It is well known that calpain activation plays a critical role in traumatic brain injury (TBI)-mediated inflammation and cell death; previous studies showed that inhibiting calpain activation is neuroprotective after TBI...
March 15, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
So Yae Koh, Jeong Yong Moon, Tatsuya Unno, Somi Kim Cho
Resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy is frequent in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. We established treatment-resistant TNBC MDA-MB-231/IR cells by irradiating the parental MDA-MB-231 cells 25 times with 2 Gy irradiation and investigated the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance. The resistant MDA-MB-231/IR cells were enhanced in migration, invasion, and stem cell-like characteristics. Pathway analysis by the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery revealed that the NF-κB pathway, TNF signaling pathway, and Toll-like receptor pathway were enriched in MDA-MB-231/IR cells...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
Min-Seok Kim, Tsutomu Takahashi, Jin-Yong Lee, Takashi Toyama, Takayuki Hoshi, Shusuke Kuge, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Akira Naganuma, Gi-Wook Hwang
Methylmercury is an environmental pollutant that causes specific and serious damage to the central nervous system. We have previously shown that C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 (CCL4) protects cultured neural cells from methylmercury toxicity and expression of CCL4 is specifically induced in mouse brain by methylmercury. In this study, we examined the transcriptional regulatory mechanism that induces CCL4 expression by methylmercury using C17.2 mouse neural stem cells. The promoter region of the CCL4 gene was analyzed by a reporter assay, revealing that the region up to 50 bp upstream from the transcription start site was necessary for inducing expression of CCL4 by methylmercury...
March 15, 2019: Scientific Reports
Adrià Bernat-Peguera, Pilar Simón-Extremera, Victoria da Silva-Diz, Mikel López de Munain, Laura Díaz-Gil, Rosa M Penin, Eva González-Suárez, Diana Pérez Sidelnikova, Oriol Bermejo, Joan Maria Viñals, Francesc Viñals, Purificación Muñoz
Advanced and undifferentiated skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) exhibit aggressive growth and enhanced metastasis capability, which is associated in mice with an expansion of the cancer stem-like cell (CSC) population and with changes in the regulatory mechanisms that control the proliferation and invasion of these cells. Indeed, autocrine activation of PDGFRα induces CSC invasion and promotes distant metastasis in advanced SCCs. However, the mechanisms involved in this process were unclear. Here, we show that CSCs of mouse advanced SCCs (L-CSCs) express CXCR4 and CXCR7, both receptors of SDF-1...
March 15, 2019: Oncogene
Xin Yang, Qi Zhao, Yijing Chen, Yuanxiang Fu, Shushen Lu, Xinlin Yu, Dongsheng Yu, Wei Zhao
Graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs), have recently attracted much attention as bioactive factors in differentiating stem cells towards osteoblastic lineage. The stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) possess the properties of self-renewal, extensive proliferation, and multiple differentiation potential, and have gradually become one of the most promising mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of GO and GOQDs on the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Kanakaraju Manupati, Sudhan Debnath, Kalyan Goswami, Priyanka S Bhoj, Hemant S Chandak, Sandeep P Bahekar, Amitava Das
Glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) contributes to the inactivation of a wide range of drug compounds via conjugation to glutathione during phase reactions. Chemotherapy-induced GSTO1 expression in breast cancer cells leads to chemoresistance and promotes metastasis. In search of novel GSTO1 inhibitors, we identified S2E, a thia-Michael adduct of sulphonamide chalcone with low LC50 (3.75±0.73 μM) that binds to the active site of GSTO1, as revealed by molecular docking (glide score: -8.1), cellular thermal shift assay and fluorescence quenching assay (Kb : ≅ 10×105 molL-1 )...
March 15, 2019: FEBS Journal
Alessandro Zannini, Alessandra Rustighi, Elena Campaner, Giannino Del Sal
Cellular choices are determined by developmental and environmental stimuli through integrated signal transduction pathways. These critically depend on attainment of proper activation levels that in turn rely on post-translational modifications (PTMs) of single pathway members. Among these PTMs, post-phosphorylation prolyl-isomerization mediated by PIN1 represents a unique mechanism of spatial, temporal and quantitative control of signal transduction. Indeed PIN1 was shown to be crucial for determining activation levels of several pathways and biological outcomes downstream to a plethora of stimuli...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Michela Colombo, Natalia Platonova, Domenica Giannandrea, Maria Teresa Palano, Andrea Basile, Raffaella Chiaramonte
Notch and its ligands on adjacent cells are key mediators of cellular communication during developmental choice in embryonic and adult tissues. This communication is frequently altered in the pathological interaction between cancer cells and healthy cells of the microenvironment due to the aberrant expression of tumor derived Notch receptors or ligands, that results in homotypic or heterotypic Notch signaling activation in tumor cells or surrounding stromal cells. A deadly consequence of this pathological communication is pharmacological resistance that results in patient's relapse...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Vladislav I Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Anastasia V Sudarikova, Mariia A Shilina, Valeria Y Vasileva, Tatiana M Grinchuk, Olga G Lyublinskaya, Nikolai N Nikolsky, Yuri A Negulyaev
The study of ion channels in stem cells provides important information about their role in stem cell fate. Previously we have identified the activity of calcium-activated potassium channels of big conductance (BK channels) in human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). BK channels could have significant impact into signaling processes by modulating membrane potential. The membrane potential and ionic permeability dynamically changes during cycle transitions. Here, we aimed at verification of the role of BK channels as potassium transporting pathway regulating cell cycle passageway of eMSCs...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Nathalie Rion, Perrine Castets, Shuo Lin, Leonie Enderle, Judith R Reinhard, Christopher Eickhorst, Markus A Rüegg
The formation of multi-nucleated muscle fibers from progenitors requires the fine-tuned and coordinated regulation of proliferation, differentiation and fusion, both during development and after injury in the adult. While some of the key factors involved in the different steps are well known, how intracellular signals are coordinated and integrated is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the cell-growth regulator mTOR by eliminating essential components of the mTOR complexes 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) in muscle progenitors...
March 14, 2019: Development
Ainoa Planas-Riverola, Aditi Gupta, Isabel Betegón-Putze, Nadja Bosch, Marta Ibañes, Ana I Caño-Delgado
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that are essential for plant growth and development. These hormones control the division, elongation and differentiation of various cell types throughout the entire plant life cycle. Our current understanding of the BR signaling pathway has mostly been obtained from studies using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model. In this context, the membrane steroid receptor BRI1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1) binds directly to the BR ligand, triggering a signal cascade in the cytoplasm that leads to the transcription of BR-responsive genes that drive cellular growth...
March 14, 2019: Development
Benedikt Linder, Andrej Wehle, Stephanie Hehlgans, Florian Bonn, Ivan Dikic, Franz Rödel, Volker Seifert, Donat Kögel
Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest malignancies and is virtually incurable. Accumulating evidence indicates that a small population of cells with a stem-like phenotype is the major culprit of tumor recurrence. Enhanced DNA repair capacity and expression of stemness marker genes are the main characteristics of these cells. Elimination of this population might delay or prevent tumor recurrence following radiochemotherapy. The aim of this study was to analyze whether interference with the Hedgehog signaling (Hh) pathway or combined Hh/Notch blockade using small-molecule inhibitors can efficiently target these cancer stem cells and sensitize them to therapy...
March 12, 2019: Cancers
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