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Hailu Abera, Mihret Woldemichael
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is becoming a common chronic disease in both developed and developing nations and is associated with significant cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. The presence of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, renalfailure and peripheral arterial disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of antihypertensive drug therapy among diabetic hypertensive patients in Zewditu Memorial Hospital Diabetic Clinic in Addis Ababa...
April 2016: Ethiopian Medical Journal
S Humagain, R Koju
Background Cardiovascular disease represents the largest burden on global health, important modifiable risk factor being hypertension. Difference in response to antihypertensive medication depending on ethnic group is well recognized. There is very few data regarding this difference in the South Asian population especially from Nepal. Objective The aim of this study is to find out which antihypertensive medication has better efficacy in our population. Method One seventy two newly diagnosed hypertensive patients who presented to cardiology OPD were included...
July 2015: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
Shahin Merat, Hossein Poustchi, Karla Hemming, Elham Jafari, Amir-Reza Radmard, Alireza Nateghi, Abolfazl Shiravi Khuzani, Masoud Khoshnia, Tom Marshall, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the most common causes of mortality in all populations. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a common finding in patients with CVD. Prevention of CVD in individual patients typically requires periodic clinical evaluation, as well as diagnosis and management of risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia. However, this is resource consuming and hard to implement, especially in developing countries. We designed a study to investigate the effects of a simpler strategy: a fixed-dose combination pill consisting of aspirin, valsartan, atorvastatin and hydrochlorthiazide (PolyPill) in an unselected group of persons aged over 50 years...
August 2015: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Marilena E Dasenaki, Nikolaos S Thomaidis
A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h...
June 23, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
Trupti B Solanki, Purvi A Shah, Kalpana G Patel
High performance thin layer chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate and hydrochlorothiazide was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines. Moreover, robustness testing was performed applying a central composite design with k factor having 2(k) factorial runs, 2k axial experiments and two center points. High performance thin layer chromatographic separation was performed on aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 and toluene:chloroform:methanol:acetonitrile:formic acid (2:7:1...
May 2014: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Dipti Ranka, Manoj Aswar, Urmila Aswar, Subhash Bodhankar
In traditional system of medicine S. xanthocarpum is used treating difficulty in urination and renal calculus. The objective of the present study was to scientifically evaluate diuretic potential of S. xanthocarpum. The study was divided into two phases of evaluation (acute and sub-acute) with administration of aqueous extract of S. xanthocarpum roots. The animals were treated with either aqueous extract of S. xanthocarpum (AqSX; 200, 400 mg/kg, po) or furosemide (25 mg/kg, po) or hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg/kg, po)...
October 2013: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Domenico Tricarico, Antonietta Mele, Sara Calzolaro, Gianluigi Cannone, Giulia Maria Camerino, Maria Maddalena Dinardo, Ramon Latorre, Diana Conte Camerino
Emerging evidences suggest that Ca(2+)activated-K(+)-(BK) channel is involved in the regulation of cell viability. The changes of the cell viability observed under hyperkalemia (15 mEq/L) or hypokalemia (0.55 mEq/L) conditions were investigated in HEK293 cells expressing the hslo subunit (hslo-HEK293) in the presence or absence of BK channel modulators. The BK channel openers(10(-11)-10(-3)M) were: acetazolamide(ACTZ), Dichlorphenamide(DCP), methazolamide(MTZ), bendroflumethiazide(BFT), ethoxzolamide(ETX), hydrochlorthiazide(HCT), quercetin(QUERC), resveratrol(RESV) and NS1619; and the BK channel blockers(2 x 10(-7)M-5 x 10(-3)M) were: tetraethylammonium(TEA), iberiotoxin(IbTx) and charybdotoxin(ChTX)...
2013: PloS One
George C Roush, Venkata Buddharaju, Michael E Ernst, Theodore R Holford
How chlorthalidone (CTDN) reduces risk for cardiovascular events (CVEs) can be considered in light of its ability to lower blood pressure (BP) and its non-BP related, pleiotropic effects. The mechanism by which CTDN lowers BP is unclear but may include alterations in whole body regulation and vasodilatory actions on vasculature, possibly mediated via its inhibitory effects on carbonic anhydrase. Additionally, CTDN has potentially beneficial, non-BP related, pleiotropic effects that include improvements in endothelial function, anti-platelet activity, and oxidative status...
October 2013: Current Hypertension Reports
George C Roush, Venkata Buddharaju, Michael E Ernst
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) is the tenth most commonly prescribed drug in recent data. Although no head-to-head trials compare HCTZ with the uncommonly prescribed chlorthalidone (CTDN) in reducing cardiovascular events (CVEs), numerous other data are available. RECENT FINDINGS: Head-to-head trials have shown CTDN's superiority in antihypertensive potency, particularly during the critical nighttime period (SBP difference 7.1 mmHg), due to the differences in duration of action (16-24 h for HCTZ versus 48-72 h for CTDN)...
July 2013: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Ashish Sarode, Peng Wang, Catherine Cote, David R Worthen
Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC)-SL and -SSL, low-viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose polymers, are versatile pharmaceutical excipients. The utility of HPC polymers was assessed for both dissolution enhancement and sustained release of pharmaceutical drugs using various processing techniques. The BCS class II drugs carbamazepine (CBZ), hydrochlorthiazide, and phenytoin (PHT) were hot melt mixed (HMM) with various polymers. PHT formulations produced by solvent evaporation (SE) and ball milling (BM) were prepared using HPC-SSL...
March 2013: AAPS PharmSciTech
Li Xiang, Peng Jiang, Changsen Zhan, Zhongliang Chen, Xiaojun Liu, Xinming Huang, Shuping Wang, Yaohua Hu, Weidong Zhang, Runhui Liu
A metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight detector (LC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and a multi-component medicine polypill (consisting of simvastatin (Sim), atenolol (Ate), ramipril (Ram), hydrochlorthiazide (Hyd) and aspirin (Asp), named as SARHA). Twenty-seven biomarkers were identified in the serum of MI rats. Thirteen related pathways and 4 main pathological processes including oxidative injury, energy metabolism dysfunction, amino acid metabolism dysfunction and inflammation are involved in MI development...
September 2012: Molecular BioSystems
Salim Yusuf, Prem Pais, Alben Sigamani, Denis Xavier, Rizwan Afzal, Peggy Gao, Koon K Teo
BACKGROUND: A daily single capsule (polycap) of 3 blood pressure (BP) lowering drugs (hydrochlorthiazide, 12.5 mg; atenolol, 50 mg; ramipril, 5 mg) at low doses, simvastatin (20 mg), and aspirin (100 mg) has been demonstrated to be well tolerated and to reduce BP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We examined the incremental effects of 2 (full dose) plus K(+) supplementation versus single polycap (low dose) on risk factors and tolerability. METHODS AND RESULTS: After a run-in period, 518 individuals with previous vascular disease or diabetes mellitus from 27 centers in India were randomly assigned to a single-dose polycap or to 2 capsules of the polycap plus K(+) supplementation for 8 weeks...
July 1, 2012: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Weon Kim, Chung Su Park, Hee Jong Kim, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hye Mi An, Yeon Hwa Kim, Chur Hoan Lim, Won Yu Kang, Sun Ho Hwang, Wan Kim
A 42-year-old male patient presented with refractory hypertension and congestive heart failure. He had taken hydrochlorthiazide 50 mg, carvedilol 25 mg, diltiazem 180 mg, and losartan 100 mg per day. Aortogram revealed a severe luminal narrowing in the distal thoracic aorta with a peak systolic pressure gradient of 60 mmHg across the lesion. Endovascular management was performed with 22 × 80 mm self-expandable Nitinol-S stent after predilation with 10 × 40 mm balloon. After endovascular management, the patient's blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and dilated LV dimension were remarkably improved...
September 2011: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Sutirtho Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Kadam, Laxman Sawant, Dhanashree Nachane, Nancy Pandita
OBJECTIVE: Telmisartan is a potent, long-lasting, nonpeptide antagonist of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT(1)) receptor that is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide is a widely prescribed diuretic and it is indicated for the treatment of edema, control of essential hypertension and management of diabetes insipidus. In the current article a new, accurate, sensitive, precise, rapid, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for determination of related substances of Telmisartan and Hydrochlorthiazide in tablet dosage form...
July 2011: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
Keith C Ferdinand, James Pool, Richard Weitzman, Das Purkayastha, Raymond Townsend
Efficacy of antihypertensive agents on central blood pressure (BP) in African Americans is not well studied. The authors report on an 8-week double-blind, randomized study of African American patients with stage 2 hypertension that compared brachial and central BP responses (substudy of 53 patients) to combination aliskiren/hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ) and amlodipine monotherapy. Following a 1- to 4-week washout, initial therapy was aliskiren/HCTZ 150/12.5 mg (n=166) or amlodipine 5 mg (n=166) for 1 week, forced-titrated to aliskiren/HCTZ 300/25 mg or amlodipine 10 mg for 7 weeks...
May 2011: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
S N Meyyanathan, S Rajan, S Muralidharan, Arunadevi S Birajdar, B Suresh
A simple, selective, rapid, precise and economical reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of nebivolol and hydrochlorthiazide from pharmaceutical formulation. Phenomenex Gemini C(18) (25 cm×4.6 mm i.d., 5 μ) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: 50mM ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 3.5 using orthophosphoric acid) (70:30 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min was used. Detection was carried out at 254 nm. Probenecid was used as an internal standard...
September 2008: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Y Valcárcel, S González Alonso, J L Rodríguez-Gil, R Romo Maroto, A Gil, M Catalá
Interest in the presence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater, in the water of our rivers and, to a lesser extent, in our drinking water, has been growing in recent decades. Many of these substances, currently classified as "emerging pollutants", are biologically active compounds and continuously released in effluents. As sewage treatment plants (STPs) are not adequately equipped to eliminate all of these substances completely, some are discharged directly into rivers. In Spain, as in most of its neighbouring countries, there is an elevated use of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (which are extremely prevalent among the older adult population) and anti-inflammatory medications, which are obtainable over the counter without a medical prescription...
February 2011: Chemosphere
Jessica M Osmond, James D Mintz, David W Stepp
Obesity is a risk factor for stroke, but the determinants of increased stroke risk in obesity are unknown. We have previously reported that obese Zucker rats (OZRs) have a worse stroke outcome and display evidence of remodeling of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), in parallel with hypertension, compared with lean controls. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertension is an essential determinant of cerebral vascular remodeling and increased stroke damage in OZRs. Blood pressure was measured by telemetry in lean and obese rats with and without hydrochlorthiazide (HCT; 2 mg...
July 2010: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Amber L Beitelshees, Yan Gong, Kent R Bailey, Stephen T Turner, Arlene B Chapman, Gary L Schwartz, John G Gums, Eric Boerwinkle, Julie A Johnson
Office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) demonstrate variable associations with outcomes. The authors sought to compare office BP (OBP), home BP (HBP), and ambulatory BP (ABP) for measuring responses to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), atenolol, and their combination. After completing washout, eligible patients were randomized to atenolol 50 mg or HCTZ 12.5 mg daily. Doses were doubled after 3 weeks and the alternate drug was added after 6 weeks if BP was >120/70 mm Hg (chosen to allow maximum opportunity to assess genetic associations with dual BP therapy in the parent study)...
January 2010: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
K R Gupta, M R Tajne, S G Wadodkar
The present work describes a two-wavelength method for simultaneous determination of metoprolol and hydrochlorthiazide in fixed dose combination tablet. The wavelengths selected for method were 257.8 nm, 282.9 nm and 315.0 nm. The absorbance difference at first two wavelengths was used for determination of metoprolol and the latter was used for determination of hydrochlorthiazide. The recovery value for the drugs from the tablet matrix was found to be 100.55% (metoprolol) and 99.97% (comparison with standard) and 98...
July 2008: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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