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follicular development

Beatriz Perdiguero, Cristina Sánchez-Corzo, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Lidia Saiz, Pilar Mediavilla, Mariano Esteban, Carmen Elena Gómez
The development of an effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) vaccine that is able to stimulate both the humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses remains a major priority challenge. In this study, we described the generation and preclinical evaluation of single and double modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based candidates expressing the HIV-1 clade C membrane-bound gp145(ZM96) trimeric protein and/or the Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) (GPN) polyprotein that was processed to form Gag-induced virus-like particles (VLPs)...
February 16, 2019: Viruses
Abdulbaset Mazarzaei, Mahtab Vafaei, Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Seyede Amene Mirforughi, Hassan Rajabi Vardanjani, Nada A S Alwan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the critical infectious agents with thousands of newly infected people worldwide. High mutational capability and rapid diversification, inhibition of humoral and cellular immune responses, and thus inability for recognition of an immunogenic region in the viral envelope by the immune system are major challenges. Natural killer (NK) cells are multifunctional, playing a key role in the identification and elimination of HIV-infected cells. These cells identify and eliminate virus-infected cells in a multilateral manner, such as ligand stress, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), T follicular helper (Tfh), and the activation of most of the stimulatory receptors...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Christiane Pott, Monika Brüggemann, Matthias Ritgen, Vincent H J van der Velden, Jacques J M van Dongen, Michael Kneba
Minimal residual disease (MRD) diagnostics is of high clinical relevance in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) and serves as a surrogate parameter to evaluate treatment effectiveness and long-term prognosis. MRD diagnostics performed by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) is still the gold standard and currently the most sensitive and the most broadly applied method in follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Alternatively, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for MRD monitoring in multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma with comparable sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ping Yuan, Ruiqi Li, Di Li, Lingyan Zheng, Songbang Ou, Haijing Zhao, Qingxue Zhang, Wenjun Wang
PURPOSE: Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is a complex reproductive disorder characterized by the repeated failure to aspirate oocytes from mature ovarian follicles during in vitro fertilization (IVF). In addition to some cases caused by iatrogenic problems and known genetic factors, there are still many unexplained aspects of EFS. Here, we aimed to assess the clinical and genetic characteristics of two EFS patients. METHODS: We have characterized two primary infertility patients with EFS in a nonconsanguineous family from China...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Virginie Tardif, Roshell Muir, Rafael Cubas, Marita Chakhtoura, Peter Wilkinson, Talibah Metcalf, Rana Herro, Elias K Haddad
Follicular helper T cells (Tfh) play critical roles instructing, and initiating T-cell dependent antibody responses. The underlying mechanisms that enhance their function is therefore critical for vaccine development. Here we apply gene array analysis identifying adenosine deaminase (ADA) as a key molecule that delineates a human Tfh helper program in proliferating circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells and Germinal Centers Tfh (GC-Tfh). ADA-1 expression and enzymatic activity are increased in efficient cTfh2-17/GC-Tfh cells...
February 18, 2019: Nature Communications
S K Sheetal, Shiv Prasad, H P Gupta
Aim: The present study was designed to study the effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) administration during luteal phase of the estrous cycle on the hormonal profile of Sahiwal embryo donor cows during superovulation. Materials and Methods: Cows (n=18) were selected and divided into three groups; control (n=6, untreated), T-I (n=6, insulin-treated), and T-II (n=6, IGF-I treated). Insulin and IGF-I were given S/C on 5th , 6th , 7th , and 8th days of estrous cycle...
December 2018: Veterinary World
Kazuhiro Umeyama, Kazuaki Nakano, Hitomi Matsunari, Takeshi Yamada, Koki Hasegawa, Kun Tang, Yuki Tokuyama, Masahito Watanabe, Masaki Nagaya, Hiroshi Nagashima
The partial or complete loss of one X chromosome in humans causes Turner syndrome (TS), which is accompanied by a range of physical and reproductive pathologies. This article reports similarities between the phenotype of a pig with monosomy X and the symptoms of TS in humans. Born as the offspring of a male pig carrying a mutation in an X-chromosomal gene, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), the female pig (37,XO) was raised to the age of 36 months. This X-monosomic pig presented with abnormal physical characteristics including short stature, micrognathia, and skeletal abnormalities in the limbs...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Di Long, Yongjian Chen, Haijing Wu, Ming Zhao, Qianjin Lu
Interleukin-21 (IL-21), an autocrine cytokine predominantly produced by follicular helper T (Tfh) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells, has been proven to play an important role in the immune system, for example, by promoting proliferation and the development of Tfh and Th17 cells, balancing helper T cell subsets, inducing B cell generation and differentiation into plasma cells, and enhancing the production of immunoglobulin. These effects are mainly mediated by activation of the JAK/STAT, MAPK and PI3K pathways...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Autoimmunity
Adrian Y S Lee, Heinrich Körner
Traditionally, chemokine immunobiology has focused on chemotaxis and the positioning of cells at sites of inflammation and within lymphoid organs. More recently, however, regulation of intricate immune responses has emerged as a function attributed to chemokines and their receptors. One such pair, CCR6 and its chemokine ligand CCL20, has been receiving interest for its potential role in the coordination and regulation of humoral immune responses and in particular, memory responses, at the cellular level. B cells up-regulate CCR6 after activation in secondary lymphoid organs; however, its function is still unclear...
February 8, 2019: Immunobiology
Robert O Gilbert
Diseases of postpartum dairy cows impair reproductive processes, resulting in prolonged anestrus, reduced conception, and increased pregnancy attrition, regardless of whether the initial disease precedes insemination (even by many weeks), occurs close to insemination, or follows fertilization. Bacteria and their products activate pattern recognition receptors that respond to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP). These receptors include toll-like receptors (TLR), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors and others, and their activation culminates in upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-α...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Bryce D Warren, Soo H Ahn, Lynda K McGinnis, Geoffrey Grzesiak, Ren-Wei Su, Asgi T Fazleabas, Lane K Christenson, Brian K Petroff, Margaret G Petroff
Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) regulates central immune tolerance by inducing expression of tissue-restricted antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells, thereby ensuring elimination of autoreactive T cells. Aire mutations in humans and targeted Aire deletion in mice results in multi-organ autoimmune disease, known in humans as Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1 (APS-1). APS-1 is characterized by presence of adrenal insufficiency, chronic mucosal candidiasis, and/or hypoparathyroidism. Additionally, females often present with gonadal insufficiency and infertility...
February 16, 2019: Biology of Reproduction
Daranporn Triwongwaranat, Rattapon Thuangtong, Sittiroj Arunkajohnsak
Hair pigmentation is regulated by follicular melanogenesis, in which the process consists of melanin formation and transfer to keratinocytes in the hair shaft. Human hair follicles contain two types of melanin: the brown-black eumelanin and yellow-red pheomelanin. Eumelanin is commonly present in black and brown hair while pheomelanin is found in auburn and blonde hair. Hair follicle melanogenesis is under cyclical control and is concurrently coupled to hair growth. Many factors including intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect the follicular melanogenesis...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Dermatology
José María Fernández-Santos, José Carmelo Utrilla, Victoria Vázquez-Román, José Luis Villar-Rodríguez, Lorenzo Gutiérrez-Avilés, Inés Martín-Lacave
BACKGROUND: Primary cilia (PC) are conserved structures in the adult thyroid gland of different mammals. We have recently described that, in humans, PC are usually present as a single copy per follicular cell emerging from the follicular cell apex into the follicular lumen. METHODS: To better understand the role developed by PC in thyroid hormonogenesis, we investigated their changes in different human functional thyroid diseases (diffuse toxic hyperplasia/Graves' disease and nodular hyperplasia/nodular goiter), in comparison with normal thyroid tissue, using immunofluorescence, morphometry and electron microscopy analyses...
February 15, 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
V R P Barros, A P O Monte, T L B G Lins, J M Santos, V G Menezes, A Y P Cavalcante, V R Araújo, B B Gouveia, M H T Matos
This study evaluated the in vitro development and maturation of ovine oocytes from secondary follicles cultured in serum-free medium containing fixed or sequential concentrations of recombinant human FSH (rhFSH). Follicles were cultured in α-MEM+ alone or with constant (500, 750, or 1,000 ng/mL) or sequential concentrations of rhFSH (seq. 1: day 6 = 500; day 12 = 750; day 18 = 1,000 ng/mL and seq. 2: day 6 = 100; day 12 = 500; day 18 = 1,000 ng/mL). At the end of the experiment, follicular survival was higher (P < 0...
December 18, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Jasper Rip, Marjolein J W de Bruijn, Marjolein K Appelman, Simar Pal Singh, Rudi W Hendriks, Odilia B J Corneth
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a signaling molecule involved in development and activation of B cells through B-cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. We have previously shown that transgenic mice that overexpress human Btk under the control of the CD19 promoter (CD19-hBtk) display spontaneous germinal center formation, increased cytokine production, anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANAs), and systemic autoimsmune disease upon aging. As TLR and BCR signaling are both implicated in autoimmunity, we studied their impact on splenic B cells...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Thais A Rodrigues, Kubra M Tuna, Abdel A Alli, P Tribulo, P J Hansen, Jin Koh, F F Paula-Lopes
Addition of follicular fluid to oocyte maturation medium can affect cumulus cell function, increase competence of the oocytes to be fertilised and develop to the blastocyst stage and protect the oocyte from heat shock. Here, it was tested whether exosomes in follicular fluid are responsible for the effects of follicular fluid on the function of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC). This was accomplished by culturing COCs during oocyte maturation at 38.5°C (body temperature of the cow) or 41°C (heat shock) with follicular fluid or exosomes derived from follicular fluid and evaluating various aspects of function of the oocyte and the embryo derived from it...
February 14, 2019: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Melvin R White, Michael J Graziano, Thomas P Sanderson
Pexacerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. This report describes the results of repeat-dose oral toxicity studies in rats (3 and 6 months) and dogs (3 months and 1 year). Pexacerfont was well tolerated in all of these studies at exposures equal to or greater than areas under the curve in humans (clinical dose of 100 mg). Microscopic changes in the liver (hepatocellular hypertrophy), thyroid glands (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and adenomas of follicular cells), and pituitary (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and vacuolation of thyrotrophs) were only observed in rats and were considered adaptive changes in response to hepatic enzyme induction and subsequent alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Toxicology
Jaeu Yi, Jisun Jung, Daehee Han, Charles D Surh, You Jeong Lee
CD4 T cells differentiate into RORγt/IL-17A-expressing cells in the small intestine following colonization by segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB). However, it remains unclear whether SFB-specific CD4 T cells can differentiate directly from naïve precursors, and whether their effector differentiation is solely directed towards the Th17 lineage. In this study, we used adoptive T cell transfer experiments and showed that naïve CD4 T cells can migrate to the small intestinal lamina propria (sLP) and differentiate into effector T cells that synthesize IL-17A in response to SFB colonization...
February 8, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Vibha Jha, Edward N Janoff
Bacterial pathogens expressing capsular polysaccharides are common causes of mucosal infections (pneumonia, intestinal), as well as often fatal, invasive infections (meningitis, bloodstream infections) in children and adults worldwide. These chemically simple but structurally complex carbohydrate structures on the bacterial surface confer resistance to recognition and clearance by the immune system through a range of mechanisms. Such recognition of capsular polysaccharides may be reduced by their limited ability to directly stimulate B cells and the T cells that may facilitate these humoral responses...
February 11, 2019: Vaccines
Tihana Ibrahimpasic, Ronald Ghossein, Jatin P Shah, Ian Ganly
BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC) is a rare but clinically highly significant entity because it accounts for most fatalities from non-anaplastic follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer. Due to the relative rarity of the disease and heterogeneous diagnostic criteria, studies on PDTC have been limited. In light of the evolution of ultra deep next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and through correlation of clinico-pathological and genomic characteristics of PDTC, an improved understanding of the biology of PDTC has been facilitated...
February 12, 2019: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
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