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CMV Encephalitis

Yi Guo, Li Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus(CMV) encephalitis is a disease that primarily affects immunocompromised hosts, and a few cases have been reported in immunocompetent individuals,especially in children. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of immunocompetent children with CMV encephalitis at a single medical center of southwest China over a 15-year period. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of children with confirmed CMV encephalitis hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in 2002-2017...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Maxime Fusade-Boyer, Gabriel Dupré, Pierre Bessière, Samira Khiar, Charlotte Quentin-Froignant, Cécile Beck, Sylvie Lecollinet, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jean-François Eléouët, Frédéric Tangy, Barbora Lajoie, Stéphane Bertagnoli, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Franck Gallardo, Romain Volmer
The guanabenz derivative Sephin1 has recently been proposed to increase the levels of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) phosphorylation by inhibiting dephosphorylation by the protein phosphatase 1-GADD34 (PPP1R15A) complex. As phosphorylation of eIF2α by protein kinase R (PKR) is a prominent cellular antiviral pathway, we evaluated the consequences of Sephin1 treatment on virus replication. Our results provide evidence that Sephin1 downregulates replication of human respiratory syncytial virus, measles virus, human adenovirus 5 virus, human enterovirus D68, human cytomegalovirus, and rabbit myxoma virus...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
C H Jia, L Wang, F H Jing, J Xie, Z F Qiu, T S Li, W Lyu
Objective: To investigate the clinical features and T lymphocytes subsets in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Methods: A total of 48 hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1/AIDS and CMV infections were recruited at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from Jan 2010 to Aug 2017. Their clinical features and immune function were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with only HIV/AIDS in previous study were recruited as controls...
March 1, 2019: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
G M Kozhevnikova, S L Voznesenskiy, T N Ermak, E V Petrova, V P Golub, I V Barysheva
AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence and prevalence of opportunistic diseases and comorbidities in patients admitted in the intensive care unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A specialized intensive care unit (ICU) for patients with severe HIV infection was set up in 2014 at the infectious diseases 2nd state hospital Moscow. It provides intensive care and treatments for HIV patients with severe co-morbidities and opportunistic infections. Retrospective analysis of medical records from 2014-2016 was carried out...
November 21, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Liubov I Kozlovskaya, Graciela Andrei, Alexey A Orlov, Evgeny V Khvatov, Alexander A Koruchekov, Evgeny S Belyaev, Evgeny N Nikolaev, Vladimir A Korshun, Robert Snoeck, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Elena S Matyugina, Andrey V Aralov
The phenoxazine scaffold is widely used to stabilize nucleic acid duplexes, as a part of fluorescent probes for the study of nucleic acid structure, recognition, and metabolism etc. Here we present the synthesis of phenoxazine-based nucleoside derivatives and their antiviral activity against a panel of structurally diverse viruses: enveloped DNA herpesviruses varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human cytomegalovirus, enveloped RNA tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and non-enveloped RNA enteroviruses. Studied compounds were effective against DNA and RNA viruses reproduction in cell culture...
January 23, 2019: Antiviral Research
Ashley Zani, Jacob S Yount
Purpose of Review: Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a cellular restriction factor that blocks fusion between virus and host membranes. Here, we provide an introduction to IFITM3 and the biochemical regulation underlying its antiviral activity. Further, we analyze and summarize the published literature examining phenotypes of IFITM3 knockout mice upon infections with viral pathogens and discuss the controversial association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human IFITM3 gene and severe virus infections...
December 2018: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
Nicole Brenner, Alexander J Mentzer, Julia Butt, Angelika Michel, Kristina Prager, Johannes Brozy, Benedikt Weißbrich, Allison E Aiello, Helen C S Meier, Judy Breuer, Rachael Almond, Naomi Allen, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer
Human herpesviruses (HHV) cause a variety of clinically relevant conditions upon primary infection of typically young and immunocompetent hosts. Both primary infection and reactivation after latency can lead to more severe disease, such as encephalitis, congenital defects and cancer. Infections with HHV are also associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. However, most of the associations are based on retrospective case-control analyses and well-powered prospective cohort studies are needed for assessing temporality and causality...
2018: PloS One
Damon Li, Stephen van Gaal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Julie Voeller, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Justin Brucker, Carol Diamond, Sharon Frierdich, Neha Patel
Neurologic dysfunction during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment is commonly associated with chemotherapy. Nonchemotherapy contributions should be considered for persistent atypical symptoms. We describe a boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed recurrent fevers, diarrhea, progressive ataxia, and neuropsychiatric impairment during maintenance chemotherapy. He was found to have cytomegalovirus in his serum and colon, but not in his cerebrospinal fluid. Instead, his cerebrospinal fluid revealed oligoclonal bands not present in the serum, suggesting an autoimmune process...
2018: Child Neurology Open
Darma Imran, Riwanti Estiasari, Kartika Maharani, Sucipto, Delly Chipta Lestari, Reyhan Eddy Yunus, Evy Yunihastuti, Teguh Haryono Karyadi, Diana Oei, Ina S Timan, Dewi Wulandari, Retno Wahyuningsih, Robiatul Adawiyah, Agnes Kurniawan, Rahmad Mulyadi, Anis Karuniawati, Ungke Anton Jaya, Dodi Safari, Arjan van Laarhoven, Bachti Alisjahbana, Sofiati Dian, Lidya Chaidir, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Diatri Nari Lastri, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Reinout van Crevel
Background: Little detailed knowledge is available regarding the etiology and outcome of CNS infection, particularly in HIV-infected individuals, in low-resource settings. Methods: From January 2015 to April 2016, we prospectively included all adults with suspected CNS infection in a referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Systematic screening included HIV testing, CSF examination, and neuroimaging. Results: A total of 274 patients with suspected CNS infection (median age 26 years) presented after a median of 14 days with headache (77%), fever (78%), seizures (27%), or loss of consciousness (71%)...
October 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Michele de Souza Bastos, Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins, Natália Lessa da Silva, Samya Jezine, Sérgio Pinto, Valderjane Aprigio, Rossicleia Lins Monte, Silvio Fragoso, Marzia Puccioni-Sohler
BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. METHODS CSF samples of 700 patients were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect presence of DENV specific IgM...
December 10, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
R I Tiwari, S S Bhullar, N H Chandak, N N Baheti, H F Daginawala, L R Singh, R S Kashyap
Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) occur sporadically and have been extensively studied because of the potential for permanent neurological damage or death. The neurotropic viruses have been reported to lead to various CNS infections. The objective of the present study is to develop an antigen detection ELISA protocol for detection and quantification of viral antigen in CNS infections by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), dengue (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Chandipura virus (CHPV)...
2018: Acta Virologica
Pavel Dyachenko, Anatoly Dyachenko, Olga Smiianova, Victoria A Kurhanskay, Ruslan Efremin
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Herpesviruses (HVs) are ubiquitous pathogens that infect humans usually during childhood, followed by a life-long persistence in a latent state in many sites of a body including the nerve cells. After reactivation HVs can affect the Central Nervous System (CNS) becoming a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide as well as long-term neurological sequelae. Despite being an important public health problem very few population-based studies were conducted so far in the world and none in Ukraine...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Laís Braga Soares, Renata Buccheri, Renata Bacic Palhares, Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto
Disseminated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs mainly as a congenital infection and among immunocompromised hosts. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk for CMV infection, and the most prevalent clinical manifestation is retinitis, followed by colitis, esophagitis, pneumonitis, and encephalitis. CMV oophoritis is poorly described in the literature with some cases reported in patients with hematological or solid malignancies, bone marrow or solid organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and advanced AIDS cases...
July 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Anne H Neddermeyer, Kjell Hultenby, Maruthibabu Paidikondala, Ryan M Schuchman, Mehdi R M Bidokhti
Background: Research on the biogenesis of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) would benefit gene therapy. Due to specific arrangements of genes along the TBEV genome, its viral-like particles (VLPs) could be exploited as shuttles to deliver their replicon, which carries therapeutic genes, to immune system cells. Objective: To develop a flaviviral vector for gene delivery as a part of gene therapy research that can be expressed in secretable VLP suicidal shuttles and provide abundant unique molecular and structural data supporting this gene therapy concept...
2018: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Sarah Micallef, Ruth Galea
After being admitted to hospital with atypical chest pain, a 61-year-old woman was noted to become lethargic and confused. She also developed global dysphasia. MRI was suggestive of encephalitis, and lumbar puncture was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR. The patient was treated with intravenous ganciclovir and subsequent oral valganciclovir and she gradually made a reasonable recovery. While this infection is usually closely linked to immunosuppression, the patient was found to be HIV negative, and was not on any immunosuppressive therapy...
July 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Angelika Wagner, Erika Garner-Spitzer, Joanna Jasinska, Herwig Kollaritsch, Karin Stiasny, Michael Kundi, Ursula Wiedermann
Immunosenescence is characterised by reduced B and T cell responses. Evidence shows that booster vaccinations are less effective in elderly people, but data on the efficacy of primary immunisation are sparse. We conducted a monocentric, open label, phase IV trial to compare immune responses to primary vaccinations using the inactivated, adjuvanted Japanese Encephalitis vaccine by 30 elderly people (mean 69, range 61-78 years) and 30 younger people (mean 24, range 18-30 years). Humoral and cellular immune responses were analysed in relation to age and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity...
June 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy Salovin, Jason Glanzman, Kylie Roslin, Thais Armangue, David R Lynch, Jessica A Panzer
Objective: To determine whether there is an association between nonencephalitic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis (anti-NMDARE). Methods: Antibody testing was performed using samples from 2 cohorts in a case-control observational study. The cohort "Philadelphia" included 16 serum samples of pediatric anti-NMDARE cases and 42 age-matched controls with other neuroinflammatory disorders studied at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Adam Baghban, Maricar Malinis
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus which establishes lifelong latency following primary infection. It is then capable of reactivating in the face of immunosuppression. Encephalitis is a less common, but particularly devastating syndrome associated with CMV. Here, we describe a case of CMV encephalitis in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient who received dual antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet. The case presentation is followed by a summary of cases reported in the last ten years, with the goal of describing vulnerable patient populations, treatment courses, and outcomes...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Bassant Meligy, Dalia Kadry, Iman H Draz, Huda Marzouk, Nevine R El Baroudy, Amira Sayed El Rifay
INTRODUCTION: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) is a considerable public health problem. AIM: This study was designed to describe the aetiology, demographic features, clinical picture, short-term outcome and risk factors of mortality of children with viral encephalitis in Egyptian children. METHODS: PCR detection of viruses in the CSF of pediatric patients admitted to the pediatric unit or ICU Cairo University Pediatric hospital presenting with encephalitis syndrome...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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