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New brain research

Yuemei Zhao, Yanbai Xue, Yan Zhang, Weitao Li, Zhiy Qian
In vivo simultaneous monitoring of blood flow and changes of concentration of oxyhemoglobin (ΔHbO2 ) in brain is a key important method for the research of cerebrovascular disease. In this study, a new monitoring system, combining laser speckle contrast imaging method and spectral analysis method, was proposed, which could be utilized to measure the cerebral blood flow and ΔHbO2 on mice during traumatic brain injury. The principle of the present system was studied and the hardware platform of the detection system was built...
January 30, 2019: Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation
Christian Keitel, Anne Keitel, Christopher Sy Benwell, Christoph Daube, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Two largely independent research lines use rhythmic sensory stimulation to study visual processing. Despite the use of strikingly similar experimental paradigms, they differ crucially in their notion of the stimulus-driven periodic brain responses: One regards them mostly as synchronised (entrained) intrinsic brain rhythms; the other assumes they are predominantly evoked responses (classically termed steady-state responses, or SSRs) that add to the ongoing brain activity. This conceptual difference can produce contradictory predictions about, and interpretations of, experimental outcomes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chien-Liang Chao, Hsin-Wen Huang, Hui-Chi Huang, Hsin-Fan Chao, Shuen-Wen Yu, Muh-Hwan Su, Chao-Jih Wang, Hang-Ching Lin
Cistanche tubulosa aqueous extract (CTE) is already used as a botanical prescription drug for treating dementia in China. Our previous studies reported that phenylethanoid glycosides of CTE have anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity by inhibiting amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation and deposition. However, recent studies considered that the phenylethanoid glycosides may be metabolized by intestinal bacteria, because all analysis results showed that the bioavailability of phenylethanoid glycosides is extremely low...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Erik Nutma, Hugh Willison, Martino Gianvito, Sandra Amor
Neuroimmunology as a separate discipline has its roots in the fields of neurology, neuroscience and immunology. Early studies of the brain by Golgi and Cajal, the detailed clinical and neuropathology studies of Charcot, and Thompson's seminal paper on graft acceptance in the central nervous system kindled a now rapidly expanding research area with the aim of understanding pathological mechanisms of inflammatory components of neurological disorders. Whilst neuroimmunologists originally focussed on classical neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis and infections, there is strong evidence to suggest that the immune response contributes to genetic white matter disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, peripheral nervous system and neuro-oncological conditions, as well as ageing...
February 15, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Adela Desowska, Duncan L Turner
Recovery from a stroke is a dynamic time-dependent process, in which the central nervous system reorganises to accommodate for the impact of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review recent longitudinal studies of changes in brain connectivity after stroke. A systematic review of research papers reporting functional or effective connectivity at two or more time points in stroke patients was conducted. Stroke leads to an early reduction of connectivity in the motor network. With recovery time, the connectivity increases and can reach the same levels as in healthy participants...
February 15, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Keren K Griffiths, Philip G Morgan, Simon C Johnson, Pratheeban Nambyiah, Sulpicio G Soriano, Kenneth Johnson, Jing Xu, Carol Garber, Lynne Maxwell, Neeta Saraiya
The potential for long-term neurotoxic effects of anesthetics on the developing human brain has led to intensified research in this area. To date, the human evidence has been inconclusive, but a large body of animal evidence continues to demonstrate cause for concern. On April 14 and 15, 2018 the sixth biennial Pediatric Anesthesia and Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) study symposium was held at Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York. This symposium brought together clinicians and researchers and served as a platform to review preclinical and clinical data related to anesthesia and neurotoxicity in developing brains...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Jennifer J Lee, Lena S Sun, Richard J Levy
On April 14 and 15, 2018, the Sixth Biennial Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopmental Assessment (PANDA) Symposium convened at Columbia University Medical Center and New York Presbyterian/Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York. Since its inception over 10 years ago, the PANDA Symposium has served as a key forum for clinicians, researchers, and other major stakeholders to gather and review the current state of preclinical and clinical research related to anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Leila Pirmoradi, Nayer Seyfizadeh, Saeid Ghavami, Amir A Zeki, Shahla Shojaei
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor known with a poor survival rate despite current advances in the field of cancer. Additional research into the pathophysiology of GBM is urgently needed given the devastating nature of this disease. Recent studies have revealed the unique cellular physiology of GBM cells as compared with healthy astrocytes. Intriguingly, GBM cells are incapable of de novo cholesterol synthesis via the mevalonate pathway. Thus, the survival of GBM cells depends on cholesterol uptake via low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs) in the form of apolipoprotein-E-containing lipoproteins and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) that efflux surplus cholesterol out of cells...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Andrea J Korecki, Jack W Hickmott, Siu Ling Lam, Lisa Dreolini, Anthony Mathelier, Oliver Baker, Claudia Kuehne, Russell J Bonaguro, Jillian Smith, Chin-Vern Tan, Michelle Zhou, Daniel Goldowitz, Jan M Deussing, A Francis Stewart, Wyeth W Wasserman, Robert A Holt, Elizabeth M Simpson
To understand gene function, the cre/loxP conditional system is the most powerful available for temporal and spatial control of expression in mouse. However, the research community requires more cre recombinase expressing transgenic mouse strains (cre-drivers), which restrict expression to specific cell types. To address these problems, a high-throughput method for large-scale production that produces high-quality results is necessary. Further, endogenous promoters need to be chosen that drive cell type specific expression, or we need to further focus the expression by manipulating the promoter...
February 14, 2019: Genetics
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Despite advances in genetic research, causal variants affecting risk for schizophrenia remain poorly characterized, and the top 108 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain only 3.4% of variance in risk profiles. Such work is defining the highly complex nature of this condition, with omnigenic models of schizophrenia suggesting that gene regulatory networks are sufficiently interconnected such that altered expression of any "peripheral" gene in a relevant cell type has the capacity to indirectly modulate the expression of "core" schizophrenia-associated genes...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Magdalena Blaszkiewicz, Jake W Willows, Cory P Johnson, Kristy L Townsend
Brown and white adipose tissues are essential for maintenance of proper energy balance and metabolic health. In order to function efficiently, these tissues require both endocrine and neural communication with the brain. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the inducible brown adipocytes that appear in white adipose tissue (WAT) after simulation, are thermogenic and energy expending. This uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated process requires input from sympathetic nerves releasing norepinephrine. In addition to sympathetic noradrenergic signaling, adipose tissue contains sensory nerves that may be important for relaying fuel status to the brain...
February 12, 2019: Biology
Ilse S Peterson, William O Iverson, Marion T Kasaian, Maggie Liu
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but serious disease. Caused by the JC virus (JCV), it occurs in individuals with weakened immune systems and is a potential adverse reaction for certain immunomodulatory drugs. The PML Consortium was created to find better methods to predict, prevent, and treat PML. The Consortium brought together the pharmaceutical industry with academic, regulatory, and patient communities to advance research and dialogue on PML through a not-for-profit, collaborative approach involving a grant program, scientific workshops and conferences, and disease awareness efforts...
February 13, 2019: Advances in Therapy
J T Fuller, A Cronin-Golomb, J R Gatchel, D J Norton, E Guzmán-Vélez, H I L Jacobs, B Hanseeuw, E Pardilla-Delgado, A Artola, A Baena, Y Bocanegra, K S Kosik, K Chen, P N Tariot, K Johnson, R A Sperling, E M Reiman, F Lopera, Y T Quiroz
The study of individuals with autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease affords one of the best opportunities to characterize the biological and cognitive changes of Alzheimer's disease that occur over the course of the preclinical and symptomatic stages. Unifying the knowledge gained from the past three decades of research in the world's largest single-mutation autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease kindred - a family in Antioquia, Colombia with the E280A mutation in the Presenilin1 gene - will provide new directions for Alzheimer's research and a framework for generalizing the findings from this cohort to the more common sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease...
2019: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Melanie Dani, Sophie Bowen-Carpenter, Patrick J McGown
A 72-year-old woman presented with a complex partial seizure and right hemiparesis, after a four-week history of cognitive decline, apraxia and speech disturbance. She previously had chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and had finished chemotherapy one year prior to presentation. She was receiving monthly intravenous immunoglobulins for bronchiectasis. Brain imaging showed hypodensity in the left temporo-parietal regions. Cerebrospinal fluid was positive for the JC virus, leading to a diagnosis of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML)...
2019: European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine
Anders Christian Meidahl, Christian K E Moll, Bernadette van Wijk, Alessandro Gulberti, Gerd Tinkhauser, Manfred Westphal, Andreas K Engel, Wolfgang Hamel, Peter Brown, Andrew Sharott
Both phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and beta-bursts in the subthalamic nucleus have been significantly linked to symptom severity in Parkinson's disease (PD) in humans and emerged independently as competing biomarkers for closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, the underlying nature of subthalamic PAC is poorly understood and its relationship with transient beta burst-events has not been investigated. To address this, we studied macro- and micro electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) and single unit activity from 15 hemispheres in 10 PD patients undergoing DBS surgery...
February 9, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Peter Blattmann, Vivienne Stutz, Giulia Lizzo, Joy Richard, Philipp Gut, Ruedi Aebersold
Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) requires a spectral library to extract quantitative measurements from the mass spectrometry data acquired in data-independent acquisition mode (DIA). Large combined spectral libraries containing SWATH assays have been generated for humans and several other organisms, but so far no publicly available library exists for measuring the proteome of zebrafish, a rapidly emerging model system in biomedical research. Here, we present a large zebrafish SWATH spectral library to measure the abundance of 104,185 proteotypic peptides from 10,405 proteins...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Data
Jeffrey Cummings
Biomarkers have a key role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. Biomarkers can assist in diagnosis, demonstrate target engagement, support disease modification, and monitor for safety. The amyloid (A), tau (T), neurodegeneration (N) Research Framework emphasizes brain imaging and CSF measures relevant to disease diagnosis and staging and can be applied to drug development and clinical trials. Demonstration of target engagement in Phase 2 is critical before advancing a treatment candidate to Phase 3...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jacob J Roelofs, Tiago Teodoro, Mark J Edwards
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional movement disorders are common and disabling causes of abnormal movement control. Here, we review the current state of the evidence on the use of neuroimaging in Functional movement disorders, particularly its role in helping to unravel the pathophysiology of this enigmatic condition. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, there has been a shift in thinking about functional movement disorder, away from a focus on high-level psychological precipitants as in Freudian conversion theories, or even an implicit belief they are 'put-on' for secondary gain...
February 12, 2019: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Jouko Miettunen, Marianne Haapea, Lassi Björnholm, Sanna Huhtaniska, Teija Juola, Lotta Kinnunen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Johannes Lieslehto, Nina Rautio, Tanja Nordström
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 is a large population-based birth cohort, which aims to promote health and wellbeing of the population. In this paper, we systematically review the psychiatric research performed in the cohort until today, i.e. at the age of 32 years of the cohort (2018). We conducted a systematic literature search using the databases of PubMed and Scopus and complemented it with a manual search. We found a total of 94 articles, which were classified as examining ADHD, emotional and behavioural problems, psychosis risk or other studies relating to psychiatric subjects...
December 2019: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Shaip Krasniqi, Armond Daci
Despite extensive research on epileptogenesis, there is still a need to investigate new pathways and targeted therapeutic approaches in this complex process. Inflammation, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, neural cell death, gliosis, and blood⁻brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction are the most common causes of epileptogenesis. Moreover, the renin⁻angiotensin system (RAS) affects the brain's physiological and pathological conditions, including epilepsy and its consequences. While there are a variety of available pharmacotherapeutic approaches, information on new pathways is in high demand and the achievement of treatment goals is greatly desired...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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