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Cancer prevent

Ankush Mittal, Motaz Elmahdy Hassan, Joht Singh Chandan, Brian H Willis, Krishnarajah Nirantharakumar, Kesvapilla Subramonian
PURPOSE: Urolithiasis is a common condition that poses significant morbidity to patients. There are similarities in the development of certain cancers and urinary tract calculi (UTC), however, little is known about their temporal relationship. This study aims to identify if cancer is a risk factor for the development of UTC. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted for the period 1st January 1990 to 1st May 2016. 124,901 exposed patients identified using clinical codes with newly diagnosed cancer were matched to 476,203 unexposed controls by age, gender, BMI, and general practice...
March 16, 2019: Urolithiasis
Mitsuru Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Sakai, Yuka Kiriyama, Tomomitsu Tahara, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Asako Okabe, Sayumi Tahara, Tomoyuki Shibata, Naoki Ohmiya, Makoto Kuroda, Atsushi Sugioka, Tetsuya Tsukamoto
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori eradication is expected to prevent gastric cancer. However, morphological alterations after eradication often hinder accurate diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated endoscopic and histological changes in gastric tumors after eradication of H. pylori in a time-dependent manner. METHODS: We classified 144 cases of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer into the following categories: (i) patients positive for H. pylori with no eradication history, (ii) patients positive for H...
March 15, 2019: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
Zhenqiu Liu, Yanfeng Jiang, Qiwen Fang, Huangbo Yuan, Ning Cai, Chen Suo, Weimin Ye, Xingdong Chen, Tiejun Zhang
AIM: The age-specific cancer patterns have changed significantly over the last few decades in urban Shanghai. Predicting the cancer incidence in an ageing population can help to anticipate future resource needs, evaluate primary prevention strategies, and inform further research studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Annual cancer cases and population data from 1988 to 2013 were collected from Shanghai Cancer Registry. A Bayesian age-period-cohort model was applied to project the future cancer incidence with demographical changes from 2014 to 2025...
March 14, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
Walid Mahfouf, Mohsen Hosseini, Elodie Muzotte, Martin Serrano-Sanchez, Lea Dousset, François Moisan, Walid Rachidi, Alain Taieb, Jana Rudolf, Hamid Reza Rezvani
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is constitutively expressed in mouse and human epidermis. It plays a crucial role in skin physiology including the response of keratinocytes to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, little information is available about its role in photocarcinogenesis. Using a multistage model of UVB radiation-induced skin cancer, we show that the knockout of Hif-1α in the epidermis prevents tumorigenesis, but at the same time triggers the formation of hyperkeratotic plaques. Our results indicate that the absence of oncogenic transformation in Hif-1α-ablated mice is related to increased DNA repair in keratinocytes, while the formation of hyperkeratotic plaques is caused by an increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Murat Gultekin, Mujdegul Zayifoglu Karaca, Irem Kucukyildiz, Selin Dundar, Bekir Keskinkilic, Murat Turkyilmaz
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women in the world. It is estimated that one woman dies every 2 min from cervical cancer. Nearly all cervical cancers are preventable by early detection and treatment through screening or HPV vaccination. In 2018, World Health Organization (WHO) made a global call for action toward the elimination of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening involves a complex organized program, which begins with a call/recall system based on personal invitation of eligible women, followed by participation in screening, and leading to diagnosis, treatment, and management as appropriate...
March 13, 2019: Papillomavirus Research
Yoshihiro Ono, Masayuki Tanaka, Kiyoshi Matsueda, Makiko Hiratsuka, Yu Takahashi, Yoshihiro Mise, Yosuke Inoue, Takafumi Sato, Hiromichi Ito, Akio Saiura
BACKGROUND: Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) with splenic vein (SV) ligation may result in sinistral portal hypertension (SPH). The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of various types of SV reconstruction to prevent SPH and to define the optimal reconstruction method. METHODS: This study included patients who underwent PD with SV resection and reconstruction for pancreatic cancer between December 2013 and June 2017. The patency of various types of SV anastomosis and SPH was evaluated by follow up computed tomography...
March 13, 2019: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Patrick Maisonneuve
Pancreatic cancer, although infrequent, has a very poor prognosis, making it currently the fourth common causes of cancer mortality in most developed countries including the European Union (EU). Its incidence varies across regions, which suggests that lifestyle factors play an important role in its etiology, although part of the variation could be ascribed to difference in diagnostic and coding practices. Because pancreatic cancer is strongly age-dependent, increasing population longevity and ageing will lead to an increase of the global burden of pancreatic cancer...
March 13, 2019: La Presse Médicale
Anne-Laure Védie, Cindy Neuzillet
Palliative and supportive care holds a major place in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) management. It aims to prevent and reduce symptoms and hospital admissions, while ensuring optimal health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which has been reported to be correlated with overall survival in PDAC. Best supportive care includes non-specific treatment of pain, anxiety and depression, chemotherapy-related toxicities, as well as thromboembolic disease treatment and prevention in high-risk patients. Moreover, nutrition and physical activity interventions are receiving increasing attention as they are crucial to optimize treatment tolerance and efficacy...
March 13, 2019: La Presse Médicale
Cynae A Johnson, Deepthi James, Amelita Marzan, Mona Armaos
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the etiology, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term survivorship concerns surrounding cervical cancer. DATA SOURCES: A review of articles dated 2006-2018 from PubMed. CONCLUSION: The landscape for cervical cancer is changing dramatically because of vaccine-driven prevention. Despite these advances, there are both newly diagnosed individuals as well as survivors of cervical cancer who require continued evidence-based care...
March 13, 2019: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Didi Bury, Rob Ter Heine, Ewoudt M W van de Garde, Marten R Nijziel, Rene J Grouls, Maarten J Deenen
AIM: There is accumulating evidence that neutropenic patients require higher dosages of vancomycin. To prevent sub-therapeutic drug exposure, it is of utmost importance to obtain adequate exposure from the first dose onwards. We aimed to quantify the effect of neutropenia on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin. METHODS: Data were extracted from a matched patient cohort of patients known with (1) hematological disease, (2) solid malignancy, and (3) patients not known with cancer...
March 15, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
M Constanza Camargo, Minkyo Song, Taichi Shimazu, Hadrien Charvat, Taiki Yamaji, Norie Sawada, Troy J Kemp, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Allan Hildesheim, Ligia A Pinto, Shoichiro Tsugane, Charles S Rabkin
Background: Circulating inflammation proteins may be important mediators or markers of carcinogenic mechanisms. There have been few studies with limited numbers of analytes in patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors. We therefore evaluated risk associations of gastric and esophageal cancers with prediagnostic levels of a wide range of these molecules. Methods: We performed a case-cohort analysis within the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Cohort II, including incident cases of gastric ( n = 446) and esophageal ( n = 68) cancers and a random subcohort ( n = 774)...
March 15, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Shaza A Fadel, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Shicheng Yu, Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Geetha R Menon, Leslie Newcombe, Kathleen L Strong, Qiqi Wang, Prabhat Jha
BACKGROUND: With global survival increasing for children younger than 5 years of age, attention is required to reduce the approximately 1 million deaths of children aged 5-14 years occurring every year. Causes of death at these ages remain poorly documented. We aimed to explore trends in mortality by causes of death in India, China, Brazil, and Mexico, which are home to about 40% of the world's children aged 5-14 years and experience more than 200 000 deaths annually at these ages. METHODS: We examined data on 244 401 deaths in children aged 5-14 years from four nationally representative data sources that obtained direct distributions of causes of death: the Indian Million Death Study, the Chinese Disease Surveillance Points, mortality data from the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, and mortality data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics...
March 8, 2019: Lancet
Charlotte C Sun, Larissa A Meyer, Molly S Daniels, Diane C Bodurka, Denise R Nebgen, Allison M Burton-Chase, Karen H Lu, Susan K Peterson
OBJECTIVE: We assessed preferences for cancer risk management strategies for Lynch syndrome (LS) in LS-affected women. METHODS: Women with LS aged ≥25 years evaluated 9 cancer risk management strategies using a visual analog scale (VAS) and modified standard gamble (SG). For the VAS, women ranked each strategy ranging from 0 (least preferred) to 100 (most preferred). VAS scores were calculated by dividing the corresponding number by 100. Scores closer to 1.0 reflected more favorable strategies...
March 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Julie My Van Nguyen, Mahsa Sadeghi, Lilian T Gien, Al Covens, Rachel Kupets, Avery B Nathens, Danielle Vicus
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) prevention bundle for Gynecologic Oncology patients at a large academic tertiary centre in Toronto, Canada. METHODS: A SSI prevention bundle was implemented in February 2017 including: preoperative chlorhexidine shower, prophylactic antibiotics, glycemic control, normothermia, and separate closing tray. Data were collected prospectively using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) institutional data, and chart review of surgeries between January 2016 and September 2017 was performed...
March 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Louiza S Velentzis, Megan A Smith, Kate T Simms, Jie-Bin Lew, Michaela Hall, Suzanne Hughes, Susan Yuill, James Killen, Adam Keane, Katherine Butler, Jessica Darlington-Brown, Harriet Hui, Julia M L Brotherton, Rachel Skinner, Alison Brand, Lara Roeske, Stella Heley, Jonathan Carter, Deborah Bateson, Ian Frazer, Suzanne M Garland, Rebecca Guy, Ian Hammond, Paul Grogan, Marc Arbyn, Philip E Castle, Marion Saville, Bruce K Armstrong, Karen Canfell
OBJECTIVE: Australia's HPV vaccination and HPV-based cervical screening programs are changing the landscape in cervical cancer prevention. We aim to identify areas which can make the biggest further impact on cervical cancer burden. This protocol describes the first stage of a program of work called Pathways-Cervix that aims to generate evidence from modelled evaluations of interventions across the cervical cancer spectrum. METHODS: Based on evidence from literature reviews and guidance from a multi-disciplinary Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC), the most relevant evaluations for prevention, diagnosis and treatment were identified...
March 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Bing Hu, Hong-Mei An, Xia Yan, Jia-Lu Zheng, Xiao-Wei Huang, Miao Li
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a vital process in cancer progression and metastasis. Yanggan Jiedu Sanjie (YGJDSJ) is Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation for liver cancer treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of YGJDSJ on TGF-β1-induced EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 cells. METHODS: Bel-7402 cells were treated with TGF-β1 and YGJDSJ. EMT was identified by morphological changes and expression of marker proteins...
March 15, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Bahare Salehi, Alessandro Venditti, Mehdi Sharifi-Rad, Dorota Kręgiel, Javad Sharifi-Rad, Alessandra Durazzo, Massimo Lucarini, Antonello Santini, Eliana B Souto, Ettore Novellino, Hubert Antolak, Elena Azzini, William N Setzer, Natália Martins
Several plant bioactive compounds have exhibited functional activities that suggest they could play a remarkable role in preventing a wide range of chronic diseases. The largest group of naturally-occurring polyphenols are the flavonoids, including apigenin. The present work is an updated overview of apigenin, focusing on its health-promoting effects/therapeutic functions and, in particular, results of in vivo research. In addition to an introduction to its chemistry, nutraceutical features have also been described...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ibrahim Y Abdelgawad, Marianne K O Grant, Beshay N Zordoky
Cardio-oncology is a clinical/scientific discipline which aims to prevent and/or treat cardiovascular diseases in cancer patients. Although a large number of cancer treatments are known to cause cardiovascular toxicity, they are still widely used because they are highly effective. Unfortunately, therapeutic interventions to prevent and/or treat cancer treatment-induced cardiovascular toxicity have not been established yet. A major challenge for such interventions is to protect the cardiovascular system without compromising the therapeutic benefit of anticancer medications...
March 14, 2019: Nutrients
Leticia Lemos Jardim, Johanna G van der Bom, Camila Caram-Deelder, Samantha Claudia Gouw, Mariangela Leal Cherchiglia, Suely Meireles Rezende
INTRODUCTION: Brazil has the fourth largest world population of patients with haemophilia. However, mortality rates in this population are unknown. AIM: To analyse mortality and its causes in Brazilian patients with haemophilia from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: The number of deceased patients with haemophilia and causes of death were obtained from the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), according to the 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10)...
March 15, 2019: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Joel Ricci-López, Abraham Vidal-Limon, Matías Zunñiga, Verónica A Jimènez, Joel B Alderete, Carlos A Brizuela, Sergio Aguila
High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been identified as the etiologic agent of some anogenital tract, head, and neck cancers. Although prophylactic HPV vaccines have been approved; it is still necessary a drug-based treatment against the infection and its oncogenic effects. The E6 oncoprotein is one of the most studied therapeutic targets of HPV, it has been identified as a key factor in cell immortalization and tumor progression in HPV-positive cells. E6 can promote the degradation of p53, a tumor suppressor protein, through the interaction with the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP...
2019: PloS One
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