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Paralytic shellfish toxin

Isidro José Tamele, Marisa Silva, Vitor Vasconcelos
The occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and bacteria can be one of the great threats to public health due to their ability to produce marine toxins (MTs). The most reported MTs include paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), diarrheic shellfish toxins (DSTs), cyclic imines (CIs), ciguatoxins (CTXs), azaspiracids (AZTs), palytoxin (PlTXs), tetrodotoxins (TTXs) and their analogs, some of them leading to fatal outcomes. MTs have been reported in several marine organisms causing human poisoning incidents since these organisms constitute the food basis of coastal human populations...
January 21, 2019: Toxins
Ivana Ujević, Romana Roje-Busatto, Daria Ezgeta-Balić
Searching for Amnesic (ASP), Paralytic (PSP) and Lipophilic (LT) toxins in seafood is of great importance for consumer protection. Studies are usually focused on the most aquacultured species, the mussel. But, there are a number of potentially commercially important shellfish species as rough cockle Acanthocardia tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) and smooth clam Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758) which are common in the Croatian Adriatic Sea. Investigation of marine biotoxins accumulation in these two species of shellfish from Adriatic Sea has not been conducted up to now...
January 16, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Zacharias J Smith, Robbie M Martin, Bofan Wei, Steven W Wilhelm, Gregory L Boyer
Butterfield Lake is a mesotrophic lake in New York State where residents and pets have experienced unexplained health issues. Microseira wollei (basionym Lyngbya wollei ) was found at two of 15 sites in Butterfield Lake and analyzed for microcystins, anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs). Only PSTs and trace levels of anatoxin-a were detected in these samples. This is the first published report of PSTs within a New York State lake. To evaluate the environmental and temporal drivers leading to the observed toxicity, PST content at the two sites was examined in detail...
January 15, 2019: Toxins
Patricio A Díaz, Beatriz Reguera, Teresa Moita, Isabel Bravo, Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal, Santiago Fraga
Blooms of Dinophysis acuminata occur every year in Galicia (northwest Spain), between spring and autumn. These blooms contaminate shellfish with lipophilic toxins and cause lengthy harvesting bans. They are often followed by short-lived blooms of Dinophysis acuta , associated with northward longshore transport, at the end of the upwelling season. During the summers of 1989 and 1990, dense blooms of D. acuta developed in situ, initially co-occurring with D. acuminata and later with the paralytic shellfish toxin-producer Gymnodinium catenatum ...
January 14, 2019: Toxins
Manlu Li, Yuelu Jiang, Chia-Ying Chuang, Jin Zhou, Xiaoshan Zhu, Daoyi Chen
Harmful algal blooms (HAB), heavily influenced by human activities, pose serious hazard to aquatic ecology and human health. In this study, we monitored the physiological responses and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) of the toxin-producing HAB species Alexandrium tamarense under titanium dioxide nanoparticles (n TiO2 ) exposure in the concentration range of 2-320 mg L-1 over a period of 13 days. The results showed the acute inhibition of n TiO2 on the algal growth, photosynthetic efficiency and esterase activity at all concentrations except 2 mg L-1 ...
January 9, 2019: Aquatic Toxicology
Justine Castrec, Hélène Hégaret, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Maïlys Picard, Philippe Soudant, Bruno Petton, Myrina Boulais, Marc Suquet, Isabelle Quéau, Dominique Ratiskol, Valentin Foulon, Nelly Le Goïc, Caroline Fabioux
Harmful algal blooms are a threat to aquatic organisms and coastal ecosystems. Among harmful species, the widespread distributed genus Alexandrium is of global importance. This genus is well-known for the synthesis of paralytic shellfish toxins which are toxic for humans through the consumption of contaminated shellfish. While the effects of Alexandrium species upon the physiology of bivalves are now well documented, consequences on reproduction remain poorly studied. In France, Alexandrium minutum blooms have been recurrent for the last decades, generally appearing during the reproduction season of most bivalves including the oyster Crassostrea gigas...
November 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Erick J Núñez-Vázquez, Antonio Almazán-Becerril, David J López-Cortés, Alejandra Heredia-Tapia, Francisco E Hernández-Sandoval, Christine J Band-Schmidt, José J Bustillos-Guzmán, Ismael Gárate-Lizárraga, Ernesto García-Mendoza, Cesar A Salinas-Zavala, Amaury Cordero-Tapia
Historical records of ciguatera in Mexico date back to 1862. This review, including references and epidemiological reports, documents 464 cases during 25 events from 1984 to 2013: 240 (51.72%) in Baja California Sur, 163 (35.12%) in Quintana Roo, 45 (9.69%) in Yucatan, and 16 (3.44%) cases of Mexican tourists intoxicated in Cuba. Carnivorous fish, such as snapper ( Lutjanus ) and grouper ( Epinephelus and Mycteroperca ) in the Pacific Ocean, and great barracuda ( Sphyraena barracuda ) and snapper ( Lutjanus ) in the Atlantic (Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea), were involved in all cases...
December 28, 2018: Marine Drugs
Shu-Fei Zhang, Yong Zhang, Lin Lin, Da-Zhi Wang
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of potent neurotoxic alkaloids that are produced mainly by marine dinoflagellates. PST biosynthesis in dinoflagellates is a discontinuous process that is coupled to the cell cycle. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying this association. Here, we compared global protein expression profiles of a toxigenic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella , collected at four different stages of toxin biosynthesis during the cell cycle, using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach...
December 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Jorge I Mardones, Lana Shabala, Sergey Shabala, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda, Andreas Seger, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff
Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are responsible for massive mortalities of wild and aquacultured fish due to noticeable gill damage, but the precise fish-killing mechanisms remain poorly understood. A non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE) technique was successfully applied to assess changes in membrane-transport processes in a model fish gill cell line exposed to harmful microplankton. Net Ca2+ , H+ , K+ ion fluxes in the rainbow trout cell line RTgill-W1 were monitored before and after addition of lysed cells of this Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) producer along with purified endocellular dinoflagellate PST...
December 2018: Harmful Algae
Barbara C Sendall, Glenn B McGregor
Strains of the freshwater filamentous, benthic cyanobacterium Scytonema crispum Agardh isolated from six sites in subtropical south-east Queensland were characterised using a combination of phenotypic and genetic traits. Morphologically, the strains were consistent with the description of Scytonemataceae sensu stricto, and the description of Scytonema crispum. However, phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, the 16S-23S rRNA operon, and the nifH gene revealed that these strains and three others from outside Australia formed a monophyletic clade distinct from Scytonema and other species in the Scytonemataceae...
December 2018: Harmful Algae
Aletta T Yñiguez, Jennifer Maister, Cesar L Villanoy, Josephine Dianne Deauna, Eileen Peñaflor, Aldwin Almo, Laura T David, Garry A Benico, Ellen Hibay, Irmi Mora, Sandra Arcamo, Jun Relox, Rhodora V Azanza
In contrast to temperate Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), knowledge on the mechanisms driving tropical HABs are less well studied. The interaction of a seasonal temperature window, cysts (for certain species) and large-scale transport are some of the key processes in temperate HABs. In the Philippines, HABs occur not along long open coastlines, but in embayments that are highly influenced by run-off and stratification. These embayments are typically also the sites of cultured or wild harvest shellfish and other aquaculture activities...
December 2018: Harmful Algae
Paul M D'Agostino, Michael J Boundy, Tim D Harwood, Wayne W Carmichael, Brett A Neilan, Susanna A Wood
To date Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants in cyanobacteria have primarily been characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this study we re-evaluated the PST profiles of five cyanobacterial cultures (Dolichospermum circinale AWQC131C, Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5, Raphidiopsis raciborskii T3, Scytonema cf. crispum CAWBG524 and CAWBG72) and one environmental sample (Microseria wollei) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry...
November 21, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Sabrina Loise de Morais Calado, Gustavo Souza Santos, Juliana Wojciechowski, Valéria Freitas de Magalhães, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Paralytic shellfish Toxins (PSTs) or saxitoxins are neurotoxins that block the neural transmission by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels in the nerve cells. There are >50 analogues described, which could be biotransformed into a molecular form of greater or lesser toxicity. The Alagados Reservoir is used for water supply, and persistent cyanobacterial blooms as well as PSTs concentrations have been found in this water body since 2002. The aims of this study were to quantify the concentrations of PSTs in the water and fish samples from the Alagados Reservoir...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Carla Mellado, Oscar R Chaparro, Cristian Duarte, Paola A Villanueva, Alejandro Ortiz, Nelson Valdivia, Rodrigo Torres, Jorge M Navarro
High latitudes are considered particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification, since they are naturally low in carbonate ions. The edible mussel Mytilus chilensis is a common calcifier inhabiting marine ecosystems of the southern Chile, where culturing of this species is concentrated and where algal blooms produced by the toxic dinoflagellate A. catenella are becoming more frequent. Juvenile Mytilus chilensis were exposed to experimental conditions simulating two environmental phenomena: pCO2 increase and the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) produced by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella...
October 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carmela Dell'Aversano, Luciana Tartaglione, Giuseppe Polito, Karl Dean, Mariagrazia Giacobbe, Silvia Casabianca, Samuela Capellacci, Antonella Penna, Andrew D Turner
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) are naturally-occurring toxins that may contaminate the food chain, inducing similar neurological symptoms in humans. They are co-extracted under the same conditions and thus their combined detection is desirable. Whilst PST are regulated and officially monitored in Europe, more data on TTX occurrence in bivalves and gastropods are needed before meaningful regulations can be established. In this study, we used three separate analytical methods - pre-column oxidation with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection, ultrahigh performance hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and HILIC high resolution (HR) MS/MS - to investigate the presence of PST and TTX in seawater and shellfish (mussels, clams) collected in spring summer 2015 to 2017 in the Mediterranean Sea...
January 2019: Chemosphere
Pedro Reis Costa, Ana Catarina Braga, Andrew D Turner
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a severe food-borne illness, caused by the ingestion of seafood containing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which are naturally produced by marine dinoflagellates and accumulate in shellfish during algae blooms. Novel PST, designated as hydroxybenzoate analogues (also known as GC toxins), was relatively recently discovered in Gymnodinium catenatum strains worldwide. However, to date, there have been no studies examining their accumulation in shellfish. In this study, mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) were exposed to G...
October 26, 2018: Toxins
Sarah C Finch, Michael J Boundy, D Tim Harwood
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin associated with human poisonings through the consumption of pufferfish. More recently, TTX has been identified in bivalve molluscs from diverse geographical environments, including Europe, and is therefore recognised as an emerging threat to food safety. A recent scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain recognised the need for further data on the acute oral toxicity of TTX and suggested that, since saxitoxin (STX) and TTX had similar modes of action, it was possible that their toxicities were additive so could perhaps be combined to yield one health-based guideline value...
October 23, 2018: Toxins
Virginia Angélica Bianchi, Hendrik Langeloh, Urban Tillmann, Bernd Krock, Annegret Müller, Ulf Bickmeyer, Doris Abele
Multiple toxic and bioactive compounds produced by Alexandrium spp. cause adverse effects on bivalves, but these effects are frequently difficult to attribute to a single compound class. To disentangle the effect of neurotoxic vs lytic secondary metabolites, we exposed blue mussels to either a paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) producing Alexandrium spp. strain, or to an exclusively lytic compound (LC) producing strain, or a strain containing both compound classes, to evaluate the time dependent effects after 3 and 7 days of feeding...
October 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Alescia Cullen, Paul M D'Agostino, Rabia Mazmouz, Russell Pickford, Susanna Wood, Brett A Neilan
The neurotoxin saxitoxin and related paralytic shellfish toxins are produced by multiple species of cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. This study investigates the two saxitoxin-producing strains of Scytonema crispum, CAWBG524 and CAWBG72, isolated in New Zealand. Each strain was previously reported to have a distinct paralytic shellfish toxin profile, a rare observation between strains within the same species. Sequencing of the saxitoxin biosynthetic clusters ( sxt) from S. crispum CAWBG524 and S. crispum CAWBG72 revealed the largest sxt gene clusters described to date...
October 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Ruiwen Cao, Dan Wang, Qianyu Wei, Qing Wang, Dinglong Yang, Hui Liu, Zhijun Dong, Xiaoli Zhang, Qianqian Zhang, Jianmin Zhao
Harmful algae blooms have expanded greatly in recent decades, and their secreted toxins pose a severe threat to human health and marine ecosystems. Saxitoxin (STX) is a main paralytic shellfish poison naturally produced by marine microalgae of the genus Alexandrium . Despite numerous studies have assessed the impacts of STX on marine bivalves, comparative in vivo study on the toxicity of STX on bivalves with distinct accumulation ability (such as oysters and scallops) has been seldom investigated. The aim of this study was to identify whether distinct sensitivity exists between oysters, Crassostrea gigas , and scallops, Chlamys farreri under the same amount of STX exposure using multiple biomarker responses...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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