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interneuron plasticity

Fumitaka Kimura, Chiaki Itami
Spike timing is an important factor in the modification of synaptic strength. Various forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) occur in the brains of diverse species, from insects to humans. In unimodal STDP, only long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD) occurs at the synapse, regardless of which neuron spikes first; the magnitude of potentiation or depression increases as the time between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes decreases. This from of STDP may promote developmental strengthening or weakening of early projections...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Karim A Alkadhi
A distinct feature of the hippocampus of the brain is its unidirectional tri-synaptic pathway originating from the entorhinal cortex and projecting to the dentate gyrus (DG) then to area CA3 and subsequently, area CA1 of the Ammon's horn. Each of these areas of the hippocampus has its own cellular structure and distinctive function. The principal neurons in these areas are granule cells in the DG and pyramidal cells in the Ammon's horn's CA1 and CA3 areas with a vast network of interneurons. This review discusses the fundamental differences between the CA1 and DG areas regarding cell morphology, synaptic plasticity, signaling molecules, ability for neurogenesis, vulnerability to various insults and pathologies, and response to pharmacological agents...
March 14, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Guan Hock Khoo, Yu-Ting Lin, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic efficacy is widely regarded as a cellular basis of learning and memory. The magnitude of hippocampal CA1 LTD induced by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) declines with age, but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix structures that function in dampening synaptic plasticity during postnatal development, suggesting that PNN formation may restrict LTD induction in the adult hippocampus. Here, we show that PNNs tightly enwrap a subpopulation of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region and enzymatic removal of PNNs with the chondroitinase ABC alters the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance toward more excitation and restores the ability of LFS to induce an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in slices from male adult mice...
March 2, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Jianli Sun, Melissa A Harrington
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the leading genetic cause of death in infants. Studies with mouse models have demonstrated increased excitability and loss of afferent proprioceptive synapses on motor neurons (MNs). To further understand functional changes in the motor neural network occurring in SMA, we studied the intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission of both MNs and interneurons (INs) from ventral horn in the lumbar spinal cord in the survival motor neuron (SMN)Δ7 mouse model. We found significant differences in the membrane properties of MNs in SMA mice compared to littermate controls, including hyperpolarized resting membrane potential, increased input resistance and decreased membrane capacitance...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Avital Adler, Ruohe Zhao, Myung Eun Shin, Ryohei Yasuda, Wen-Biao Gan
The activities of neuronal populations exhibit temporal sequences that are thought to mediate spatial navigation, cognitive processing, and motor actions. The mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of sequential neuronal activity remain unclear. We found that layer 2 and/or 3 pyramidal neurons (PNs) showed sequential activation in the mouse primary motor cortex during motor skill learning. Concomitantly, the activity of somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons increased and decreased in a task-specific manner...
February 7, 2019: Neuron
Qiang-Qiang Xia, Jing Xu, Tai-Lin Liao, Jie Yu, Lei Shi, Jun Xia, Jian-Hong Luo, Junyu Xu
Neuroligins (NLs) are postsynaptic cell-adhesion proteins that play important roles in synapse formation and the excitatory-inhibitory balance. They have been associated with autism in both human genetic and animal model studies, and affect synaptic connections and synaptic plasticity in several brain regions. Yet current research mainly focuses on pyramidal neurons, while the function of NLs in interneurons remains to be understood. To explore the functional difference among NLs in the subtype-specific synapse formation of both pyramidal neurons and interneurons, we performed viral-mediated shRNA knockdown of NLs in cultured rat cortical neurons and examined the synapses in the two major types of neurons...
February 21, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Yasmina Curto, Julia Alcaide, Iris Röckle, Herbert Hildebrandt, Juan Nacher
Polysialic acid (polySia) is a complex sugar that in the nervous system appears mainly as a posttranslational modification of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PolySia plays important roles during brain development, but also in its plasticity during adulthood. Two polysialyltransferases (polyST), ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are involved in the synthesis and attachment of polySia. Both polyST are relevant for developmental migration of cortical interneurons and their establishment in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Courtney E Yaeger, Dario L Ringach, Joshua T Trachtenberg
Sensory experience in early postnatal life, during so-called critical periods, restructures neural circuitry to enhance information processing1 . Why the cortex is susceptible to sensory instruction in early life and why this susceptibility wanes with age are unclear. Here we define a developmentally restricted engagement of inhibitory circuitry that shapes localized dendritic activity and is needed for vision to drive the emergence of binocular visual responses in the mouse primary visual cortex. We find that at the peak of the critical period for binocular plasticity, acetylcholine released from the basal forebrain during periods of heightened arousal directly excites somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 20, 2019: Nature
Debanjan Dasgupta, Sujit Kumar Sikdar
Fast spiking interneurons (FSINs) have an important role in neuronal network dynamics. Although plasticity of synaptic properties is known to affect network synchrony, the role of plasticity of FSINs' intrinsic excitability on network dynamics remain elusive. Using computational approaches in an excitatory-FSIN model network (EI) based on previously established hippocampal neuronal models we show that altered FSIN intrinsic excitability robustly affects the coherence and frequency of network firing monotonically in the connected excitatory network...
February 13, 2019: Brain Research
Audrey Branch, Amy Monasterio, Grace Blair, James J Knierim, Michela Gallagher, Rebecca P Haberman
Similar to elderly humans, aged outbred Long-Evans rats exhibit individual differences in memory abilities, including a subset of aged rats that maintain memory function on par with young adults. Such individuals provide a basis for investigating mechanisms of resilience to age-related decline. The present study examined hippocampal gene expression in young adults and aged rats with preserved memory function under behavioral task conditions well established for assessing information processing central to the formation of episodic memory...
January 8, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
Elena Maria Boggio, Erich M Ehlert, Leonardo Lupori, Elizabeth B Moloney, Fred De Winter, Craig W Vander Kooi, Laura Baroncelli, Vasilis Mecollari, Bas Blits, James W Fawcett, Joost Verhaagen, Tommaso Pizzorusso
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are condensed structures in the extracellular matrix that mainly surround GABA-ergic parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the adult brain. Previous studies revealed a parallel between PNN formation and the closure of the critical period. Moreover, ocular dominance plasticity is enhanced in response to PNN manipulations in adult animals. However, the mechanisms through which perineuronal nets modulate plasticity are still poorly understood. Recent work indicated that perineuronal nets may convey molecular signals by binding and storing proteins with important roles in cellular communication...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Rashi Priya, Benjamin Rakela, Megumi Kaneko, Julien Spatazza, Philip Larimer, Mahmood S Hoseini, Andrea R Hasenstaub, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Michael P Stryker
The maturation of GABAergic inhibitory circuits is necessary for the onset of the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity in the postnatal visual cortex (Espinosa & Stryker, 2012; Hensch, 2005). When it is deficient, the critical period does not start. When inhibitory maturation or signaling is precocious, it induces a precocious critical period. Heterochronic transplantation of GABAergic interneuron precursors derived from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) can induce a second period of functional plasticity in the visual cortex (Southwell, 2010)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chunlian Wang, Baocong Yu, Meiyi Li, Chunjie Zhao, Steven Roper, Huanxin Chen
GIN (GFP-expressing inhibitory interneuron) transgenic mice are believed to express the enhanced GFP (eGFP) in a subset of somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons in the neocortex and have been widely used in the study on SST interneurons. Previous studies showed that eGFP+ neurons in the neocortex are distributed in the layer II-IV and upper layer V (cortical eGFP neurons) and contain SST. In this study, we reported a new group of eGFP+ neurons in GIN mice at early postnatal ages, which was located in the deep layer of the lateral neocortex as clusters (cluster eGFP neurons)...
January 29, 2019: Neuroscience
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Brendon O Watson, Kamran Diba
Neurons fire at highly variable intrinsic rates and recent evidence suggests that low- and high-firing rate neurons display different plasticity and dynamics. Furthermore, recent publications imply possibly differing rate-dependent effects in hippocampus versus neocortex, but those analyses were carried out separately and with potentially important differences. To more effectively synthesize these questions, we analyzed the firing rate dynamics of populations of neurons in both hippocampal CA1 and frontal cortex under one framework that avoids the pitfalls of previous analyses and accounts for regression to the mean (RTM)...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Raphaële Mongrédien, Amaia M Erdozain, Sylvie Dumas, Laura Cutando, Amaia Nuñez Del Moral, Emma Puighermanal, Sara Rezai Amin, Bruno Giros, Emmanuel Valjent, J Javier Meana, Sophie Gautron, Luis F Callado, Véronique Fabre, Vincent Vialou
Hevin, also known as SPARC-like 1, is a member of the secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine family of matricellular proteins, which has been implicated in neuronal migration and synaptogenesis during development. Unlike previously characterized matricellular proteins, hevin remains strongly expressed in the adult brain in both astrocytes and neurons, but its precise pattern of expression is unknown. The present study provides the first systematic description of hevin mRNA distribution in the adult mouse brain...
January 17, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
Yan Wang, Jing Yang, Zhanpeng Wang, Jinrui Chen, Qing Yang, Ziyu Lv, Ye Zhou, Yongbiao Zhai, Zongxiao Li, Su-Ting Han
It is desirable to imitate synaptic functionality to break through the memory wall in traditional von Neumann architecture. Modulating heterosynaptic plasticity between pre- and postneurons by another modulatory interneuron ensures the computing system to display more complicated functions. Optoelectronic devices facilitate the inspiration for high-performance artificial heterosynaptic systems. Nevertheless, the utilization of near-infrared (NIR) irradiation to act as a modulatory terminal for heterosynaptic plasticity emulation has not yet been realized...
January 17, 2019: Small
Zongqin Zhang, Xiaobao Ding, Zhiwei Zhou, Zhuang Qiu, Naihao Shi, Shasha Zhou, Lei Du, Xia Zhu, Yuqing Wu, Xiaoxing Yin, Chenghua Zhou
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the enhanced synaptic plasticity of nociceptive interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn is the basis of central sensitization in neuropathic pain. Our previous results demonstrate that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, alleviates neuropathic pain in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. SIRT1 has also been reported to regulate synaptic plasticity in different brain neurons. However, the role of SIRT1 in synaptic plasticity of spinal dorsal horn neurons remains unknown...
January 11, 2019: Pain
Adema Ribic, Michael C Crair, Thomas Biederer
Cortical plasticity peaks early in life and tapers in adulthood, as exemplified in the primary visual cortex (V1), wherein brief loss of vision in one eye reduces cortical responses to inputs from that eye during the critical period but not in adulthood. The synaptic locus of cortical plasticity and the cell-autonomous synaptic factors determining critical periods remain unclear. We here demonstrate that the immunoglobulin protein Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1/Cadm1) is regulated by visual experience and limits V1 plasticity...
January 8, 2019: Cell Reports
Eryn Slankster, Seth R Odell, Dennis Mathew
Most animals depend upon olfaction to find food, mates, and to avoid predators. An animal's olfactory circuit helps it sense its olfactory environment and generate critical behavioral responses. The general architecture of the olfactory circuit, which is conserved across species, is made up of a few different neuronal types including first-order receptor neurons, second- and third-order neurons, and local interneurons. Each neuronal type differs in their morphology, physiology, and neurochemistry. However, several recent studies have suggested that there is intrinsic diversity even among neurons of the same type and that this diversity is important for neural function...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Xiaofei Wei, Toshiya Nishi, Shinichi Kondou, Haruhide Kimura, Istvan Mody
24S-hydroxycholesterol (24HC) is the major metabolic breakdown product of cholesterol in the brain. Among its other effects on neurons, 24HC modulates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA or GluN) receptors, but our understanding of this mechanism is poor. We used whole-cell patch clamp recordings and various pharmacological approaches in mouse brain slices to record isolated NMDAR-mediated (INMDA ) tonic and evoked synaptic currents. 24HC (1 μΜ) significantly enhanced tonic, but not evoked, INMDA of dentate gyrus granule cells...
December 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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