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Dietary Fats

Shu-Hung Chang, Yi-Ya Chang, Li-Yu Wu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper was to examine the gender-specific lifestyles of adults with metabolic syndrome in the Taiwanese community. BACKGROUND: Many studies show different prevalence of metabolic syndrome in males and females, however few studies have investigated gender-specific lifestyle risk factors, which are important for effectively reducing prevalence. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, a total of 1066 individuals were recruited in northern Taiwan...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Nursing
S L Neoh, J A Grisoni, D S Feig, H R Murphy
AIM: To describe the dietary intakes of women with Type 1 diabetes before and during pregnancy. METHODS: This was a pre-specified subgroup analysis of CONCEPTT involving 63 women planning pregnancy and 93 pregnant women from 14 sites in England, Scotland and Ireland. Two hundred and forty-six 3-day food diaries (104 planning pregnancy, 142 pregnant) were matched to data source and food reference codes, and analysed using dietary software. Participants were informed that food diaries would be de-identified and used only for research purposes...
February 20, 2019: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Rosalind Fallaize, Rodrigo Zenun Franco, Jennifer Pasang, Faustina Hwang, Julie A Lovegrove
BACKGROUND: Nutrition-related apps are commonly used to provide information about the user's dietary intake, but limited research has been performed to assess how well their outputs agree with those from standard methods. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the level of agreement of popular nutrition-related apps for the assessment of energy and available macronutrients and micronutrients against a UK reference method. METHODS: We compared dietary analysis of 24-hour weighed food records (n=20) between 5 nutrition-related apps (Samsung Health, MyFitnessPal, FatSecret, Noom Coach, and Lose It!) and Dietplan6 (reference method), using app versions available in the United Kingdom...
February 20, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Carolina N Aroeira, Vivian Feddern, Vanessa Gressler, Luciano Molognoni, Heitor Daguer, Osmar A Dalla Costa, Gustavo J M M de Lima, Carmen J Contreras-Castillo
In many countries, ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) is allowed to be used in animal production as a β-agonist, which is an energy repartitioning agent able to offer economic benefits such as increased muscle and decreased fat deposition, feed conversion improvement and an increase in average daily weight gain. However, some countries have banned its use and established strict traceability programmes because of pharmacological implications of β-agonist residues in meat products. In Brazil, commercial RAC is controlled (5-20 mg kg-1 ) and only added to pig diet during the last 28 days before slaughter...
February 20, 2019: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xueying Ji, Feiye Zhou, Yuqing Zhang, Ruyuan Deng, Wan Xu, Mengyao Bai, Yun Liu, Li Shao, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou
Butyrate is a major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyrate is also a well-known broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Butyrate has been reported to improve energy metabolism in rodents, which is associated with its beneficial effects on skeletal muscle, brown fat tissue and pancreatic β-cells. The present study investigated the direct effect of butyrate on hepatic gluconeogenesis in mouse primary hepatocytes and the underlying mechanism...
March 2019: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Julie Kennel
Most Americans have an eating pattern inconsistent with the Dietary Guidelines, putting them at risk for obesity and chronic disease. Health and wellness coaching (HWC) for lifestyle behavior change is emerging as a potentially effective tool to prevent and treat chronic disease. A systematic literature review identified 11 randomized controlled trials studying the use of HWC for improving nutrition-related biomarkers and eating behaviors. These trials demonstrate efficacy of HWC across diverse populations and treatment modalities...
November 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Samuel Kimani, Waithira Mirie, Margaret Chege, Okubatsion Tekeste Okube, Samuel Muniu
OBJECTIVE: Association of lifestyle modification and pharmacological adherence among patients with hypertension attending a national referral hospital in Kenya. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional. SETTING: Medical wards and outpatient clinic of a national referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (n=229) diagnosed with primary hypertension for at least 6 months. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Clinical makers, cholesterol levels, anthropometrics, lifestyle/dietary habits adjusted for age, gender and education; antihypertensive adherence; views on prevention of hypertension and adequacy of hypertension information...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Open
Yi Wan, Fenglei Wang, Jihong Yuan, Jie Li, Dandan Jiang, Jingjing Zhang, Hao Li, Ruoyi Wang, Jun Tang, Tao Huang, Jusheng Zheng, Andrew J Sinclair, Jim Mann, Duo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diets differing in fat content alter the gut microbiota and faecal metabolomic profiles, and to determine their relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy adults whose diet is in a transition from a traditional low-fat diet to a diet high in fat and reduced in carbohydrate. METHODS: In a 6-month randomised controlled-feeding trial, 217 healthy young adults (aged 18-35 years; body mass index <28 kg/m2 ; 52% women) who completed the whole trial were included...
February 19, 2019: Gut
H J Chen, S Y Chuang, H Y Chang, W H Pan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study examined the association between macronutrient intake at different times of the day and blood lipid levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was based on the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, a cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized and non-pregnant healthy adults (≥19-years-old). A one-day (24 h) dietary recall assessed participants' food intake. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were determined...
January 14, 2019: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Frank R Dunshea, Kehinde Oluboyede, Kristy DiGiacomo, Brian J Leury, Jeremy J Cottrell
Betaine is an organic osmolyte sourced from sugar beet that accumulates in plant cells undergoing osmotic stress. Since the accumulation of betaine lowers the energy requirements of animals and, therefore, metabolic heat production, the aim of this experiment was to investigate if betaine supplementation improved milk yield in grazing dairy cows in summer. One hundred and eighteen Friesian × Holstein cows were paired on days in milk and, within each pair, randomly allocated to a containing treatment of either 0 or 2 g/kg natural betaine in their concentrate ration for approximately 3 weeks during February/March 2015 (summer in Australia)...
February 13, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Nijiati Abulizi, Candice Quin, Kirsty Brown, Yee Kwan Chan, Sandeep K Gill, Deanna L Gibson
The dynamics of the tripartite relationship between the host, gut bacteria and diet in the gut is relatively unknown. An imbalance between harmful and protective gut bacteria, termed dysbiosis, has been linked to many diseases and has most often been attributed to high-fat dietary intake. However, we recently clarified that the type of fat, not calories, were important in the development of murine colitis. To further understand the host-microbe dynamic in response to dietary lipids, we fed mice isocaloric high-fat diets containing either milk fat, corn oil or olive oil and performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the colon microbiome and mass spectrometry-based relative quantification of the colonic metaproteome...
February 16, 2019: Nutrients
Faegheh Zaefarian, Mohammad Reza Abdollahi, Aaron Cowieson, Velmurugu Ravindran
Despite having huge responsibilities in avian species, published reports on the influence of dietary factors and other possible constraints on the size, development and function of liver are limited. Consideration of the factors that could influence and alter liver function is therefore of critical relevance. In the current review, aspects of liver structure and function, and the influence of feed restriction, anti-nutritional factors, structural components and feed additives on liver are discussed. Effects of feed technology techniques such as thermal treatment and pelleting, feed particle size and whole grain feeding on the liver are also reviewed...
February 15, 2019: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Kristen E Syring, Travis J Cyphert, Thomas C Beck, Charles R Flynn, Nicholas A Mignemi, Owen P McGuinness
Bile acids are involved in the emulsification and absorption of dietary fats as well as acting as signaling molecules. Recently, bile acid signaling through farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor (TGR5) has been reported to elicit changes in not only bile acid synthesis but also metabolic processes including altering gluconeogenic gene expression and energy expenditure. A role for bile acids in glucose metabolism is also supported by a correlation between changes in the metabolic state of patients (i...
February 19, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos, Nilton Barreto Dos Santos, Cristoforo Scavone, Carolina Demarchi Munhoz
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the expression of an array of enzymes with important detoxifying and antioxidant functions. Current findings support the role of high levels of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Given the central role played by Nrf2 in counteracting oxidative damage, a number of studies have targeted the modulation of this transcription factor in order to confer neuroprotection. Nrf2 activity is tightly regulated by oxidative stress and energy-based stimuli...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Nuno Casanova, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Mark Hopkins
This review examines the metabolic adaptations that occur in response to negative energy balance and their potential putative or functional impact on appetite and food intake. Sustained negative energy balance will result in weight loss, with body composition changes similar for different dietary interventions if total energy and protein intake are equated. During periods of underfeeding, compensatory metabolic and behavioural responses occur that attenuate the prescribed energy deficit. While losses of metabolically active tissue during energy deficit result in reduced energy expenditure, an additional down-regulation in expenditure has been noted that cannot be explained by changes in body tissue (e...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Even Fjære, Lene Secher Myrmel, Ditte Olsen Lützhøft, Hanne Andersen, Jacob Bak Holm, Pia Kiilerich, Rita Hannisdal, Bjørn Liaset, Karsten Kristiansen, Lise Madsen
Low-fat diets and exercise are generally assumed to ameliorate obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, but the importance of exercise vs. dietary changes is debated. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet to induce obesity and then either maintained on the HF/HS or shifted to low-fat (LF) diets containing either salmon or entrecote. For each diet, half of the animals exercised voluntarily for 8 weeks. We determined body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic triacylglycerol levels...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Kari Neier, Elizabeth M Marchlewicz, Leah D Bedrosian, Dana C Dolinoy, Craig Harris
White adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in obesity pathophysiology. Redox signaling underlies several aspects of WAT physiology; however, the thiol redox environment of WAT has not yet been fully characterized. Dietary and endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposures during development can transiently impact the cellular redox environment, but it is unknown whether these exposures can reprogram the WAT thiol redox environment. To characterize the WAT thiol redox environment, we took a descriptive approach and measured thiol redox parameters using high-performance liquid chromatography in mouse mesenteric (mWAT), gonadal (gWAT) and subinguinal (sWAT) depots...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maribel Torres-Velázquez, Emily A Sawin, Jacqueline M Anderson, John-Paul J Yu
Alterations in gut microbiome populations via dietary manipulation have been shown to induce diet-dependent changes in white matter microstructure. The purpose of this study is to examine the durability of these diet-induced microstructural alterations. We implemented a crossover experimental design where post-weaned male rats were assigned to one of four experimental diets. Following the administration of experimental diets and again following crossover and resumption of a normal diet, brains were imaged ex-vivo with diffusion tensor imaging...
February 15, 2019: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Sparkle Springfield, Angela Odoms-Young, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Sally Freels, Melinda R Stolley
PURPOSE: Little is known about the dietary behaviors of African-American breast cancer survivors (AABCS). We sought to describe dietary intake and quality in AABCS and examine associations with demographic, social, lifestyle, and body composition factors to potentially inform the development of effective dietary interventions. METHODS: Baseline data from a prospective weight loss trial of 210 AABCS were assessed. A food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary intake and diet quality via the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010)...
February 18, 2019: Nutrition and Cancer
Yinzhao Zhong, Bo Song, Changbing Zheng, Fengna Li, Xiangfeng Kong, Yehui Duan, Jinping Deng
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effects and roles of excess leucine (Leu) versus its metabolites α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of growing pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two pigs with a similar initial weight (9.55 ± 0.19 kg) were fed one of the four diets (basal diet, L-Leu, KIC-Ca and HMB-Ca) for 45 days. Results indicated that dietary treatments did not affect the intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p > 0...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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