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Body dysmorphia

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30714795/body-oriented-gaze-behaviors-in-men-with-muscle-dysmorphia-diagnoses
#1
Manuel Waldorf, Silja Vocks, Rainer Düsing, Anika Bauer, Martin Cordes
Although muscle dysmorphia (MD) has been added as a specifier for body dysmorphic disorder in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, experimental research on psychopathological mechanisms is lacking. Because models of eating disorders (EDs) suggest parallels between MD and ED, body-oriented attentional biases, which are prominent in ED models, have been identified as potentially important maintaining factors. Specifically, we predicted the existence of biases toward subjectively negative areas of one's own body and positive areas of a bodybuilder in MD...
February 2019: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30667347/hearing-vs-engaging-in-negative-body-talk-an-examination-of-adult-men
#2
Linda Lin, Mark Flynn, Ashley Roberge
This study examined the negative body talk both engaged in and heard by adult men as separate constructs and how both constructs are related to men's body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia. Data were collected from 260 adult men on negative body talk both engaged in and heard, body fat dissatisfaction, muscle dissatisfaction, and muscle dysmorphia. Results indicated that the muscle talk that men engaged in acted as a mediator between the relationship between the body talk men heard and muscle dissatisfaction...
January 22, 2019: Eating Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30663786/fear-of-negative-evaluation-among-eating-disorders-examining-the-association-with-weight-shape-concerns-in-adolescence
#3
Nora Trompeter, Kay Bussey, Phillipa Hay, Scott Griffiths, Stuart B Murray, Jonathan Mond, Alexandra Lonergan, Kathleen M Pike, Deborah Mitchison
OBJECTIVE: Fear of negative evaluation has been proposed as a transdiagnostic factor associated with the development of eating disorders and has been shown to relate to disorders of body image, especially those with weight/shape concerns such as eating disorders and muscle dysmorphia. The current study aimed to investigate whether fear of negative evaluation was a transdiagnostic factor of disorders diagnostically characterized by weight/shape concerns. The study examined whether fear of negative evaluation was associated with higher odds for meeting criteria for an eating disorder and/or muscle dysmorphia, especially those disorders diagnostically characterized by weight/shape concerns...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30597384/psychosocial-factors-underlying-symptoms-of-muscle-dysmorphia-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-men
#4
Catherine Bégin, Olivier Turcotte, Christopher Rodrigue
Muscle dysmorphia is primarily characterized by an excessive preoccupation that one's body is not muscular or lean enough. Muscle dysmorphia has shown clinical similarities with eating disorders. The present study aims to explore the psychosocial factors underlying muscle dysmorphia symptoms by referring to Stice's dual pathway model (1994), a theoretical model of eating disorders. Three hundred and eighty-six men were recruited to complete an online survey including questionnaires assessing social pressures to reach a muscular body and internalization of the muscular body, drive for muscularity, muscular-enhancing behaviors, negative affect, narcissistic traits, and symptoms of muscle dysmorphia...
December 24, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30579858/body-dysmorphia-in-dentistry-and-prosthodontics-a-practice-based-study
#5
Carolina Pérez Rodríguez, Roy B Judge, David Castle, Andrea Phillipou
The prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and dysmorphic concern in dentistry and prosthodontics have not been properly assessed, yet the mouth and the teeth are amongst the top preoccupation for these individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of dysmorphic symptoms and BDD using validated tools in patients presenting to general and specialist prosthodontic practice. METHODS: Patients were recruited by two prosthodontics practices and three general dentist practices...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30444914/muscle-dysmorphic-disorder-inventory-mddi-validation-of-a-german-version-with-a-focus-on-gender
#6
Almut Zeeck, Viola Welter, Hasan Alatas, Tom Hildebrandt, Claas Lahmann, Armin Hartmann
Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a condition that is characterized by body image disturbance, a drive for muscularity and excessive exercising. It leads to considerable functional impairment. Most previous studies focused on male samples. The study aimed to validate a German version of the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) in order to make the instrument available in German speaking countries. We further aimed to explore for gender differences in the MDDI factors (measurement invariance) and to assess the relationship between MD and positive dimensions of body experience as well as exercise dependence...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30239802/the-health-threat-posed-by-the-hidden-epidemic-of-anabolic-steroid-use-and-body-image-disorders-among-young-men
#7
Anna L Goldman, Harrison G Pope, Shalender Bhasin
Context: The prevalence of body image disorders and anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is increasing, despite the evidence of their serious adverse health effects and despite the passage of laws regulating their sales. Here we review the evolution of the dual emerging epidemics of body image disorders and AAS use, adverse health effects of AAS, and the need for an integrated health policy and regulatory response to stem these epidemics. Evidence Acquisition: We searched for studies published in English language prior to June 2018...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30003837/is-there-any-relationship-between-body-image-perception-eating-disorders-and-muscle-dysmorphic-disorders-in-male-bodybuilders
#8
Aslı Devrim, Pelin Bilgic, Nobuko Hongu
Bodybuilding has increasingly become popular between males since male body shape has become a subject of interest in the last decades. Bodybuilders have desired to gain more muscle and paid attention to their body shape. Based on this purpose, they have string rules that include restrictive eating and excessive exercise program. Recent research has demonstrated that desiring more muscular body shape exhibits eating behavior problems and body dissatisfaction issues in bodybuilders. Limited research exists on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders in male bodybuilders...
September 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29891927/muscle-dysmorphia-and-its-associated-psychological-features-in-three-groups-of-recreational-athletes
#9
Silvia Cerea, Gioia Bottesi, Quirico F Pacelli, Antonio Paoli, Marta Ghisi
Muscle Dysmorphia (MD) is a psychological disorder characterized by the preoccupation with the idea that one's body is not lean and muscular. The current study aimed to explore MD behaviours and symptoms in three groups of recreational athletes: bodybuilders (BB; n = 42), strength athletes (SA; n = 61), and fitness practitioners (FP; n = 22). Furthermore, we assessed MD-related psychological features as well as possible psychological predictors of MD among groups. Results highlighted that the BB group reported more beliefs about being smaller and weaker than desired compared to the other groups, whereas individuals in the SA group reported setting higher standards for themselves than the FP group...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29616336/chubby-hands-or-little-fingers-sex-differences-in-hand-representation
#10
Lara A Coelho, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Disturbed body representation is a condition defined by the perception that one's body size is different from their anatomical size. While equal amounts of males and females suffer from disturbed body representation, there appear to be differences in the direction of this distortion. Females will typically overestimate, whereas males will typically underestimate body size. One part of the body that has been consistently misperceived is the hands. This misrepresentation consists of two distinct characteristics: an overestimation of hand width, and an underestimation of finger length...
April 3, 2018: Psychological Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29542171/psychosocial-correlates-of-gap-time-to-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use
#11
Patrycja Klimek, Tom Hildebrandt
OBJECTIVE: Theoretically, legal supplement use precedes and increases the risk for illicit appearance and performance enhancing drug (APED) use-also referred to as the gateway hypothesis. Little is known about associations between the speed of progression, or gap time, from legal to illicit APED use, and psychological risk factors, such as sociocultural influence, eating disorders, body image disturbance, and impulsivity. METHOD: The sample taken from two studies included 172 active steroid users (n = 143) and intense-exercising healthy controls (n = 29) between the ages of 18 and 60 (M = 34...
June 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29532269/correction-to-antecedents-of-emotional-distress-and-sexual-dissatisfaction-in-circumcised-men-previous-findings-and-future-directions-comment-on-bossio-and-pukall-2017
#12
Tim Hammond, Mark D Reiss
The term "body eudysmorphia" in the 6th paragraph of this Letter to the Editor incorrectly read "body dysmorphia" in the letter as originally published. The original article has been corrected.
July 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29473192/thinness-and-muscularity-internalization-associations-with-disordered-eating-and-muscle-dysmorphia-in-men
#13
Patrycja Klimek, Stuart B Murray, Tiffany Brown, Manuel Gonzales Iv, Aaron J Blashill
OBJECTIVE: The tripartite influence model of body image identifies internalization of societal body ideals as a risk factor for developing body dissatisfaction, and subsequent disordered eating behavior. In men, internalization of two dimensions of body image ideals, thinness and muscularity, is associated with body dissatisfaction and eating concerns. However, it is unknown how thinness and muscularity internalization interact in predicting muscle dysmorphia and disordered eating in men...
April 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29362698/attentional-biases-toward-body-images-in-males-at-high-risk-of-muscle-dysmorphia
#14
Xinhong Jin, Yahong Jin, Shi Zhou, Shun-Nan Yang, Shuzhi Chang, Hui Li
Objective: Although research on muscle dysmorphia (MD), a body dysmorphic disorder subtype, has recently increased, the causes and mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Results from studies examining disorders associated with body image suggest the involvement of self-schema in biasing attention toward specific body information. The present study examined whether individuals at higher risk of MD also display attentional biases toward specific types of body images. Methods: The validated Chinese version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale was used to distinguish men at higher and lower risk of MD...
2018: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29271781/screening-tool-to-determine-risk-of-having-muscle-dysmorphia-symptoms-in-men-who-engage-in-weight-training-at-a-gym
#15
Antonio Palazón-Bru, María M Rizo-Baeza, Asier Martínez-Segura, David M Folgado-de la Rosa, Vicente F Gil-Guillén, Ernesto Cortés-Castell
OBJECTIVE: Although 2 screening tests exist for having a high risk of muscle dysmorphia (MD) symptoms, they both require a long time to apply. Accordingly, we proposed the construction, validation, and implementation of such a test in a mobile application using easy-to-measure factors associated with MD. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Gyms in Alicante (Spain) during 2013 to 2014. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty-one men who engaged in weight training...
March 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29076380/body-size-and-shape-misperception-and-visual-adaptation-an-overview-of-an-emerging-research-paradigm
#16
REVIEW
Kirsten L Challinor, Jonathan Mond, Ian D Stephen, Deborah Mitchison, Richard J Stevenson, Phillipa Hay, Kevin R Brooks
Although body size and shape misperception (BSSM) is a common feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia, little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Recently, a new approach has emerged, based on the long-established non-invasive technique of perceptual adaptation, which allows for inferences about the structure of the neural apparatus responsible for alterations in visual appearance. Here, we describe several recent experimental examples of BSSM, wherein exposure to "extreme" body stimuli causes visual aftereffects of biased perception...
December 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28728801/-muscle-dysmorphia-and-use-of-ergogenics-substances-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Jaime García-Rodríguez, Georgina Alvarez-Rayón, Jaime Camacho-Ruíz, Adriana Amaya-Hernández, Juan Manuel Mancilla-Díaz
The use of ergogenic substances (UES) is not restricted to achieving a better athletic performance, but also it is a behavior for body changing through muscle development; however, little is known about the relationship between muscle dysmorphia (MD) and UES. Therefore, it was conducted a systematic review of those empirical papers that have studied this relationship over the last decade (2004-2014). First it is highlighted that of the 22 articles analyzed, only 13 explicitly aimed this interest. Besides, although the documented data outlined some relevant aspects such as the existence of a high co-occurrence (60-90%) between MD and UES...
July 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28686747/functional-analysis-of-the-zebrafish-ortholog-of-hmgcs1-reveals-independent-functions-for-cholesterol-and-isoprenoids-in-craniofacial-development
#18
Anita M Quintana, Jose A Hernandez, Cesar G Gonzalez
There are 8 different human syndromes caused by mutations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. A subset of these disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz disorder, are associated with facial dysmorphia. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such facial deficits are not fully understood, primarily because of the diverse functions associated with the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mutation of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCR results in orofacial clefts. Here we sought to expand upon these data, by deciphering the cholesterol dependent functions of the cholesterol synthesis pathway from the cholesterol independent functions...
2017: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28619103/effects-of-muscle-dysmorphia-social-comparisons-and-body-schema-priming-on-desire-for-social-interaction-an-experimental-approach
#19
Catharina Schneider, Maria Agthe, Takuya Yanagida, Martin Voracek, Kristina Hennig-Fast
BACKGROUND: Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It goes along with a risk for social withdrawal to maintain rigid exercise and dietary regimen. The aim of the current study was thus, to explore differences in men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia regarding their desire for social interaction. Furthermore, we investigated potential effects of individual social comparison tendencies (the tendency to compare oneself with persons who are perceived to be superior or inferior to oneself on a certain dimension) and of one's own body schema on the desire for social interaction...
June 15, 2017: BMC Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28541768/sex-differences-in-the-presentation-of-body-dysmorphic-disorder-in-a-community-sample-of-adolescents
#20
Sophie C Schneider, Jonathan Mond, Cynthia M Turner, Jennifer L Hudson
The current study sought to explore sex differences in the presentation of probable full-syndrome and subthreshold body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents from an Australian community sample. Specifically, it examined sex differences in the types of BDD symptoms endorsed, body areas of concern, and the association with elevated symptoms of comorbid disorders. In male participants, it also compared the presenting features of those with and without muscle dysmorphia. Of 3,149 adolescents assessed using self-report questionnaires, 162 (5...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
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