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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778730/distribution-of-neuropeptide-f-in-the-ventral-nerve-cord-and-its-possible-role-on-testicular-development-and-germ-cell-proliferation-in-the-giant-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-rosenbergii
#1
Sirorat Thongrod, Chaitip Wanichanon, Prasert Sobhon
Neuropeptide F in invertebrates is a homolog of neuropeptide Y in mammals and it is a member of FMRFamide-related peptides. In arthropods, such as insects, there are two types of neuropeptide F comprising long neuropeptide F (NPF) and short neuropeptide F (sNPF). Both NPFs are known to play a crucial role in the regulations of foraging, feeding-related behaviors, circadian rhythm, stress responses, aggression and reproduction in invertebrates. We have earlier found that in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, there are three isoforms of NPF and four isoforms of sNPF and that NPFs are expressed in the eyestalks and brain...
February 19, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30778089/variable-temperatures-across-different-stages-have-novel-effects-on-behavioral-response-and-population-viability-in-a-host-feeding-parasitoid
#2
Yi-Bo Zhang, Gui-Fen Zhang, Wan-Xue Liu, Fang-Hao Wan
Parasitoids are insects (usually wasps or flies) that lay eggs within or on other insects (their hosts). Host-feeding parasitoids lay eggs to parasitize the host and feed directly on the host for nourishment. Temperature is the most critical factor affecting insect behavioral responses. Few studies have focused on the impacts of variable temperatures across different life stages on the behaviors of host-feeding parasitoids. This study investigated the effects of temperature experienced during the preadult and adult stages on the life history traits and life table parameters of females of a host-feeding parasitoid, Eretmocerus hayati...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772376/recombinant-protein-purification-in-baculovirus-infected-rachiplusia-nu-larvae-an-approach-towards-a-rational-design-of-downstream-processing-strategies-based-on-chromatographic-behavior-of-proteins
#3
G J Mc Callum, M B Arregui, I Smith, L F Bracco, F Wolman, O Cascone, A M Targovnik, M V Miranda
Expression of recombinant proteins with baculovirus-infected insect larvae is a scarcely investigated alternative in comparison to that in insect cell lines, a system with growing popularity in the field of biotechnology. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromatographic behavior and physicochemical properties of the proteome of Rachiplusia nu larvae infected with recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), in order to design rational purification strategies for the expression of heterologous proteins in this very complex and little-known system, based on the differential absorption between target recombinant proteins and the system's contaminating ones...
February 14, 2019: Protein Expression and Purification
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770542/sublethal-effects-of-the-insecticide-pyrifluquinazon-on-the-european-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae
#4
James M Wilson, Troy D Anderson, Thomas P Kuhar
Pyrifluquinazon (PQZ) is an Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Group 9 insecticide that has recently been registered for use in the United States for control of soft-bodied sucking insect pests. Although it has been classified as practically nontoxic to honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), based on acute contact bioassays, additional information on sublethal effects of this insecticide on honey bees is lacking. Using a combination of laboratory assays with video movement tracking software and near-field evaluations of colonies foraging in a high-tunnel experiment, we determined that, when fed PQZ at a concentration of 84 mg active ingredient (ai)/liter (= ppm) in sugar water, a reduction in overall movement by the foraging worker bees was observed...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761167/an-integrated-system-for-the-automated-recording-and-analysis-of-insect-behavior-in-t-maze-arrays
#5
Maarten A Jongsma, Manus P M Thoen, Leo M Poleij, Gerrie L Wiegers, Paul W Goedhart, Marcel Dicke, Lucas P J J Noldus, Johannes W Kruisselbrink
Host-plant resistance to insects like thrips and aphids is a complex trait that is difficult to phenotype quickly and reliably. Here, we introduce novel hardware and software to facilitate insect choice assays and automate the acquisition and analysis of movement tracks. The hardware consists of an array of individual T-mazes allowing simultaneous release of up to 90 insect individuals from their individual cage below each T-maze with choice of two leaf disks under a video camera. Insect movement tracks are acquired with computer vision software (EthoVision) and analyzed with EthoAnalysis, a novel software package that allows for automated reporting of highly detailed behavior parameters and statistical analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760572/manipulation-of-aphid-behavior-by-a-persistent-plant-virus
#6
Maliheh Safari, Matthew J Ferrari, Marilyn J Roossinck
Plants are frequently infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses that persist for many generations through nearly 100% vertical transmission without producing any symptoms. Movement between plant cells and horizontal transmission has not been observed in these viruses; instead they are distributed to all host cells through host cell division. Jalapeño peppers ( Capsicum annuum ) are all infected with Pepper cryptic virus 1 (PCV 1, family Partitiviridae ). We compared the effect of odor cues from PCV 1 infected (J+) and virus free (J-) Jalapeño pepper on the aphid Myzus periscae , a common vector of acute plant viruses...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760565/dissecting-the-cell-entry-pathway-of-baculovirus-by-single-particle-tracking-and-quantitative-electron-microscopic-analysis
#7
Fujun Qin, Congrui Xu, Jia Hu, Chengfeng Lei, Zhenhua Zheng, Ke Peng, Hanzhong Wang, Xiulian Sun
The budded virus of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infects insect cells through mainly clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, the cell entry pathway of AcMNPV remains unclear. In this study, by using population-based analysis of single-virus tracking and electron microscopy, we investigated the internalization, fusion behavior and endocytic trafficking of AcMNPV. AcMNPV internalization into host insect cells was facilitated by actin polymerization and dynamin. After incorporation into early endosomes, AcMNPV envelope fused with the membranes of early endosome, allowing for nucleocapsid release into the cytoplasm...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759873/sickly-sweet-insecticidal-polyols-induce-lethal-regurgitation-in-dipteran-pests
#8
Francisco Díaz-Fleischer, José Arredondo, Rodrigo Lasa, Carlos Bonilla, Diana Debernardi, Diana Pérez-Staples, Trevor Williams
Polyols are commonly used in food and medicines as sweeteners and preservatives but may also have insecticidal properties against some species of Diptera. Here we compared the insecticidal activity and feeding response of glycerol and propylene glycol (PG) on two tephritids: Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua , and the drosophilid Drosophila suzukii . First, flies were exposed to solutions of 50% sucrose and the two polyols at concentrations of 1.67 M, 2.78 M and 4.18 M for 24 h and then observed at 24 h intervals for a period of three days...
February 12, 2019: Insects
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758657/unidirectional-grass-hairs-usher-insects-away-from-meristems
#9
Richard Karban, Eric LoPresti, Geerat J Vermeij, Robert Latta
Grasses are major agricultural products worldwide and they are critical to ecosystem function in many terrestrial habitats. Despite their global importance, we know relatively little about their defenses against herbivory. Grasses tend to be tolerant of leaf loss because their valuable meristems are located underground, out of reach for above ground herbivores. Many grasses have unidirectional leaf hairs, prickles, and spines that make moving up the leaf blade easy, but make moving down, toward the meristem, difficult...
February 13, 2019: Oecologia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756216/semiochemicals-mediating-defense-intraspecific-competition-and-mate-finding-in-leptopilina-ryukyuensis-and-l-japonica-hymenoptera-figitidae-parasitoids-of-drosophila
#10
Lea C Böttinger, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther, Johannes Stökl
Deciphering the processes driving the evolution of the diverse pheromone-mediated chemical communication system of insects is a fascinating and challenging task. Understanding how pheromones have arisen has been supported by studies with the model organism Leptopilina heterotoma, a parasitoid wasp whose defensive compound (-)-iridomyrmecin also evolved as a component of the female sex pheromone and as a cue to avoid competition with other females during host search. To understand how compounds can evolve from being non-communicative to having a communicative function and to shed light on the evolution of the multi-functional use of iridomyrmecin in the genus Leptopilina, the chemical communication of two additional species, L...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753639/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-neonicotinoid-insecticides-on-the-adults-of-phenacoccus-solenopsis-hemiptera-pseudococcidae-on-tomato-plants
#11
Muhammad Saad Waqas, Lixin Qian, Ali Ahmed Zaky Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem Saad Saad Elabasy, Zuhua Shi
Acetamiprid and imidacloprid are two important neonicotinoid insecticides that are widely utilized under field conditions for the management of sucking insect pests, including the solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Although some information is available regarding their lethal effects, nothing is currently known about the sublethal effects of these insecticides. We, therefore, performed a series of experiments to test the lethal and sublethal effects of these chemicals on oviposition duration and fecundity...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744970/the-long-and-short-of-hearing-in-the-mosquito-aedes-aegypti
#12
Gil Menda, Eyal I Nitzany, Paul S Shamble, Amelia Wells, Laura C Harrington, Ronald N Miles, Ronald R Hoy
Mating behavior in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes occurs mid-air and involves the exchange of auditory signals at close range (millimeters to centimeters) [1-6]. It is widely assumed that this intimate signaling distance reflects short-range auditory sensitivity of their antennal hearing organs to faint flight tones [7, 8]. To the contrary, we show here that male mosquitoes can hear the female's flight tone at surprisingly long distances-from several meters to up to 10 m-and that unrestrained, resting Ae. aegypti males leap off their perches and take flight when they hear female flight tones...
January 31, 2019: Current Biology: CB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744899/pymetrozine-activates-trpv-channels-of-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#13
Li-Xiang Wang, Chun-Dong Niu, Vincent L Salgado, Katherine Lelito, Lynn Stam, Ya-Long Jia, Yan Zhang, Cong-Fen Gao, Shun-Fan Wu
The commercial insecticide pymetrozine has been extensively used for brown planthopper control in East Asia. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel, which consists of two proteins, Nanchung (Nan) and Inactive (Iav), has recently been shown to be the molecular target of pymetrozine in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). In this study, we characterized the Nan and Iav TRPV channel subunits of N. lugens and measured the action of pymetrozine on them. NlNan and NlIav are structurally similar to homologs from other insects...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744898/jaburetox-a-natural-insecticide-derived-from-jack-bean-urease-activates-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-to-modulate-insect-behavior
#14
Douglas Silva Dos Santos, Ana Paula Zanatta, Anne Helene Souza Martinelli, Maria Eduarda Rosa, Raquel Soares de Oliveira, Paulo Marcos Pinto, Steve Peigneur, Jan Tytgat, Ian Orchard, Angela B Lange, Celia R Carlini, Cháriston A Dal Belo
Jaburetox (Jbtx) is an insecticidal peptide derived from Canavalia ensiformis urease, whose mechanism of action is not completely elucidated. We employed behavioral, electromyographical and electrophysiological protocols to identify the cellular and molecular targets involved in the Jbtx entomotoxicity in cockroaches and locusts. In Nauphoeta cinerea, Jbtx (32 μg/g) altered the locomotory behaviour inducing a significative decrease in the distance travelled followed by a significant increase in stopped time (52 ± 85 cm and 2573 ± 89 s, p < ...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734475/molecular-features-and-expression-profiles-of-octopamine-receptors-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#15
Shun-Fan Wu, Xiao-Min Jv, Jing-Mei Huang, Cong-Fen Gao
BACKGROUND: Octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of adrenaline and noradrenaline, regulates and modulates many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. It mediates its effects by binding to specific octopamine receptors, which belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). The expression profiles of octopamine receptor genes have been well documented in different developmental stages and multiple tissue types in several different insect orders. However, little work has addressed this issue in Hemiptera...
February 7, 2019: Pest Management Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30732808/comparison-of-the-physicochemical-rheological-and-morphologic-properties-of-chitosan-from-four-insects
#16
Qiang Luo, Ying Wang, Qianqian Han, Lisu Ji, Hongmei Zhang, Zhenghao Fei, Yanqing Wang
The present work aimed to compare the physicochemical, rheological, and morphologic properties of chitosan extracted from cicada slough, silkworm chrysalis, mealworm, grasshopper and shrimp shells. The physicochemical properties including solubility, fat binding capacity, water binding capacity, ash, viscosity average molecular weight and moisture content of them were determined. The characterization results showed that insect chitosan was quite different from shrimp shell chitosan including thermal stability, rheological characteristics and surface morphology...
April 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724419/weak-premating-isolation-between-clitarchus-stick-insect-species-despite-divergent-male-and-female-genital-morphology
#17
Shelley S Langton-Myers, Gregory I Holwell, Thomas R Buckley
Documenting natural hybrid systems builds our understanding of mate choice, reproductive isolation, and speciation. The stick insect species Clitarchus hookeri and C. tepaki differ in their genital morphology and hybridize along a narrow peninsula in northern New Zealand. We utilize three lines of evidence to understand the role of premating isolation and species boundaries: (1) genetic differentiation using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA; (2) variation in 3D surface topology of male claspers and 2D morphometrics of female opercular organs; and (3) behavioral reproductive isolation among parental and hybrid populations through mating crosses...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723482/impact-of-host-plant-species-and-whitefly-species-on-feeding-behavior-of-bemisia-tabaci
#18
Milan Milenovic, Everlyne Nafula Wosula, Carmelo Rapisarda, James Peter Legg
Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci species complex are economically important pests of cassava. In Africa, they cause greatest damage through vectoring viruses responsible for cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease. Several cryptic species from the B. tabaci complex colonize cassava and neighboring crops, but the feeding interactions between the different crops and B. tabaci species are unknown. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique makes it possible to conduct detailed feeding studies of sap-sucking insects by creating an electric circuit through the insect and the plant...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721756/micro-and-nanoscopic-observations-of-sexual-dimorphisms-in-mecynorhina-polyphemus-confluens-kraatz-1890-coleoptera-cetoniidae-goliathini-and-consequences-for-surface-wettability
#19
Olivier Montreuil, Christophe Candet, Alexandre Bonaccorso, Caroline R Szczepanski, François Orange, René-Paul Godeau, Frédéric Guittard, Thierry Darmanin, Guilhem Godeau
In the animal kingdom, macroscopic variations in size, color, and even hairiness are frequently observed between male and female, making the sex of various species easy to discern. In the case of insects, similar variances also exist. While direct observation is a quick and efficient way to differentiate between sexes, there are also variations which are unseen to the naked eye and occur on a micro- or nanoscopic scale. Sometimes, these micro/nanoscopic variations can lead to significant variations in surface properties as a function of sex...
February 2, 2019: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30720428/the-cuticular-hydrocarbon-profiles-of-honey-bee-workers-develop-via-a-socially-modulated-innate-process
#20
Cassondra L Vernier, Joshua J Krupp, Katelyn Marcus, Abraham Hefetz, Joel D Levine, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Large social insect colonies exhibit a remarkable ability for recognizing group members via colony-specific cuticular pheromonal signatures. Previous work suggested that in some ant species, colony-specific pheromonal profiles are generated through a mechanism involving the transfer and homogenization of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) across members of the colony. However, how colony-specific chemical profiles are generated in other social insect clades remains mostly unknown. Here we show that in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ), the colony-specific CHC profile completes its maturation in foragers via a sequence of stereotypic age-dependent quantitative and qualitative chemical transitions, which are driven by environmentally-sensitive intrinsic biosynthetic pathways...
February 5, 2019: ELife
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