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Obesity AND Child*

Laetitia Lebihan, Charles-Olivier Mao Takongmo
In this study, we evaluate the impact of unconditional family cash transfers on the body mass index (BMI) and obesity of parents. Our approach is based on the implementation of the Universal Child Care Benefit in 2006 for all children in Canada under 6 years of age. We show that the reform caused decreases in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in mothers with young children. We also report larger changes at the upper tail of the distribution of BMI in both lower-educated mothers and single mothers...
February 7, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Marie-Claude Pelland-Marcotte, Catherine Tucker, Alicia Klaassen, Maria Laura Avila, Ali Amid, Nour Amiri, Suzan Williams, Jacqueline Halton, Leonardo R Brandão
BACKGROUND: Little is known about severe pulmonary embolism in children. We aimed to report pulmonary embolism outcomes, identify risk factors for unfavourable outcomes, and evaluate the discriminative ability of two clinical-severity indices in children. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included consecutive patients aged 18 years or younger with acute pulmonary embolism, objectively diagnosed radiologically or pathologically, between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2016, from two Canadian paediatric hospitals (The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON)...
February 13, 2019: Lancet Haematology
José L Yáñez-Ortega, Esther Arrieta-Cerdán, José E Lozano-Alonso, Milagros Gil Costa, Ana M Gutiérrez-Araus, José A Cordero-Guevara, Tomás Vega Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Several studies warn that overweight and obesity have become an epidemic with severe consequences in the population's health. The objetive of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Castile and Leon in a sample of children at 6, 11 and 14 years of age, to describe its evolution and its association with life habits and antecedents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study, retrospective cohort, performed by the pediatricians of the Health Sentinel Network...
February 13, 2019: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Pamela Ann Koch, Isobel R Contento, Heewon L Gray, Marissa Burgermaster, Lorraine Bandelli, Emily Abrams, Jennifer Di Noia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Food, Health, & Choices, two 10-month interventions. DESIGN: Cluster-randomized, controlled study with 4 groups: curriculum, wellness, curriculum plus wellness, and control. SETTING: Twenty elementary schools (5/group) in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: Fifth-grade students (n = 1,159). At baseline, 44.6% were at the ≥85th body mass index (BMI) percentile for age and 86% qualified for free or reduced-price lunch...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Lise G Bjerregaard, Kasper Adelborg, Jennifer L Baker
Childhood obesity adversely affects the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, but the relationship between excessive weight gain during childhood and adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not fully understood. This review summarizes evidence for associations of change in body mass index (BMI) from childhood onwards with CVD outcomes. We found that excessive gain in BMI from childhood onwards was consistently associated with the presence of CVD risk factors, with increased risks of coronary heart disease, and there were suggestions of associations with stroke, atrial fibrillation and heart failure, but a lack of evidence precludes firm conclusions...
February 5, 2019: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
A Sallis, L Porter, K Tan, R Howard, L Brown, A Jones, L Ells, A Adamson, R Taylor, I Vlaev, T Chadborn
This single-blind, pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial aims to investigate uptake of children's weight management services in response to enhanced National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) letters providing weight status feedback to parents in three English counties in 2015. Parents of 2642 overweight or very overweight (obese) children aged 10-11 years received an intervention or control letter informing them of their child's weight status. Intervention letters included (i) a visual tool to help weight status recognition, (ii) a social norms statement, and for very overweight children, (iii) a prepopulated booking form for weight management services...
February 13, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Catherine G Russell, Alan Russell
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in many countries. There is consensus that both biological (especially genetic) and environmental (including psychosocial) factors contribute to weight gain and obesity in childhood. Research has identified extensive risk or predictive factors for childhood obesity from both of these domains. There is less consensus about the developmental processes or pathways showing how these risk factors lead to overweigh/obesity (OW/OB) in childhood. We outline a biopsychosocial process model of the development of OW/OB in childhood...
February 15, 2019: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Trina L Gipson-Jones, LaToya J OʼNeal, Jylana L Sheats, Roland J Thorpe, Bettina M Beech, Marino A Bruce
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between food security, parental health behaviors, and overweight/obesity among 2- to 5-year-old children in West Tennessee (N = 264). Results from logistic regression models indicate that the association between parental characteristics and child weight status varies by child sex and household food security. These findings highlight the need for more nuanced analysis that can produce results that inform and shape the development of precise health promotion and intervention strategies designed for diverse low-resource populations...
April 2019: Family & Community Health
C Copperstone, G McNeill, L Aucott, D M Jackson
Background Excessive sugar consumption remains implicated as one of the key dietary factors that has been linked to overweight and obesity in children. Schools have been identified as an important setting for health promotion interventions in children and can be successful in bringing about dietary behavioral change when well designed. Objective The main aim of the study was to conduct a pilot intervention study and assess the possible effects of educational and environmental methodological components on sugar intake and water consumption in Maltese school children...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children exposed to a greater variety of acts of parent-to-child physical and psychological maltreatment will be at greater risk of consuming obesogenic foods at a higher frequency. DESIGN: Survey research using a longitudinal panel design. SETTING: In-home interviews with primary caregivers in twenty large US cities.ParticipantsA national sample of at-risk children and their families who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS)...
February 15, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Zheng Zhu, Yan Tang, Jie Zhuang, Yang Liu, Xueping Wu, Yujun Cai, Lijuan Wang, Zhen-Bo Cao, Peijie Chen
BACKGROUND: With increases in inactive lifestyles and mounting pressure for academic excellence in Chinese younger populations, lack of physical activity and increased prevalence of obesity have become a major public health concern in China. The purpose of this study is to provide updated estimates on the prevalence of meeting moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen viewing time guidelines, and overweight and obesity among Chinese school-aged children and adolescents, with a secondary aim examining variations in prevalence by sex, grade groupings, and residential location...
February 15, 2019: BMC Public Health
C B Hayes, M P O'Shea, C Foley-Nolan, M McCarthy, J M Harrington
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the implementation of school based diet and physical activity interventions with respect to the barriers and facilitators to adoption, implementation and sustainability; supportive actions required for implementation and recommendations to overcome identified barriers. Two interventions rolled out nationally in Ireland were chosen; Food Dudes, a programme to encourage primary school children to consume more fruit and vegetables and Green Schools Travel (GST), an active travel to school programme in primary and secondary schools...
February 15, 2019: BMC Public Health
Janella Melius, Daheia J Barr-Anderson, Orekoya Olubumni
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the social work profession's empirical contribution to addressing factors influencing overweight and obesity outcomes among racial-ethnic minority populations in the United States. The high prevalence of obesity in U.S. adults and children, particularly in racial/ethnic minority populations, continues to be an important public health issue. The *African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN) Expanded Obesity Research Paradigm was used to assess the studies...
February 15, 2019: Social Work in Public Health
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, K M Prathibha
Introduction: A bidirectional relationship between testosterone and obesity is explained by the hypogonadal obesity cycle and evidence from reports stating that weight loss leads to increased testosterone levels. There is an alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents. The objectives of the present study were to measure the 2D:4D ratio of adolescent students and study its association with neck circumference (NC). Materials and Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance, the study was conducted on 168 adolescents pursuing their undergraduate education in a South Indian university...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Fan He, Arthur Berg, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Edward O Bixler, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Eric A Whitsel, Duanping Liao
Childhood obesity remains an epidemic in the U.S. and worldwide. However, little is understood regarding the epigenetic basis of obesity in adolescents. To investigate the cross-sectional association between DNA methylation level in obesity-related genes and body mass index (BMI) percentile, data from 263 adolescents in the population-based Penn State Child Cohort follow-up exam was analysed. Using DNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes, epigenome-wide single nucleotide resolution of DNA methylation in cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and surrounding regions was obtained...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jerica M Berge, Susan Telke, Allan Tate, Amanda Trofholz
OBJECTIVE: To describe a direct observational approach (ie, interactive family board game) to measure family functioning and parenting behaviors of relevance to child weight and weight-related behaviors and to examine family functioning and parenting factors from multiple family dyads (eg, siblings, parent-child) and their associations with child weight and weight-related behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, mixed-methods study. SETTING: Two home visits were conducted with families 10 days apart with a 7-day observational period between home visits...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Lauren N Tobey, Christine Mouzong, Joyce Senior Angulo, Sally Bowman, Melinda M Manore
We describe a 5-year (2011⁻2015) qualitative evaluation to refine the content/delivery of the Food Hero social marketing campaign recipes to low-income mothers. Objectives were to: (1) identify characteristics looked for in recipes; (2) determine recipe sources; (3) understand motivation for seeking new recipes and recipe adaptations; and (4) identify recipe website characteristics users valued. Nine focus groups ( n = 55) were conducted in Portland, Oregon. Participants (35⁻52 years) were primary caregivers for ≥ one child, the primary household food shoppers/preparers, enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and able to speak/read English...
February 5, 2019: Nutrients
Sonali Bose, Gregory B Diette, Han Woo, Kirsten Koehler, Karina Romero, Ana M Rule, Barbara Detrick, Emily Brigham, Meredith C McCormack, Nadia N Hansel
BACKGROUND: Indoor fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5 ) is linked to asthma morbidity; however, whether vitamin D status influences individual susceptibility to airborne exposures is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine if vitamin D modifies effects of indoor PM2.5 upon asthma symptoms in urban children. METHODS: 120 children aged 5-12 years with physician-diagnosed asthma were evaluated at baseline and every 3 months for 9 months...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Sarah Wakefield, Manish Aligeti, Vivekananda Rachamallu, Regina Baronia, Ram Aynampudi, Ankit Parmar, Phyllis Peterson, Kanak Masodkar
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drug use in children has doubled from 2001 to 2007 with concomitant increase in obesity. Second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication use is associated with weight gain, metabolic derangements, and blood sugar and lipid abnormalities in children. The American Psychiatric Association and the American Diabetes Association have recommended metabolic monitoring guidelines for patients using SGA. STUDY QUESTION: The study objective was to investigate and compare metabolic monitoring for SGA medications in psychiatry (PSY), and pediatrics and family medicine [primary care providers (PCP)] outpatient clinics of a university medical center...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Therapeutics
Lorraine M McKelvey, Jennifer E Saccente, Taren M Swindle
BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on adult weight and health. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs in infancy and toddlerhood and obesity and related health indicators in middle childhood. METHODS: We used data collected from a sample of low-income families enrolled in the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHS). Data come from 1335 demographically diverse families collected at or near children's ages 1, 2, 3, and 11...
February 14, 2019: Childhood Obesity
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