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Solar water oxidation

Jacob A Spies, Ethan A Perets, Katherine J Fisher, Benjamin Rudshteyn, Victor S Batista, Gary W Brudvig, Charles A Schmuttenmaer
As the challenges in science increase in scope and interdisciplinarity, collaboration becomes increasingly important. Our groups have maintained close collaborations for solar fuels research over the past decade. Based on this experience, we discuss strategies for collaboration between experiment and theory including facilitation of effective communication and navigation of problems that arise. These strategies are illustrated by case studies of collaborative efforts in solar fuels research pertaining to interfacial electron transfer in dye-sensitized metal oxides and the design and mechanism of water-oxidation catalysts...
March 14, 2019: Chemical Society Reviews
Liyuan Zhao, Peisen Wang, Jing Tian, Jihui Wang, Lin Li, Longquan Xu, Yi Wang, Xu Fei, Yao Li
This paper reports a facile approach to synthesize a novel composite hydrogel with graphene oxide (GO), silica aerogel (SA), acrylamide (AM), and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) through physical and chemical cross-linking method. The composite hydrogel (GO/SA PAM-PVA hydrogel) exhibits excellent solar evaporation property, good water transmission capacity, and floatability. The GO nanosheets dispersed homogeneously in the hydrogel could provide prominent photothermal conversion efficiency to heat water for evaporation...
February 27, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Josep Albero, Diego Mateo, Hermenegildo García
Photocatalysis has been proposed as one of the most promising approaches for solar fuel production. Among the photocatalysts studied for water splitting, graphene and related materials have recently emerged as attractive candidates due to their striking properties and sustainable production when obtained from biomass wastes. In most of the cases reported so far, graphene has been typically used as additive to enhance its photocatalytic activity of semiconductor materials as consequence of the improved charge separation and visible light harvesting...
March 5, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aveek Dutta, Alberto Naldoni, Francesco Malara, Alexander O Govorov, Vladimir M Shalaev, Alexandra Boltasseva
Hydrogen is a promising alternative renewable fuel for meeting the growing energy demands of the world. Over the past few decades, photoelectrochemical water splitting has been widely studied as a viable technology for the production of hydrogen utilizing solar energy. A solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 10% is considered to be sufficient for practical applications. Amongst the wide class of semiconductors that have been studied for their application in solar water splitting, iron oxide (α-Fe2O3), or hematite, is one of the more promising candidate materials, with a theoretical STH efficiency of 15%...
March 1, 2019: Faraday Discussions
B Sulzberger, A T Austin, R M Cory, R G Zepp, N D Paul
Global change influences biogeochemical cycles within and between environmental compartments (i.e., the cryosphere, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and the atmosphere). A major effect of global change on carbon cycling is altered exposure of natural organic matter (NOM) to solar radiation, particularly solar UV radiation. In terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, NOM is degraded by UV and visible radiation, resulting in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide, as well as a range of products that can be more easily degraded by microbes (photofacilitation)...
February 27, 2019: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Zaki Zahran, Yuta Tsubonouchi, Eman Mohamed, Masayuki Yagi
Catalytic water oxidation represents the bottleneck for developing artificial photosynthetic systems that store solar energy as renewable fuels. A variety of molecular water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) were reported over the last two decades. In view of their applications to artificial photosynthetic devices, it is essential to immobilize molecular catalysts onto surfaces of conducting/semiconducting supports for fabricating efficient and stable water oxidation anodes/photoanodes. Molecular WOC based- anodes are essential for developing the photovoltaic (PV) type of artificial photosynthetic devices and, otherwise, the performance of molecular WOC on anodes will provide important insight into designing the extended molecular WOC-based photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation...
February 21, 2019: ChemSusChem
Jin Hyun Kim, Jae Sung Lee
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for solar-energy conversion have received immense interest as a promising technology for renewable hydrogen production. Their similarity to natural photosynthesis, utilizing sunlight and water, has provoked intense research for over half a century. Among many potential photocatalysts, BiVO4 , with a bandgap of 2.4-2.5 eV, has emerged as a highly promising photoanode material with a good chemical stability, environmental inertness, and low cost. Unfortunately, its charge transport properties are modest, at most a hole diffusion length (Lp ) of ≈70 nm...
February 21, 2019: Advanced Materials
Wei Wang, Meigui Xu, Xiaomin Xu, Wei Zhou, Zongping Shao
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting is an attractive strategy for the large-scale production of renewable hydrogen from water. Developing cost-effective, active and stable semiconducting photoelectrodes is extremely important for achieving PEC water splitting with high solar-to-hydrogen efficiency. Perovskite oxides as a large family of semiconducting metal oxides are extensively investigated as electrodes in PEC water splitting owing to their abundance, high (photo)electrochemical stability, compositional and structural flexibility allowing the achievement of high electrocatalytic activity, superior sunlight absorption capability and precise control and tuning of band gaps and band edges...
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Andrzej Parzonko, Anna K Kiss
BACKGROUND: Among solar radiation, ultraviolet light is the most harmful for the skin, because of intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, leading to oxidative stress, cell damage and apoptosis. Crucial role in skin protection against oxidative stress play antioxidant enzymes regulated by Nrf2 transcription factor. Some plant-derived polyphenols are known to protect skin fibroblasts against UV through induction of Nrf2-dependent antioxidant genes expression. PURPOSE: We previously found out that water extracts from Galinsoga sp...
December 17, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Lili Zhang, Andrey S Vasenko, Jin Zhao, Oleg V Prezhdo
An attractive two-dimensional semiconductor with tunable direct bandgap and high carrier mobility, black phosphorus (BP) is used in batteries, solar cells, photocatalysis, plasmonics and optoelectronics. BP is sensitive to ambient conditions, with oxygen playing a critical role in structure degradation. Our simulations show that BP oxidation slows down charge recombination. This is unexpected, since typically charges are trapped and lost on defects. First, BP has no ionic character. It interacts with oxygen and water weakly, experiencing little perturbation to electronic structure...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Paula Perez-Rodriguez, Carlos Maqueira Gonzalez, Yasmina Bennani, Luuk C Rietveld, Miro Zeman, Arno H M Smets
Currently available (photo-)electrochemical technologies for water treatment establish a trade-off between low-pollutant concentration and costs. This paper aims at decoupling these two variables by designing a photo-oxidation device using earth abundant materials and an electronic-free approach. The proposed device combines a graphite/graphite electrochemical system with a silicon-based solar cell that provides the necessary electrical power. First, the optimum operational voltage for the graphite/graphite electrochemical system was found to be around 1...
October 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Yuanxing Fang, Xiaochun Li, Xinchen Wang
Overcoming the sluggish kinetics of the water oxidation is the key to lead a high performance for solar water splitting. Herein, we find that phosphorylated polymeric carbon nitride (PCN) photoanodes present enhanced photocurrent density for solar water splitting, and the photocatalytic efficiency is achieved 120 µA/cm2 in basic solution (1.0 M NaOH) without scarifice agent. In this sytem, phosphates ionically anchor on the surface of PCN, and the modified films show significantly increased density of valance electrons, and thus promoting photoelectrocatalytic efficiency...
February 18, 2019: ChemSusChem
Kristian E Dalle, Julien Warnan, Jane J Leung, Bertrand Reuillard, Isabell S Karmel, Erwin Reisner
The synthesis of renewable fuels from abundant water or the greenhouse gas CO2 is a major step toward creating sustainable and scalable energy storage technologies. In the last few decades, much attention has focused on the development of nonprecious metal-based catalysts and, in more recent years, their integration in solid-state support materials and devices that operate in water. This review surveys the literature on 3d metal-based molecular catalysts and focuses on their immobilization on heterogeneous solid-state supports for electro-, photo-, and photoelectrocatalytic synthesis of fuels in aqueous media...
February 15, 2019: Chemical Reviews
Haiqing Wang, Huiling Liu, Yanchen Ji, Ruiqi Yang, Zengfu Zhang, Xun Wang, Hong Liu
A general method was elaborately developed for the synthesis of pit-rich metal oxide (TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2) nanocrystals with metallocene dichlorides as precursors. Benefiting from the synergies in numerous pits, Schottky junctions and nitrogen doping, the hybrid nanostructures of pit-rich TiO2 nanocrystals with Ru loading and N doping exhibited enhanced solar water splitting.
February 13, 2019: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Sanghyun Bae, Hyunwoo Kim, Dasom Jeon, Jungki Ryu
We studied the kinetics of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation using a model photoanode BiVO4 modified with various water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In particular, we prepared BiVO4 photoanodes with catalytic multilayers (CMs), where cationic polyelectrolytes and anionic polyoxometalate (POM) WOCs were assembled in a desired amount at a nanoscale precision, and compared their performance with those with well-known WOCs such as cobalt phosphate (CoPi) and NiOOH...
February 13, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bingqing Zhang, Lihue He, Tingting Yao, Wenjun Fan, Xiangtian Zhang, Sheng Wen, Jingying Shi, Can Li
The photoelectrochemical (PEC) method offers an alternative approach to photovoltaic devices for solar electricity generation. The water oxidation reaction (WOR) on the anode and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode is an ideal design for energy transfer owing to their superiority in terms of cleanliness, eco-friendliness, and natural abundance. However, solar electricity production based on O2 circulation by a fuel-free PEC cell is very challenging because it is extremely hard to extract electrons from water molecules owing to the uphill and sluggish WOR together with enormous overpotential for the cathodic ORR...
February 12, 2019: ChemSusChem
Xuesong Zhao, Yingying You, Shaobin Huang, Fangqin Cheng, Pengfei Chen, Han Li, Yongqing Zhang
As a carcinogenic byproduct in drinking water treatment, bromate has raised global concerns on environmental and health hazard, calling for effective treatments. In the current work, a novel reduced graphene oxide supported polyaniline/WO2.72 nanobelt-flower (RGO/PANI/WO2.72 ) ternary composite was prepared through a solvent volatilization method for photocatalytic reduction of bromate. The prepared sample was characterized, and the influence of aqueous pH, ions and dissolved oxygen on the bromate reduction was explored...
February 2, 2019: Chemosphere
Jan F Miethe, Anja Schlosser, J Gerrit Eckert, Franziska Lübkemann, Nadja C Bigall
One of the most significant objectives in the field of nanotechnology is the transfer of specific properties of smaller nanoparticle building blocks into larger units. In this way, nanoscopic properties can be linked to the macroscopic addressability of larger systems. Such systems might find applications in fields like photoelectrochemical sensing or solar energy harvesting. Our work reports on the novel synthesis of hybrid semiconductor/polymer fibres, which are based on stacks of 4 monolayer (ML) thick CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs) encapsulated into a polymer shell...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Materials Chemistry. C, Materials for Optical and Electronic Devices
Praveen Kumar, Meitram Niraj Luwang
Graphite Oxide (multi-layer) composite with other materials has a huge application in various field of science, due to its excellent and unique properties. Even though from past decade, immense research has been done by materials scientists in this field, but the chemistry is still not yet satisfactory. Here, in this work, through the discovery of Nanogate structure, we have reported for the first time the experimental results that enlightened the clear chemistry between the GO and ZnS which is further supported by the DFT calculations...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Dmitry Shevela, Gennady Ananyev, Ann Kristin Vatland, Janine Arnold, Fikret Mamedov, Lutz A Eichacker, G Charles Dismukes, Johannes Messinger
High solar flux is known to diminish photosynthetic growth rates, reducing biomass productivity and lowering disease tolerance. Photosystem II (PSII) of plants is susceptible to photodamage (also known as photoinactivation) in strong light, resulting in severe loss of water oxidation capacity and destruction of the water-oxidizing complex (WOC). The repair of damaged PSIIs comes at a high energy cost and requires de novo biosynthesis of damaged PSII subunits, reassembly of the WOC inorganic cofactors and membrane remodelling...
January 28, 2019: Physiologia Plantarum
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