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Cancer therapy response monitoring

Ying Wang, Jun Liu, Xiaowei Ma, Chao Cui, Philip R Deenik, Paul K P Henderson, Ashton L Sigler, Lina Cui
Detection of cellular senescence is important not only in the study of senescence in various biological systems, but also in various practical applications such as image-guided surgical removal of senescent cells, as well as the monitoring of drug-responsiveness during cancer therapies. Due to the lack of suitable imaging probes for senescence detection, particularly in living subjects, we have developed an activatable near-infrared (NIR) molecular probe with far-red excitation, NIR emission, and high "turn-on" ratio upon senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SABG) activation...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Daniel Worroll, Giuseppe Galletti, Ada Gjyrezi, David Nanus, Scott T Tagawa, Paraskevi Giannakakou
Androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives prostate cancer (PC) progression and remains active upon transition to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Active AR signaling is achieved through the nuclear accumulation of AR following ligand binding and through expression of ligand-independent, constitutively active AR splice variants, such as AR-V7, which is the most commonly expressed variant in metastatic CRPC patients. Most currently approved PC therapies aim to abrogate AR signaling and activity by inhibiting this ligand-mediated nuclear translocation...
February 14, 2019: Physical Biology
Jaxon J Vallely, Kathryn E Hudson, Susan C Locke, Steven P Wolf, Gregory P Samsa, Amy P Abernethy, Thomas W LeBlanc
PURPOSE: Pruritus is a common symptom in cutaneous malignancies, but its impact on patients with solid tumors is unclear. We explored the impact and management of pruritus in patients with solid tumors, using patient-reported outcomes (PRO) data from a real-world registry. METHODS: From 2006 to 2011, patients seen in the Duke Cancer Institute reported their symptoms via the Patient Care Monitor v2.0, a validated PRO tool that includes a 0-10-point question about pruritus severity...
February 14, 2019: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Callum P Rakhit, Ricky M Trigg, John Le Quesne, Michael Kelly, Jacqueline A Shaw, Catrin Pritchard, L Miguel Martins
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Two-thirds of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage that is refractory to curative treatment. Therefore, strategies for the early detection of lung cancer are urgently sought. Total circulating free DNA (cfDNA) and tumour-derived circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) are emerging as important biomarkers within a 'liquid biopsy' for monitoring human disease progression and response to therapy. Owing to the late clinical diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma, the potential for cfDNA and ctDNA as early detection biomarkers remains unexplored...
February 12, 2019: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Sri Murugan Poongkavithai Vadevoo, Smriti Gurung, Fatima Khan, Md Enamul Haque, Gowri Rangaswamy Gunassekaran, Lianhua Chi, Uttapol Permpoon, Byungheon Lee
Peptides have advantages over antibodies in terms of deep tissue penetration, low immunogenicity, and cost-effective production, but they have short circulation time and poor stability in vivo. Peptides have been extensively used as targeting moieties for the delivery of drug-loaded nanoparticles and function as targeted therapeutics in cancer treatment. Here, we review peptides that are exploited as targeted therapeutics in cancer therapy and apoptosis imaging probes for the monitoring of treatment responses...
February 12, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Liza Lindenberg, Esther Mena, Peter L Choyke, Kirsten Bouchelouche
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, over 400 000 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed and over 175 000 deaths anticipated in 2018. It is ranked as the 14th most common cancer in women and 9th most common in men. Imaging is important for initial detection, staging, and monitoring to assist treatment planning, but conventional anatomic imaging is limited. Although functional PET/CT has proven helpful in the diagnosis and management of many cancers, its value in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still in evolution...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Duojiao Wu, Yunfeng Cheng, Xiangdong Wang
Clinical tests of gene sequence, structure, and function are to predict, diagnose, monitor, and prognose human disease-specific phenomes, characters severities, durations, stages, and responses to therapy. The concept and content of gene tests for clinical application mainly include chromosome/chromatins, DNA, and RNA. Structures and functions of chromosomes and chromatins vary among various durations, phases, and conditions, with the priority consideration in clinical gene tests. Sequences and functions of DNA and associated regulators are an important partial of clinical gene test...
February 11, 2019: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Pei Liu, Jinghua Ren, Yuxuan Xiong, Zhe Yang, Wei Zhu, Qianyuan He, Zushun Xu, Wenshan He, Jing Wang
Mitochondria, which are a major source of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and apoptosis regulators, are the key organelles that promote tumor cell proliferation, and their dysfunction affects tumor cell behavior. Additionally, mitochondria have been shown to play a central role in the biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is a widely used photosensitizer that has been used for tumor detection, monitoring and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, photosensitizers administrated exogenously are often restricted by limited bioavailability...
February 2, 2019: Biomaterials
Alessia Cimadamore, Silvia Gasparrini, Francesco Massari, Matteo Santoni, Liang Cheng, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Marina Scarpelli, Rodolfo Montironi
Liquid biopsy, based on the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free nucleic acids has potential applications at multiple points throughout the natural course of cancer, from diagnosis to follow-up. The advantages of doing ctDNA assessment vs. tissue-based genomic profile are the minimal procedural risk, the possibility to serial testing in order to monitor disease-relapse and response to therapy over time and to reduce hospitalization costs during the entire process. However, some critical issues related to ctDNA assays should be taken into consideration...
February 7, 2019: Cancers
M Lasalvia, G Perna, P Pisciotta, F P Cammarata, L Manti, V Capozzi
Among different radiotherapy techniques, proton irradiation is an established and effective method for treatment of several types of cancer, because less healthy tissue is exposed with respect to conventional radiotherapy by photons/electrons. Recently, proton therapy has been proposed for the treatment of breast cancer. In vitro studies of proton irradiated normal human breast cells can provide information about cellular radioresponse, particularly as far as healthy tissue is concerned. In this paper, a study of the effects at different time points, following proton irradiation at different doses, of human normal MCF10A breast cells is performed by Raman spectroscopy...
February 8, 2019: Analyst
Anja van de Stolpe, Laurent Holtzer, Henk van Ooijen, Marcia Alves de Inda, Wim Verhaegh
Signal transduction pathways are important in physiology and pathophysiology. Targeted drugs aim at modifying pathogenic pathway activity, e.g., in cancer. Optimal treatment choice requires assays to measure pathway activity in individual patient tissue or cell samples. We developed a method enabling quantitative measurement of functional pathway activity based on Bayesian computational model inference of pathway activity from measurements of mRNA levels of target genes of the pathway-associated transcription factor...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Benoist Chibaudel, Jean-Baptiste Bachet, Thierry André, Dominique Auby, Jérôme Desramé, Gaël Deplanque, Cédric Lecaille, Christophe Louvet, Christophe Tournigand, Valérie Lebrun-Ly, Jérôme Dauba, Gérard Lledo, Marie-Line Garcia, Olivier Dubreuil, Nabil Baba Hamed, Aurélia Meurisse, Annette K Larsen, Annemilaï Tijeras-Raballand, Franck Bonnetain, Aimery De Gramont
Aflibercept in combination with 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)/irinotecan improves overall survival in the second‑line therapy of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this study, we evaluated the effects of aflibercept in first‑line therapy with FOLFOX followed by maintenance with fluoropyrimidine. VELVET was a prospective, single‑arm multicenter phase II study (completed). Patients with previously untreated, unresectable, evaluable or measurable mCRC, with an age ≥18 years, and an ECOG performance status of 0‑2 received 6 cycles of modified FOLFOX7 (5‑FU/folinic acid and oxaliplatin) with aflibercept at 4 mg/kg every 2 weeks followed by maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine with aflibercept until disease progression or limiting toxicity...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Oncology
Mirjam Gerwing, Ken Herrmann, Anne Helfen, Christoph Schliemann, Wolfgang E Berdel, Michel Eisenblätter, Moritz Wildgruber
Owing to improvements in our understanding of the biological principles of tumour initiation and progression, a wide variety of novel targeted therapies have been developed. Developments in biomedical imaging, however, have not kept pace with these improvements and are still mainly designed to determine lesion size alone, which is reflected in the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Imaging approaches currently used for the evaluation of treatment responses in patients with solid tumours, therefore, often fail to detect successful responses to novel targeted agents and might even falsely suggest disease progression, a scenario known as pseudoprogression...
February 4, 2019: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Prasanna Santhanam, Paul W Ladenson
Serum thyroglobulin monitoring along with anatomic and functional imaging play key roles in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after initial treatment. Among patients with a disease stage justifying thyroid remnant ablation or with suspected metastatic disease, radioiodine whole-body scans are essential in the months after surgery. For patients with low to moderate-risk cancers, ultrasonography of the neck (with measurement of serum thyroglobulin on thyroid hormone replacement) are the best initial diagnostic modalities, and are often the only tests required...
March 2019: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Rita Rebelo, Ana I Barbosa, David Caballero, Il Keun Kwon, Joaquim M Oliveira, Subhas C Kundu, Rui L Reis, Vitor M Correlo
Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes are high mortality diseases, which account for almost two thirds of all deaths worldwide. Their early detection and continuous evaluation are fundamental for an improved patient prognosis and reduced socioeconomic impact. Current biosensor technologies are typically based on the analysis of whole blood samples from patients for the detection of disease-specific biomarkers. However, these technologies display serious shortcomings, such as reduced sensitivity and dynamic range, limited in vivo applicability, and lack of continuous monitoring...
January 11, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mohsen Mohammadniaei, Jinho Yoon, Hye Kyu Choi, Virginie Placide, Bapurao Gangaram Bharate, Taek Lee, Jeong-Woo Choi
Nanoparticle-based cell differentiation therapy has attracted increasing research interest as it is a promising substitute for conventional cancer treatment methods. Here, the topological insulator bismuth selenide nanoparticle (Bi2 Se3 NP) was core-shelled with silver (Ag@Bi2 Se3 ) to represent remarkable biocompatibility and plasmonic features (ca. 2.3 times higher than those of Ag nanoparticle). Moreover, a newly developed RNA three-way junction structure (3WJ) was designed for the quad-functionalization of any type of nanoparticle and surface...
February 4, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Julia González-Rincón, Sagrario Gómez, Nerea Martinez, Kevin Troulé, Javier Perales-Patón, Sophia Derdak, Sergi Beltrán, Belén Fernández-Cuevas, Nuria Pérez-Sanz, Sara Nova-Gurumeta, Ivo Gut, Fátima Al-Shahrour, Miguel A Piris, José A García-Marco, Margarita Sánchez-Beato
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is the most prevalent leukaemia in Western countries. It is an incurable disease characterized by a highly variable clinical course. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is an ideal model for studying clonal heterogeneity and dynamics during cancer progression, response to therapy and/or relapse because the disease usually develops over several years. Here we report an analysis by deep sequencing of sequential samples taken at different times from the affected organs of two patients with 12- and 7-year disease courses, respectively...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alexander Heinzel, Dima Boghos, Felix M Mottaghy, Florian Gaertner, Markus Essler, Dirk von Mallek, Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT for monitoring response to 177 Lu-617 PSMA radioligand therapy in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: Patients from the University Hospital Bonn and the University Hospital Aachen were retrospectively reviewed for this study. We included 48 patients with mCRPC who were treated with 177 Lu-PSMA-617 and whose records included 68 Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging before the first and after the third or fourth treatment cycle...
January 29, 2019: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Simon Dunne, Laura Coffey, Linda Sharp, Deirdre Desmond, Claire Cullen, Jean O'Connor, Eleanor O'Sullivan, Conrad Timon, Pamela Gallagher
OBJECTIVES: Emerging cancer survivorship research suggests that self-management can lead to improved outcomes. However, research examining the impact of self-management behaviours on quality of life (QoL) and fear of recurrence (FoR) in cancer survivors is lacking. This study investigated the relationship between self-management behaviours and QoL and FoR following treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC). METHODS: Postal surveys were sent to 734 eligible HNC survivors (ICD10 C01-C14;C32) in the Republic of Ireland who were 12-60 months post-diagnosis...
January 29, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Joel Petit, Georgia Carroll, Tiffany Gould, Peter Pockney, Matthew Dun, Rodney J Scott
BACKGROUND: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) has emerged as an excellent candidate for the future of liquid biopsies for many cancers. There has been growing interest in blood-based liquid biopsy because of the potential of ctDNA to produce a noninvasive test that can be used for: the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, monitoring therapy response, and providing information on overall prognosis. The aim of this review was to collate and explore the current evidence regarding ctDNA as a screening tool for colorectal cancer (CRC)...
December 19, 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
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