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Jing-Wen Li, Jing Li, Juanjuan Wang, Chunhao Li, Jing-Ren Zhang
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), a major human pathogen, is well known for its adaptation to various host environments. Multiple DNA inversions in the three DNA methyltransferase hsdS genes ( hsdSA , hsdSB and hsdSC ) of colony opacity determinant ( cod ) locus generate extensive epigenetic and phenotypic diversity. However, it is unclear whether all three hsdS genes are functional and how the inversions mechanistically occur. In this work, our transcriptional analysis revealed active expression for hsdSA but not hsdSB and hsdSC , indicating that hsdSB and hsdSC don't produce functional proteins and instead act as sources for altering the sequence of hsdSA by DNA inversions...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
Masaki Terabe, Jay A Berzofsky
NKT cells are an unusual population of T cells recognizing lipids presented by CD1d, a non-classical class-I-like molecule, rather than peptides presented by conventional MHC molecules. Type I NKT cells use a semi-invariant T cell receptor and almost all recognize a common prototype lipid, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). Type II NKT cells are any lipid-specific CD1d-restricted T cells that use other receptors and generally don't recognize α-GalCer. They play important regulatory roles in immunity, including tumor immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Juan J Chiesa, Fernando M Baidanoff, Diego A Golombek
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous free radical molecule with a short half-life (∼1 s), which can gain or lose an electron into three interchangeable redox-dependent forms, the radical (NO), the nitrosonium cation (NO+ ), and nitroxyl anion (HNO). NO acts as an intra and extracellular signaling molecule regulating a wide range of functions in the cardiovascular, immune, and nervous system. NO donors are collectively known by their ability to release NOin vitro and in vivo, being proposed as therapeutic pharmacological tools for the treatment of several pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease...
August 3, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jaime A DeQuinzio, Bridget A Taylor, Brittany J Tomasi
We extended past observational learning research by incorporating stimuli already known to participants into training. We used a multiple-baseline design across three participants to determine the effects of discrimination training on the discrimination of consequences applied to modeled responses using both known and unknown pictures. During baseline, participants were exposed to modeled correct and incorrect picture labels and were observed to imitate modeled responses that were incorrect and followed by negative feedback...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Stacey Crane, Joan E Haase, Susan E Hickman
Children with cancer are only eligible for phase I clinical trials (P1Ts) when no known curative therapy remains. However, the primary aims of P1Ts are not focused on directly benefiting participants. This raises ethical concerns that can be best evaluated by exploring the experiences of participants. An empirical phenomenology study, using an adapted Colaizzi method, was conducted of 11 parents' lived experiences of their child's participation in a pediatric oncology P1T. Study findings were that parents' experiences reflected what it meant to have a child fighting to survive high-risk cancer...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Eva Janssen, Philippe Verduyn, Erika A Waters
OBJECTIVES: Many people report uncertainty when appraising their risk of cancer and other diseases, but prior research about the topic has focused solely on cognitive risk perceptions. We investigated uncertainty related to cognitive and affective risk questions. We also explored whether any differences in uncertainty between cognitive and affective questions varied in magnitude by item-specific or socio-demographic characteristics. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data collected for a 2 × 2 × 3 full-factorial risk communication experiment (N = 835) that was embedded within an online survey...
May 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Erin M Ellis, Rebecca A Ferrer, Jennifer M Taber, William M P Klein
OBJECTIVE: Answering "I don't know" (DK) to survey questions that assess risk perceptions is common and occurs more often among disenfranchised groups. Because these groups also are at greater disease risk, statistically omitting or recoding DK responses may disproportionately exclude or misrepresent responses from marginalized groups and misinform intervention efforts. Because little is known about how the DK response is related to health behaviors, we examined whether the relation between DK response and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening behavior differed, depending on the construct queried (knowledge vs...
April 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
I Nadareishvili, K Lunze, N Tabagari, A Beraia, G Pkhakadze
In Georgia, like in most countries globally, people commonly resort to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, not much is known about CAM practices there. The aim of the study was to document common practices of CAM in Georgia and related patient attitudes. We collected data from peoples who commonly use CAM at 20 service provision centers in Georgia using cluster sampling from 300 patients. We admininstered a cross-sectional survey and conducted descriptive statistical analyses. People in Georgia use CAM either for prevention to improve general health (33%) or to treat chronic conditions (36%), spending about 25 Euros per month out of pocket...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
Samir M Fakhry, Pamela L Ferguson, Jama L Olsen, Jennifer J Haughney, Heidi S Resnick, Kenneth J Ruggiero
Trauma care has traditionally focused on prehospital and hospital settings, yet many injured patients report emotional distress in the postacute care setting, which is known to impair recovery. The objective of this study was to assess postdischarge emotional recovery and communication preferences. An observational cohort of 100 adult patients from our Level 1 Trauma Center was surveyed one to two months postdischarge. Among those employed preinjury, 44 per cent had not returned to work. Nearly half screened positive for emotional issues (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and/or psychological distress); of these, only 35 per cent considered getting professional help and only 10 per cent received help...
November 1, 2017: American Surgeon
Valerie M Beck, Steven J Luck, Andrew Hollingworth
People can use a target template consisting of one or more features to guide attention and gaze to matching objects in a search array. But can we also use feature information to guide attention away from known irrelevant items? Some studies found a benefit from foreknowledge of a distractor feature, whereas others found a cost. Importantly, previous work has largely relied on end-of-trial manual responses; it is unclear how feature-guided avoidance might unfold as candidate objects are inspected. In the current experiments, participants were cued with a distractor feature to avoid, then performed a visual search task while eye movements were recorded...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Alexandra Westley, Zdenko Kohút, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer
Adolescence is a time of great cognitive and social development. Despite this, relatively few studies to date have investigated how perspective taking affects on-line language comprehension in adolescents. In the current study, we addressed this gap in the literature, making use of a Joint Comprehension Task in which two individuals with differing background knowledge jointly attend to linguistic stimuli. Using event-related potentials, we investigated adolescents' electrophysiological responses to (a) semantically anomalous sentence stimuli in discourse context and (b) semantically plausible sentence stimuli that the participants believe another individual finds semantically implausible...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Danish J Malik, Ilya J Sokolov, Gurinder K Vinner, Francesco Mancuso, Salvatore Cinquerrui, Goran T Vladisavljevic, Martha R J Clokie, Natalie J Garton, Andrew G F Stapley, Anna Kirpichnikova
Against a backdrop of global antibiotic resistance and increasing awareness of the importance of the human microbiota, there has been resurgent interest in the potential use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes, known as phage therapy. A number of phage therapy phase I and II clinical trials have concluded, and shown phages don't present significant adverse safety concerns. These clinical trials used simple phage suspensions without any formulation and phage stability was of secondary concern. Phages have a limited stability in solution, and undergo a significant drop in phage titre during processing and storage which is unacceptable if phages are to become regulated pharmaceuticals, where stable dosage and well defined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are de rigueur...
November 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Amy Dawel, Luke Wright, Jessica Irons, Rachael Dumbleton, Romina Palermo, Richard O'Kearney, Elinor McKone
In everyday social interactions, people's facial expressions sometimes reflect genuine emotion (e.g., anger in response to a misbehaving child) and sometimes do not (e.g., smiling for a school photo). There is increasing theoretical interest in this distinction, but little is known about perceived emotion genuineness for existing facial expression databases. We present a new method for rating perceived genuineness using a neutral-midpoint scale (-7 = completely fake; 0 = don't know; +7 = completely genuine) that, unlike previous methods, provides data on both relative and absolute perceptions...
August 2017: Behavior Research Methods
Katie Byron, Dana Howard
WHO recently issued new guidance on the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. The updated guidance states that '[c]ountry health programmes should ensure that… [i]n order to prevent adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes, men and women of reproductive age, living in areas where local transmission of Zika virus is known to occur, be correctly informed and oriented to consider delaying pregnancy'. While the media has reported this advice as WHO telling couples in Zika-affected regions to avoid pregnancy, WHO states that they are not doing that...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
Meghan E Morean, Grace Kong, Dana A Cavallo, Deepa R Camenga, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
OBJECTIVE: E-cigarettes are popular among youth, but little is known about the nicotine concentrations of e-liquids used by adolescents. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In Spring, 2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four Connecticut high schools and two middle schools. Among past-30-day e-cigarette users (n=513, 45% female, mean age 15.9 [SD=1.4]), we examined what nicotine concentration adolescents typically used in their e-cigarettes (range 0-30mg/mL and "I don't know")...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Emma Cowen
WHILE I don't imagine anyone in any line of work feels happy about calling in sick, I have never known anyone experience the same level of guilt about it as nurses.
June 8, 2016: Nursing Children and Young People
Irving Weissman
I started research in high school, experimenting on immunological tolerance to transplantation antigens. This led to studies of the thymus as the site of maturation of T cells, which led to the discovery, isolation, and clinical transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The induction of immune tolerance with HSCs has led to isolation of other tissue-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine. Our studies of circulating competing germline stem cells in colonial protochordates led us to document competing HSCs...
May 20, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
Ewan D Wakefield, Ian R Cleasby, Stuart Bearhop, Thomas W Bodey, Rachel D Davies, Peter I Miller, Jason Newton, Stephen C Votier, Keith C Hamer
Many established models of animal foraging assume that individuals are ecologically equivalent. However, it is increasingly recognized that populations may comprise individuals who differ consistently in their diets and foraging behaviors. For example, recent studies have shown that individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF, when individuals consistently forage in only a small part of their population's home range) occurs in some colonial breeders. Short-term IFSF could result from animals using a win-stay, lose-shift foraging strategy...
November 2015: Ecology
C A Woods, Z R Guttman, D Huang, R A Kolaric, A I Rabinowitsch, K T Jones, S Cabeza de Vaca, A Sclafani, K D Carr
With respect to feeding, insulin is typically thought of as a satiety hormone, acting in the hypothalamus to limit ingestive behavior. However, accumulating evidence suggests that insulin also has the ability to alter dopamine release in the striatum and influence food preferences. With increased access to high calorie foods, Western societies have a high prevalence of obesity, accompanied by insulin insensitivity. Little is known about how insulin is trafficked into the brain following food consumption and whether insulin insensitivity in the periphery is mirrored in the central nervous system...
May 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Jan Fehr, Dunja Nicca, Jean-Christophe Goffard, David Haerry, Michael Schlag, Vasileios Papastamopoulos, Andy Hoepelman, Athanasius Skoutelis, Ruth Diazaraque, Bruno Ledergerber
PURPOSE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to better understand why chronically HIV-1-infected individuals stratified by CD4 count (≤349; 350-499; ≥500 cells/μL) were not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Before the consultation, treatment-naive patients and their physicians independently completed a 90-item-questionnaire about barriers and their readiness to start/defer ART. The study was carried out at 34 sites in nine countries in Europe and Australia...
August 2016: Infection
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