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herbicide and grape

Satya Swathi Nadakuduti, C Robin Buell, Daniel F Voytas, Colby G Starker, David S Douches
Genome-editing has revolutionized biology. When coupled with a recently streamlined regulatory process by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the potential to generate transgene-free varieties, genome-editing provides a new avenue for crop improvement. For heterozygous, polyploid and vegetatively propagated crops such as cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum Group Tuberosum L., genome-editing presents tremendous opportunities for trait improvement. In potato, traits such as improved resistance to cold-induced sweetening, processing efficiency, herbicide tolerance, modified starch quality and self-incompatibility have been targeted utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 and TALEN reagents in diploid and tetraploid clones...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Silvia Winter, Thomas Bauer, Peter Strauss, Sophie Kratschmer, Daniel Paredes, Daniela Popescu, Blanca Landa, Gema Guzmán, José A Gómez, Muriel Guernion, Johann G Zaller, Péter Batáry
At the global scale, vineyards are usually managed intensively to optimize wine production without considering possible negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) such as high soil erosion rates, degradation of soil fertility or contamination of groundwater. Winegrowers regulate competition for water and nutrients between the vines and inter-row vegetation by tilling, mulching and/or herbicide application. Strategies for more sustainable viticulture recommend maintaining vegetation cover in inter-rows, however, there is a lack of knowledge as to what extent this less intensive inter-row management affects biodiversity and associated ES...
September 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Ming-Yi Chou, Justine Vanden Heuvel, Terrence H Bell, Kevin Panke-Buisse, Jenny Kao-Kniffin
The microbiome of a vineyard may play a critical role in fruit development, and consequently, may impact quality properties of grape and wine. Vineyard management approaches that have directly manipulated the microbiome of grape clusters have been studied, but little is known about how vineyard management practices that impact the soil microbial pool can influence this dynamic. We examined three under-vine soil management practices: 1) herbicide application, 2) soil cultivation (vegetation removal), and 3) natural vegetation (no vegetation removal) in a Riesling vineyard in New York over a three-year period...
July 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Johann G Zaller, Clemens Cantelmo, Gabriel Dos Santos, Sandrina Muther, Edith Gruber, Paul Pallua, Karin Mandl, Barbara Friedrich, Ingrid Hofstetter, Bernhard Schmuckenschlager, Florian Faber
Herbicides are increasingly applied in vineyards worldwide. However, not much is known on potential side effects on soil organisms or on the nutrition of grapevines (Vitis vinifera). In an experimental vineyard in Austria, we examined the impacts of three within-row herbicide treatments (active ingredients: flazasulfuron, glufosinate, glyphosate) and mechanical weeding on grapevine root mycorrhization; soil microorganisms; earthworms; and nutrient concentration in grapevine roots, leaves, xylem sap and grape juice...
August 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xueke Liu, Chang Liu, Peng Wang, Guojun Yao, Donghui Liu, Zhiqiang Zhou
A novel effervescence assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on cohesive floating organic drop has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazine herbicides and triazole fungicides in aqueous samples followed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography tandem a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-undecanol as extractant was well dispersed by effervescence. In order to obtain relatively high extraction efficiency, the effects of salt, volume of effervescence mixture, volume of extraction solvent and temperature were investigated...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Wei Tan, Ting Liang, Yuan-Peng Du, Heng Zhai
Fluoroglycofen, a post-emergence herbicide used in vineyards to eradicate weeds, has previously been shown to turn grape leaves dark green following its use. Therefore, this study evaluates the relationship of dark green leaves with calcium form and subcellular distribution. To do this, we focused on the Ca2+ distribution and Ca2+ -ATPase activity in leaf cells of one-year-old self-rooted Chardonnay grapevines treated with fluoroglycofen. Plants were separated into different treatments when they had seven or eight leaves, and different concentrations of fluoroglycofen were sprayed on the sand...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Beatriz Vallejo, Cecilia Picazo, Helena Orozco, Emilia Matallana, Agustín Aranda
Glufosinate ammonium (GA) is a widely used herbicide that inhibits glutamine synthetase. This inhibition leads to internal amino acid starvation which, in turn, causes the activation of different nutrient sensing pathways. GA also inhibits the enzyme of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in such a way that, although it is not used as a fungicide, it may alter yeast performance in industrial processes like winemaking. We describe herein how GA indeed inhibits the yeast growth of a wine strain during the fermentation of grape juice...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Juntao Wang, Menghua Li, Caina Jiao, Yuhong Song, Chun Wang, Qiuhua Wu, Zhi Wang
A magnetic porphyrin-based porous organic polymer (M-PPOP) with good porosity, high surface area and strong magnetism was prepared and employed as the adsorbent for the magnetic solid phase extraction of the phenylurea herbicides (metoxuron, monolinuron, chlorotoluron, and buturon) from bottled grape juice and tomato samples prior to their determination by high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method exhibited a good linear range, low limits of detection, low relative standard deviations (<6...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Narong Chamkasem
A simple high-throughput liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of maleic hydrazide, glyphosate, fosetyl aluminum, and ethephon in grapes using a reversed-phase column with weak anion-exchange and cation-exchange mixed mode. A 5 g test portion was shaken with 50 mM HOAc and 10 mM Na2EDTA in 1/3 (v/v) MeOH/H2O for 10 min. After centrifugation, the extract was passed through an Oasis HLB cartridge to retain suspended particulates and nonpolar interferences...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dasharath P Oulkar, Sandip Hingmire, Arnab Goon, Manjusha Jadhav, Bharat Ugare, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkumpurath, Kaushik Banerjee
A sensitive and accurate LC with tandem MS (MS/MS)-based method was developed and validated for the analysis of the herbicide glyphosate, its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in various plant matrixes. The method also covers direct analysis of the glufosinate metabolites 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and N-acetyl-glufosinate (NAG). The homogenized samples were extracted with 0.1% formic acid in water-dichloromethane (50 + 50)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Valentin Mingo, Stefan Lötters, Norman Wagner
Habitat loss and environmental pollution are among the main causes responsible for worldwide biodiversity loss. The resulting species and population declines affect all vertebrates including reptiles. Especially in industrialized countries, pollution by agrochemicals is of remarkable importance. Here, habitat loss has historically been associated with expansion of agriculture. Species persisting in such environments do not only need to cope with habitat loss, but more recently, also with chemical intensification, namely pesticide exposure...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Jimi Cho, Jonghwa Lee, Chai-Uk Lim, Jongsung Ahn
The analysis of pesticides in food products requires accurate measurements for which standardised protocols have been developed. This paper reports the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe)-based methods applied to three different food samples (brown rice, red pepper and mandarin orange) analysed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The validation of the analytical methods used to measure 113 pesticides, including various insecticides, fungicides and herbicides, was conducted in three food matrices and at three spiking levels by three different laboratories...
December 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xinpei Li, Yuanpeng Wang, Qun Sun, Bo Xu, Zhaoqing Yang, Xinghua Wang
Molecular imprinting technique, regarded as one of the current state-of-the-art researches, was incorporated with the simple dispersive solid-phase extraction (MI-DSPE) in this work for the extraction of triazine herbicides in grape seeds. The atrazine molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The imprinting particles were used as the adsorbent in DSPE. Thus, a simple, rapid and selective method based on MIPs coupled with DSPE was established for the simultaneous cleaning-up and quantitative extraction of four triazine herbicides in grape seeds...
May 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Xingli Liu, Chun Wang, Qiuhua Wu, Zhi Wang
Nanoporous carbon with a high specific surface area and unique porous structure represents an attractive material as an adsorbent in analytical chemistry. In this study, a magnetic nanoporous carbon (MNC) was fabricated by direct carbonization of Co-based metal-organic framework in nitrogen atmosphere without using any additional carbon precursors. The MNC was used as an effective magnetic adsorbent for the extraction and enrichment of some phenylurea herbicides (monuron, isoproturon, diuron and buturon) in grape and bitter gourd samples prior to their determination by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
April 22, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
Chaima Sta, Eric Goujon, Ezzeddine Ferjani, Gérard Ledoigt
The cell toxicity of sulcotrione, a selective triketone herbicide, was evaluated on Vicia faba. Sulcotrione, trademark Mikado, grape marc, and mixtures of sulcotrione or Mikado with grape marc induced cell death. Addition of grape marc to either sulcotrione or Mikado enhanced cell death, especially with Mikado. Addition of grape marc to herbicides, sulcotrione, or Mikado resulted in different expression of genes usually associated with cell stress. Mixtures of grape marc and herbicides enhanced transcript accumulation for ubiquitin, hsp 70, and cytosolic superoxide dismutase, but did not change ascorbate peroxidase transcript accumulation...
December 10, 2014: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wei Tan, Ting Liang, Qingliang Li, Yuanpeng Du, Heng Zhai
Fluoroglycofen and acetochlor are two different herbicides used in vineyards to eradicate weeds. This present study first characterized the effects of these chemicals on phenotype of grape leaves. Results showed that acetochlor caused the middle- and upper-node grape leaves become yellow at 60th day after treatment, while fluoroglycofen caused the ones became dark green. Then the effects of fluoroglycofen on photosynthetic pigments and chloroplast ultrastructure were characterized. Results showed that fluoroglycofen increased the chlorophyll and carotenoid contents by different extent in different node leaves, while it did not affect the net photosynthesis rate significantly...
September 2014: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Juri Nascimbene, Lorenzo Marini, Diego Ivan, Michela Zottini
Vineyards are amongst the most intensive forms of agriculture often resulting in simplified landscapes where semi-natural vegetation is restricted to small scattered patches. However, a tendency toward a more sustainable management is stimulating research on biodiversity in these poorly investigated agro-ecosystems. The main aim of this study was to test the effect on plant diversity of management intensity and topography in vineyards located in a homogenous intensive hilly landscape. Specifically, this study evaluated the role of slope, mowing and herbicide treatments frequency, and nitrogen supply in shaping plant diversity and composition of life-history traits...
2013: PloS One
Mirian Pateiro-Moure, Manuel Arias-Estévez, Jesús Simal-Gándara
Quaternary Ammonium Herbicides (QUATs) are nonselective contact herbicides, widely used at weed emergence to protect a wide range of crops. The benefits achieved by the use of these herbicides are indisputable. In soils devoted to vineyards, their uses increase the yield and the quality of the grapes for winemaking. However, several environmental dangers have emerged from the overuse of these compounds. Therefore, there has been a great interest in the presence of these compounds in soils, water, and food. Once in the soil, the mobility of these agrochemicals plays an important role in their fate and transport in the environment...
May 21, 2013: Environmental Science & Technology
Ri-He Peng, Yong-Sheng Tian, Ai-Sheng Xiong, Wei Zhao, Xiao-Yan Fu, Hong-Juan Han, Chen Chen, Xiao-Fen Jin, Quan-Hong Yao
The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards...
2012: PloS One
Claudiu-Ioan Bunea, Nastasia Pop, Anca Cristina Babeş, Cristian Matea, Francisc V Dulf, Andrea Bunea
BACKGROUND: Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. RESULTS: The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene...
2012: Chemistry Central Journal
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