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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30786032/the-plastidial-metabolite-2-c-methyl-d-erythritol-2-4-cyclodiphosphate-modulates-defense-responses-against-aphids
#1
Nawaporn Onkokesung, Michael Reichelt, Louwrance P Wright, Michael A Phillips, Jonathan Gershenzon, Marcel Dicke
Feeding by insect herbivores such as caterpillars and aphids induces plant resistance mechanisms that are mediated by the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). These phytohormonal pathways often crosstalk. Besides phytohormones, methyl-D-erythriol-2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP), the penultimate metabolite in the methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, has been speculated to regulate transcription of nuclear genes in response to biotic stressors such as aphids. Here, we show that MEcPP uniquely enhances the SA pathway without attenuating the JA pathway...
February 20, 2019: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785236/chemical-inhibition-of-kir-channels-reduces-salivary-secretions-and-phloem-feeding-of-the-cotton-aphid-aphis-gossypii-glover
#2
Zhilin Li, Jeffrey A Davis, Daniel R Swale
BACKGROUND: The unique feeding biology of aphids suggests novel insecticide targets are likely to exist outside of the nervous system. Therefore, we aimed to directly test the hypothesis that pharmacological inhibition of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels would result in salivary gland failure and reduced sap ingestion by the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. RESULTS: The Kir inhibitors VU041 and VU590 reduced the length of the salivary sheath in a concentration dependent manner, indicating that the secretory activity of the salivary gland is reduced by Kir inhibition...
February 19, 2019: Pest Management Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30784793/transfer-and-biological-effects-of-arsenate-from-soil-through-a-plant-aphid-system-to-the-parasitoid-wasp-aphidius-colemani
#3
Myeongseob Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yongeun Kim, Yun-Sik Lee, Jino Son, Seunghun Hyun, Kijong Cho
The accumulation of metalloid elements during transfer from contaminated soil to higher trophic levels may potentially result in the exposure of parasitic arthropods to toxic concentrations of these elements. This study examined the transfer of arsenate (As(V)) to aphids (Myzus persicae) from pepper plants cultivated in As(V) contaminated soils of two concentrations (2 and 6 mg As(V)/kg dry soil), and the subsequent biological effects on the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. Results showed that considerable quantities of As(V) were transferred to the plant in a concentration-dependent manner and were partitioned in the plant parts in the order of roots > stems > leaves...
February 18, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783563/evolutionary-insights-of-bean-common-mosaic-necrosis-virus-and-cowpea-aphid-borne-mosaic-virus
#4
James M Wainaina, Laura Kubatko, Jagger Harvey, Elijah Ateka, Timothy Makori, David Karanja, Laura M Boykin, Monica A Kehoe
Plant viral diseases are one of the major limitations in legume production within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), as they account for up to 100% in production losses within smallholder farms. In this study, field surveys were conducted in the western highlands of Kenya with viral symptomatic leaf samples collected. Subsequently, next-generation sequencing was carried out to gain insights into the molecular evolution and evolutionary relationships of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) and Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV) present within symptomatic common bean and cowpea...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781857/virulence-of-two-entomophthoralean-fungi-pandora-neoaphidis-and-entomophthora-planchoniana-to-their-conspecific-sitobion-avenae-and-heterospecific-rhopalosiphum-padi-aphid-hosts
#5
Ibtissem Ben Fekih, Annette Bruun Jensen, Sonia Boukhris-Bouhachem, Gabor Pozsgai, Salah Rezgui, Christopher Rensing, Jørgen Eilenberg
Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana (phylum Entomophthoromycota) are important fungal pathogens on cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi . Here, we evaluated and compared for the first time the virulence of these two fungi, both produced in S. avenae cadavers, against the two aphid species subjected to the same exposure. Two laboratory bioassays were carried out using a method imitating entomophthoralean transmission in the field. Healthy colonies of the two aphid species were exposed to the same conidial shower of P...
February 13, 2019: Insects
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781828/unravelling-the-complexity-of-plant-defense-induced-by-a-simultaneous-and-sequential-mite-and-aphid-infestation
#6
Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
In natural and agricultural conditions, plants are attacked by a community of herbivores, including aphids and mites. The green peach aphid and the two-spotted spider mite, both economically important pests, may share the same plant. Therefore, an important question arises as to how plants integrate signals induced by dual herbivore attack into the optimal defensive response. We showed that regardless of which attacker was first, 24 h of infestation allowed for efficient priming of the Arabidopsis defense, which decreased the reproductive performance of one of the subsequent herbivores...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30773671/all-ecological-models-are-wrong-but-some-are-useful
#7
Daniel B Stouffer
In Focus: Curtsdotter, A., Banks, H. T., Banks, J. E., Jonsson, M., Jonsson, T., Laubmeier, A. N., … Bommarco, R. (2019). Ecosystem function in predator-prey food webs-Confronting dynamic models with empirical data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12892 Species' population dynamics are influenced by a variety of abiotic and biotic factors. Curtsdotter et al. (2019) used a food web model to investigate the role of predator-prey interactions in the population dynamics of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi...
February 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768168/characterization-of-the-cytochrome-p450-gene-cyp305a1-of-the-cotton-aphid-hemiptera-aphididae-and-its-responsive-cis-elements-to-plant-allelochemicals
#8
Fen Li, Kangsheng Ma, Ying Liu, Jing-Jiang Zhou, Xiwu Gao
Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play an important role in plant allelochemical detoxification. In this study, a full-length gene CYP305A1 of the P450 Clan 2 family was cloned from Aphis gossypii Glover, and its promoter was identified and characterized. The transcript level of CYP305A1 and its promoter activity were significantly induced by two plant allelochemicals, gossypol and 2-tridecanone. Furthermore, the 5'-end promoter region from -810 to +62 bp was demonstrated to be essential for basal transcriptional activity of CYP305A1, and the promoter region from -810 to -581 bp was shown as an essential plant allelochemical responsive element and had a cis-element 5'-CACACTA-3' as the binding site of aryl hydrocarbon receptor...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768167/identification-and-genetic-characterization-of-soybean-accessions-exhibiting-antibiosis-and-antixenosis-resistance-to-aphis-glycines-hemiptera-aphididae
#9
Martha I Natukunda, Kyle A Parmley, Jessica D Hohenstein, Teshale Assefa, Jiaoping Zhang, Gustavo C MacIntosh, Asheesh K Singh
Cultivation of aphid-resistant soybean varieties can reduce yield losses caused by soybean aphids. However, discovery of aphid biotypes that are virulent on resistant soybean greatly threatens sustained utilization of host plant resistance to control soybean aphids. The objective of this study was to identify and genetically characterize aphid resistant soybean accessions in a diverse collection of 308 plant introductions in maturity groups (MG) I and II. In large-scale screening experiments conducted in the greenhouse, we identified 12 soybean accessions (10 aphid-resistant and 2 moderately resistant), including nine previously not reported for resistance against soybean aphids...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30765848/reproductive-adaptation-in-alate-adult-morphs-of-the-english-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-under-starvation-stress
#10
Xiangli Xu, Nannan Lv, Qi Shi, Xiangshun Hu, Junxiang Wu
Adapting their reproductive physiology is a tactic that insects use in responding to conditions of food unavailability. The present study examined the potential effects of starvation periods on the ovarian development and reproduction of alate adult morphs of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius). Morphs both continuously fed and starved aphids contained two telotrophic ovaries, each comprising five ovarioles. As time increase after emergence, the number of offspring produced by the fed aphids increased gradually, whereas the number of embryos in their ovaries decreased gradually...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762513/combined-infection-with-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-and-rickettsia-influences-fecundity-attraction-to-infected-plants-and-expression-of-immunity-related-genes-in-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#11
Adi Kliot, Svetlana Kontsedalov, Galina Lebedev, Henryk Czosnek, Murad Ghanim
We have recently shown that Rickettsia, a secondary facultative bacterial symbiont that infects the whitefly B. tabaci is implicated in the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Infection with Rickettsia improved the acquisition and transmission of the virus by B. tabaci adults. Here we performed a transcriptomic analysis with Rickettsia-infected and uninfected B. tabaci adults before and after TYLCV acquisition. The results show a dramatic and specific activation of the immune system in the presence of Rickettsia before TYLCV acquisition...
February 14, 2019: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761691/spatial-and-habitat-variation-in-aphid-butterfly-moth-and-bird-phenologies-over-the-last-half-century
#12
James R Bell, Marc S Botham, Peter A Henrys, David I Leech, James W Pearce-Higgins, Chris R Shortall, Tom M Brereton, Jon Pickup, Stephen J Thackeray
Global warming has advanced the timing of biological events, potentially leading to disruption across trophic levels. The potential importance of phenological change as a driver of population trends has been suggested. To fully understand possible impacts, there is a need to quantify the scale of these changes spatially and according to habitat type. We studied the relationship between phenological trends, space and habitat type between 1965 to 2012 using an extensive UK dataset comprising 269 aphid, bird, butterfly and moth species...
February 14, 2019: Global Change Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761167/an-integrated-system-for-the-automated-recording-and-analysis-of-insect-behavior-in-t-maze-arrays
#13
Maarten A Jongsma, Manus P M Thoen, Leo M Poleij, Gerrie L Wiegers, Paul W Goedhart, Marcel Dicke, Lucas P J J Noldus, Johannes W Kruisselbrink
Host-plant resistance to insects like thrips and aphids is a complex trait that is difficult to phenotype quickly and reliably. Here, we introduce novel hardware and software to facilitate insect choice assays and automate the acquisition and analysis of movement tracks. The hardware consists of an array of individual T-mazes allowing simultaneous release of up to 90 insect individuals from their individual cage below each T-maze with choice of two leaf disks under a video camera. Insect movement tracks are acquired with computer vision software (EthoVision) and analyzed with EthoAnalysis, a novel software package that allows for automated reporting of highly detailed behavior parameters and statistical analysis...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760573/turnip-mosaic-virus-is-a-second-example-of-a-virus-using-transmission-activation-for-plant-to-plant-propagation-by-aphids
#14
Edwige Berthelot, Marie Ducousso, Jean-Luc Macia, Florent Bogaert, Volker Baecker, Gaël Thébaud, Romain Gallet, Michel Yvon, Stéphane Blanc, Mounia Khelifa, Martin Drucker
Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV, family Caulimoviridae ) responds to the presence of aphid vectors on infected plants by forming specific transmission morphs. This phenomenon, coined transmission activation (TA), controls plant-to-plant propagation of CaMV. A fundamental question is whether other viruses rely on TA. Here, we demonstrate that transmission of the unrelated Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, family Potyviridae ) is activated by the reactive oxygen species H2 O2 and inhibited by the calcium channel blocker LaCl3 H2 O2 -triggered TA manifested itself by the induction of intermolecular cysteine bonds between viral HC-Pro molecules and by formation of viral transmission complexes, composed of TuMV particles and HC-Pro that mediates vector-binding...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760572/manipulation-of-aphid-behavior-by-a-persistent-plant-virus
#15
Maliheh Safari, Matthew J Ferrari, Marilyn J Roossinck
Plants are frequently infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses that persist for many generations through nearly 100% vertical transmission without producing any symptoms. Movement between plant cells and horizontal transmission has not been observed in these viruses; instead they are distributed to all host cells through host cell division. Jalapeño peppers ( Capsicum annuum ) are all infected with Pepper cryptic virus 1 (PCV 1, family Partitiviridae ). We compared the effect of odor cues from PCV 1 infected (J+) and virus free (J-) Jalapeño pepper on the aphid Myzus periscae , a common vector of acute plant viruses...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753975/ambient-conditions-of-elevated-temperature-and-co-2-levels-are-detrimental-to-the-probabilities-of-transmission-by-insects-of-a-potato-virus-y-isolate-and-to-its-simulated-prevalence-in-the-environment
#16
F J Del Toro, K S Choi, F Rakhshandehroo, E Aguilar, F Tenllado, T Canto
Conditions of elevated temperature and CO2 levels [30 °C and 970 parts-per-million (ppm), respectively] reduced the systemic titers of a potato virus Y (PVY) isolate in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, relative to standard conditions (25 °C, ~405 ppm CO2 ). Under controlled conditions we studied how these growing environments affected the transmission of infection by aphids. Probabilities of transmission of infection by insects that fed on infected donor plants kept at either standard conditions, or at 30 °C and 970 ppm CO2 were both determined and found to positively correlate with titers in donor leaves, independently of the ambient conditions in which recipient plantlets would grow...
February 4, 2019: Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746518/first-complete-genome-sequence-of-cucurbit-aphid-borne-yellows-virus-from-pumpkin-in-the-united-states
#17
Vivek Khanal, Akhtar Ali
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) was first described in France in 1992 and since then has been reported in various parts of the world, including the United States. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of a CABYV isolate (BL4) that was collected from pumpkin during the 2017 growing season in Oklahoma.
February 2019: Microbiology resource announcements
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744948/phylogenetics-of-the-spiroplasma-ixodetis-endosymbiont-reveals-past-transfers-between-ticks-and-other-arthropods
#18
Florian Binetruy, Xavier Bailly, Christine Chevillon, Oliver Y Martin, Marco V Bernasconi, Olivier Duron
The bacterium Spiroplasma ixodetis is a maternally inherited endosymbiont primarily described from ticks but also found widespread across other arthropods. While it has been identified as a male-killing agent in some insect species, the consequences of infection with S. ixodetis in ticks are entirely unknown, and it is unclear how this endosymbiont spreads across tick species. Here, we have investigated this aspect through the examination of the diversity and evolutionary history of S. ixodetis infections in 12 tick species and 12 other arthropod species...
February 5, 2019: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744899/pymetrozine-activates-trpv-channels-of-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#19
Li-Xiang Wang, Chun-Dong Niu, Vincent L Salgado, Katherine Lelito, Lynn Stam, Ya-Long Jia, Yan Zhang, Cong-Fen Gao, Shun-Fan Wu
The commercial insecticide pymetrozine has been extensively used for brown planthopper control in East Asia. The transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel, which consists of two proteins, Nanchung (Nan) and Inactive (Iav), has recently been shown to be the molecular target of pymetrozine in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). In this study, we characterized the Nan and Iav TRPV channel subunits of N. lugens and measured the action of pymetrozine on them. NlNan and NlIav are structurally similar to homologs from other insects...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744887/changes-in-the-expression-of-four-abc-transporter-genes-in-response-to-imidacloprid-in-bemisia-tabaci-q-hemiptera-aleyrodidae
#20
Chao He, Jinjin Liang, Shaonan Liu, Shaoli Wang, Qingjun Wu, Wen Xie, Youjun Zhang
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a globally invasive species complex that causes serious damage to field crops, has developed resistance to imidacloprid and many other pesticides. Insect detoxify to pesticides may partially depend on ABC transporters, which contribute to the detoxification of xenobiotics. To determine whether genes in the ABCG subfamily are involved in imidacloprid detoxification in B. tabaci Q, we cloned four ABCG subfamily genes based on the published MED/Q genome and on our previous study of the transcriptional response of ABC transporters in B...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
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