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grape aroma

Cristina Ubeda, Ingeborg Kania-Zelada, Rubén Del Barrio-Galán, Marcela Medel-Marabolí, Mariona Gil, Álvaro Peña-Neira
One of the strongest factors that affects the volatile profile of sparkling wine is the winemaking process. Here we focus on determining the effects of the second fermentation and aging on lees of sparkling wine from País grape variety combining different analysis techniques for the first time in sparkling wine: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/olfactometry and sensorial analysis. During the second fermentation and aging, there was a significant loss of esters that might be related to the adsorption on lees and ester volatility and chemical hydrolysis...
May 2019: Food Research International
E Sánchez-Palomo, J A Delgado, M A Ferrer, M A González Viñas
The aim of this study is the chemical and sensory description of the aroma of wines white Chelva through five successive vintages. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was used for the isolation of volatile compounds and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed by their analysis. Aroma Sensory Profile of wines was defined using the Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA). A total of 77 volatile compounds were identified in Chelva wines. Chelva wines present a great quantity of aromatic compounds of very different chemical nature and with different aromatic descriptors, which will increase its aromatic complexity of these wines...
May 2019: Food Research International
Yi-Bin Lan, Xiao-Feng Xiang, Xu Qian, Jia-Ming Wang, Meng-Qi Ling, Bao-Qing Zhu, Tao Liu, Lian-Bo Sun, Ying Shi, Andrew G Reynolds, Chang-Qing Duan
Freezing-thawing events contribute to the unique aroma profile of icewines. Differences in key odor-active volatile compounds between 'Beibinghong' (Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera) icewines and dry wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acceptable agreement between the olfactometric and quantitative results was obtained. 'Beibinghong' icewine was characterized by high concentrations of volatile phenols, lactones, (E)-β-damascenone, and phenylacetaldehyde, which were associated with on-vine freezing-thawing events in grape...
July 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Ivana Horvat, Sanja Radeka, Tomislav Plavša, Igor Lukić
To test the effects of bentonite addition at various stages of fermentation, five Malvazija istarska white grape must vinification treatments were performed with 100 g/hL of bentonite added in clear juice, at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of fermentation, while control was fermented without bentonite. Phenols and free and bound volatile aromas were determined by HPLC-DAD and SPE-GC-MS. Wines were evaluated sensorially. Fining during fermentation reduced the total bentonite dose required, and was most effective near the end of fermentation with the reduction of 16% and 21%, depending on the protein stability test...
July 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yu Yang, Guo-Jie Jin, Xing-Jie Wang, Cai-Lin Kong, JiBin Liu, Yong-Sheng Tao
The chemical profiles and aroma contribution of terpene compounds in Meili grapes and wine were analyzed. Bound terpene compounds were extracted using methanol, purified using Amberlite XAD-2 resin, concentrated in methanol/ethyl acetate, and enzymatically hydrolyzed to release aglycones. Free terpene compounds were identified using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Wine aroma characteristics were quantified by a trained sensory panel. Seventeen terpene glycosides were quantified in grapes and wines as pentosyl-glucopyranoside, the content of which ranged from 804 to 836 μg/kg, and from 155 to 192 μg/L, respectively...
June 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Somchai Rice, Devin L Maurer, Anne Fennell, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Jacek A Koziel
In this research, we propose a novel concept for a non-destructive evaluation of volatiles emitted from ripening grapes using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). This concept is novel to both the traditional vinifera grapes and the cold-hardy cultivars. Our sample models are cold-hardy varieties in the upper Midwest for which many of the basic multiyear grape flavor and wine style data is needed. Non-destructive sampling included a use of polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) chambers temporarily enclosing and concentrating volatiles emitted by a whole cluster of grapes on a vine and a modified 2 mL glass vial for a vacuum-assisted sampling of volatiles from a single grape berry...
February 1, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Antonio G Cordente, Anthony R Borneman, Caroline Bartel, Dimitra Capone, Mark Solomon, Michael Roach, Christopher D Curtin
During alcoholic fermentation of grape sugars, wine yeast produce a range of secondary metabolites that play an important role in the aroma profile of wines. In this study, we have explored the ability of a large number of wine yeast strains to modulate wine aroma composition, focusing on the release of 'fruity' thiols 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3-MH) and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4-MMP) from their respective cysteinylated non-volatile precursors. The role of yeast gene IRC7 in thiol release has been well established, and it has been shown that a 38bp deletion found in many wine strains cause them to express a truncated version of Irc7p which does not possess cysteine- S -conjugate β-lyase activity...
January 18, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A Koziel
The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown...
January 16, 2019: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Michele D'Ambrosio
Glycosidic aroma precursors (GAPs) contribute to the varietal flavor of wine. Researchers have applied various sample preparation and analytical methods in attempts to achieve their separation and identification. However, mass spectrometric methods still fail to unequivocally define their structures. We have previously reported the separation of GAPs in their natural form and elucidated their structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this study, we confirm the effectiveness of our established procedure and present methodological improvements...
January 15, 2019: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Kelly J Prior, Florian F Bauer, Benoit Divol
Commercial wine fermentation is commonly conducted by inoculated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, other non-Saccharomyces yeast species have recently become popular co-inoculants. Co-inoculated yeast species compete with each other for nutrients, and such competition may impact fermentation kinetics and aroma production. Understanding the specific nutrient requirements of non-Saccharomyces strains therefore is essential to better characterize the competitive potential of each strain, and to support rational decision making for nutrient supplementation during wine making...
June 2019: Food Microbiology
Lieke van der Hulst, Pablo Munguia, Julie A Culbert, Christopher M Ford, Rachel A Burton, Kerry L Wilkinson
The accumulation of volatile phenol glycoconjugates in smoke-exposed grapes was monitored following grapevine exposure to smoke, with different glycoconjugate profiles observed for fruit sampled 1 and 7 days after smoke exposure, and at maturity. Foliar application of kaolin reduced the concentration of volatile phenol glycoconjugates in smoke-exposed fruit, but efficacy depended on the rate of application and extent of coverage. Smoke taint can be found in wines made from grapes exposed to smoke from bushfires or prescribed burns...
January 5, 2019: Planta
Mar Vilanova, María Fandiño, Samuel Frutos-Puerto, Javier J Cancela
Vineyard management can influence the growth and yield components in the vineyards and therefore on the grape and wine quality. In this work, a chemical study was conducted (2014-2015) to examine the effect of fertigation on chemical composition of Albariño. A control (Rain-fed) and fertigation (60% and 100%) treatments were apply at same irrigation depth, where fertigation 100% is complete nutrient requirements to Albariño trellis system in this location (Rias Baixas AOC, NW Spain). Results showed that non-volatile compounds of Albariño musts were not affected by fertigation treatments...
April 25, 2019: Food Chemistry
Nami Goto-Yamamoto
A new rule stipulates that wine made in Japan from grapes harvested in Japan be labeled as "Japan wine". The main grape varieties for Japan Wine, Koshu for white wine and Muscat Bailey A for red, are unique to Japan. Koshu is native to Japan and its origin, long unknown, has recently been revealed through DNA analysis. Wine made from this variety suffered from a lack of characteristic aroma, but a recent study has demonstrated its potential for producing wine with a citrus scent. Muscat Bailey A was bred in Japan...
December 22, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kimmo Sirén, Sarah Siu Tze Mak, Ulrich Fischer, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, M Thomas P Gilbert
The wine microbiome - that is the microbial communities associated with the fermentation of must, is one of the most important factors in transforming grapes to wine, including flavour and aroma. Recent developments in high throughput sequencing and other 'omics methodologies are rapidly changing the level and complexity of information that we are able to extract from the wine microbiome. This will significantly enhance not only our understanding of which microbes are present at the various stages of the grapevine growth and winemaking process, but also improve our understanding of the complex interactions between microbes, the substrate and environment, ultimately shaping wine production...
December 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Lucía M Mendoza, Guillermo A Vega-Lopez, Miguel Fernández de Ullivarri, Raúl R Raya
Yeasts population associated with grapes from Northwest Argentina, a region with a significant vine-growing increase over the past years, was evaluated. Ten species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts were identified from four grape varieties (Malbec, Merlot, Syrah and Torrontes) being Hanseniaspora uvarum the dominant species. Typing of isolates revealed genetic variability within Hanseniaspora genus and also high variability was observed according to their oenological characteristics. Based on the oenological properties, the most adequate strains as starter cultures were H...
November 26, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
M A Paissoni, P Waffo-Teguo, W Ma, M Jourdes, L Rolle, P -L Teissedre
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments found in the cell vacuoles of fruits and flowers, performing several roles from insects attraction to stress protection. Their antioxidant activity contributes to human health, and consuming plant-derived products provides their higher source in the diet. Although their colour and nutritional features, their contribution to sensory properties of foods has not been widely investigated. In wine, preferences are connected with sensory attributes of colour, aroma, taste, and mouthfeel...
November 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tristan Jade Porter, Benoit Divol, Mathabatha Evodia Setati
Yeasts of various genera are increasingly used alongside Saccharomyces cerevisiae to drive wine fermentations owing to their positive contribution to the organoleptic profile of the resulting wines. One such yeast species is Lachancea thermotolerans. Other species of the genus Lachancea, namely, L. fermentati and L. lanzarotensis have also been isolated from the fermentation environment, but have not received the same degree of attention as L. thermotolerans. The aim of this study was to investigate the oenological potential of these three Lachancea species, regarding their expression of oenologically relevant enzymes, their fermentation attributes and the expression and location of β-glucosidase during fermentation of synthetic and real grape must (Muscat of Alexandria)...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Facundo Giorello, Maria Jose Valera, Valentina Martin, Andres Parada, Valentina Salzman, Laura Camesasca, Laura Fariña, Eduardo Boido, Karina Medina, Eduardo Dellacassa, Luisa Berna, Pablo S Aguilar, Albert Mas, Carina Gaggero, Francisco Carrau
Hanseniaspora is the main genus of the apiculate yeast group that represents about 70% of the grape-associated microflora. Hanseniaspora vineae is emerging as a promising species for quality wine production compared to other non- Saccharomyces Wines produced by H. vineae with Saccharomyces cerevisiae consistently exhibit more intense fruity flavours and complexity than wines produced by S. cerevisiae alone.In this work, genome sequencing, assembling and phylogenetic analysis of two strains of H. vineae shows that it is a member of the Saccharomyces complex and it diverged before the Whole Genome Duplication (WGD) event from this clade...
October 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Pei-Tong Liu, Ke-Ji Yu, Yu-Ting Li, Chang-Qing Duan, Guo-Liang Yan
The effect of adding amino acids on wine aroma is largely influenced by nutritional status of grape must. In this study, the effects of linoleic acid (LA) content on the aromatic function of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) addition were investigated in alcoholic fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The results showed that initial LA content in must significantly influenced the effect of BCAAs addition on volatiles in final wine. Adding BCAAs (140 mg/L of l-leucine, 117 mg/L of l-isoleucine and 118 mg/L of l-valine) in must with low LA content (12 mg/L) promoted the production of most volatiles, including higher alcohols (isobutanol, 2-phenylethanol), fatty acids (hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid) and esters (ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenethyl acetate and ethyl octanoate), which were well consistent with previous literatures...
December 2018: Food Research International
Stéphanie Rollero, Anscha J J Zietsman, Fanny Buffetto, Julia Schückel, Anne Ortiz-Julien, Benoit Divol
Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains display no to weak pectinase activity, the utilization of external pectinase is a common practice in winemaking to enhance the extraction of compounds located in the grape berry skins during maceration. In this study, the activity of the native endopolygalacturonase of a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain, isolated from grape juice, was characterized in Shiraz grape must during alcoholic fermentation with or without prefermentative cold maceration. The wines made with K. marxianus had a higher methanol concentration, more free-run wine, an altered volatile compound profile, and displayed pectinase activity in cell-free wine samples...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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