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Animal Cell Lines

Antonio Serrano-Albarrás, Sergi Cirera-Rocosa, Daniel Sastre, Irene Estadella, Antonio Felipe
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a serious autoimmune disease that has severe impacts on both the wellbeing of patients and the economy of the health system. Similar to many autoimmune diseases, RA concurs with a long evolution, which eventually results in highly debilitating symptoms. Therapeutic treatments last for long periods during RA. However, their efficiency and side effects result in suboptimal conditions. Therefore, the need for specific, safer and nontoxic alternatives for the treatment of RA is essential...
March 13, 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
Juan M Díaz-Tocados, María E Rodríguez-Ortiz, Yolanda Almadén, Carmen Pineda, Julio M Martínez-Moreno, Carmen Herencia, Noemi Vergara, M Victoria Pendón-Ruiz de Mier, Rafael Santamaría, Cristian Rodelo-Haad, Antonio Casado-Díaz, Víctor Lorenzo, Catarina Carvalho, João M Frazão, Arnold J Felsenfeld, William G Richards, Escolástico Aguilera-Tejero, Mariano Rodríguez, Ignacio López, Juan R Muñoz-Castañeda
Calcimimetics decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The decrease in PTH should cause a reduction in bone turnover; however, the direct effect of calcimimetics on bone cells, which express the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), has not been defined. In this study, we evaluated the direct bone effects of CaSR activation by a calcimimetic (AMG 641) in vitro and in vivo. To create a PTH "clamp," total parathyroidectomy was performed in rats with and without uremia induced by 5/6 nephrectomy, followed by a continuous subcutaneous infusion of PTH...
March 12, 2019: Kidney International
Emily A Kibble, Mitali Sarkar-Tyson, Geoffrey W Coombs, Charlene M Kahler
Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are obligate pathogens of the human host. Due to their adaptation to the human host, many factors required for infection are specialized for the human host to the point that natural infection processes are difficult to replicate in animal models. Immortalized human cell lines have been used to identify the host factors necessary for successful colonization of human mucosal surfaces. One such model is the Detroit 562 pharyngeal immortalized cell monolayer model which is used to measure the rate of attachment to and invasion of N...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Huimin Du, Qing Xu, Sheng Xiao, Zhenru Wu, Jianping Gong, Changan Liu, Guosheng Ren, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: miRNA-424-5p (miR-424-5p) has been implicated in the development and progression of various tumors. However, the functional mechanisms of miR-424-5p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific biological functions of miRNA in HCC. METHODS: The expression of miR-424-5p was measured by qRT-PCR in HCC tissues and cell lines. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the protein expression level of TRIM29...
March 12, 2019: Life Sciences
Catherine C Applegate, Joe L Rowles, John W Erdman
First-line therapy for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) involves the removal of tumor-promoting androgens by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), resulting in transient tumor regression. Recurrent disease is attributed to tumor adaptation to survive, despite lower circulating androgen concentrations, making the blockage of downstream androgen signaling a chemotherapeutic goal for PCa. Dietary intake of tomato and its predominant carotenoid, lycopene, reduce the risk for PCa, and preclinical studies have shown promising results that tomato and lycopene can inhibit androgen signaling in normal prostate tissue...
March 15, 2019: Nutrients
Ya Bin Wei, Michael McCarthy, Hongyan Ren, Tania Carrillo-Roa, Tatyana Shekhtman, Anna DeModena, Jia Jia Liu, Susan G Leckband, Ole Mors, Marcella Rietschel, Neven Henigsberg, Annamaria Cattaneo, Elisabeth B Binder, Katherine J Aitchison, John R Kelsoe
Predicting antidepressant response has been a clinical challenge for mood disorder. Although several genome-wide association studies have suggested a number of genetic variants to be associated with antidepressant response, the sample sizes are small and the results are difficult to replicate. Previous animal studies have shown that knockout of the serotonin receptor 7 gene (HTR7) resulted in an antidepressant-like phenotype, suggesting it was important to antidepressant action. In this report, in the first stage, we used a cost-effective pooled-sequencing strategy to sequence the entire HTR7 gene and its regulatory regions to investigate the association of common variants in HTR7 and clinical response to four selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs: citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine and sertraline) in a retrospective cohort mainly consisting of subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 359)...
March 15, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Juan Carlos Mora-Díaz, Pablo Enrique Piñeyro, Elizabeth Houston, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola
The porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is classified as a member of genus Betacoronavirus , family Coronaviridae , sub-family Cornavirinae , and order Nidovirales . PHEV shares the same genomic organization, replication strategy, and expression of viral proteins as other nidoviruses. PHEV produces vomiting and wasting disease (VWD) and/or encephalomyelitis, being the only known neurotropic coronavirus affecting pigs. First clinical outbreak was reported in 1957 in Ontario, Canada. Although pigs are the only species susceptible to natural PHEV infections, the virus displays neurotropism in mice and Wistar rats...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
John P Welby, Tatiana Kaptzan, Anton Wohl, Timothy E Peterson, Aditya Raghunathan, Desmond A Brown, Shiv K Gupta, Liang Zhang, David J Daniels
Diffuse Midline Gliomas with Histone 3-Lysine-27-Methionine (H3K27M) mutation constitute the majority of Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG), which is the most aggressive form of pediatric glioma with a dire prognosis. DIPG are lethal tumors found in younger children with a median survival <1 year from diagnosis. Discovery of the characteristic H3K27M mutations offers opportunity and hope for development of targeted therapies for this deadly disease. The H3K27M mutation, likely through epigenetic alterations in specific H3 lysine trimethylation levels and subsequent gene expression, plays a significant role in pathogenesis of DIPG...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Daria L Ivanova, Stephen L Denton, Kevin D Fettel, Kerry S Sondgeroth, Juan Munoz Gutierrez, Berit Bangoura, Ildiko R Dunay, Jason P Gigley
Apicomplexans are a diverse and complex group of protozoan pathogens including Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Babesia spp. They infect a wide variety of hosts and are a major health threat to humans and other animals. Innate immunity provides early control and also regulates the development of adaptive immune responses important for controlling these pathogens. Innate immune responses also contribute to immunopathology associated with these infections. Natural killer (NK) cells have been for a long time known to be potent first line effector cells in helping control protozoan infection...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Nefeli Kakava-Georgiadou, Maria M Zwartkruis, Clara Bullich-Vilarrubias, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Keith M Garner, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger A H Adan
Development of tools to manipulate activity of specific neurons is important for dissecting the function of neural circuits. Viral vectors and conditional transgenic animal lines that target recombinases to specific cells facilitate the successful manipulation and recording of specific subsets of neurons. So far, it has been possible to target neuronal subtypes within a certain brain region based on transcriptional control regions from a gene selectively expressed in those cells or based upon its projections...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Eriko Nakato, Xin Liu, Inger Eriksson, Maki Yamamoto, Akiko Kinoshita-Toyoda, Hidenao Toyoda, Lena Kjellén, Jin-Ping Li, Hiroshi Nakato
A class of carbohydrate-modified proteins, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), play critical roles both in normal development and during disease. Genetic studies using a model organism, Drosophila, have been contributing to understanding the in vivo functions of HSPGs. Despite the many strengths of the Drosophila model for in vivo studies, biochemical analysis of Drosophila HS is somewhat limited, mainly due to the insufficient amount of the material obtained from the animal. To overcome this obstacle, we generated mutant cell lines for four HS modifying enzymes that are critical for the formation of ligand binding sites on HS, Hsepi, Hs2st, Hs6st, and Sulf1, using a recently established method...
March 14, 2019: Glycobiology
Xiaofei Zhang, Zihao Qi, Huijing Yin, Gong Yang
The interplay between p53 and RAS signaling regulates cancer chemoresistance, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of p53 and RAS on ovarian cancer cisplatin resistance to explore the potential therapeutic targets. Methods : An inducible p53 and RAS mutants active in either MAPK/ERK (S35 and E38) or PI3K/AKT (C40) or both (V12) were sequentially introduced into a p53-null ovarian cancer cell line-SKOV3. Comparative microarray analysis was performed using Gene Chip Prime View Human Gene Expression arrays (Affymetrix)...
2019: Theranostics
Long Xiao, Yaohui Luo, Rongfen Tai, Ningnan Zhang
Previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) signaling alleviates systemic inflammation in animal models, and suggested that ERβ‑selective agonists may deactivate microglia and suppress T cell activity via downregulation of nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB). In the present study, the role of ERβ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced inflammation and association with NF‑κB activity were investigated in PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines...
March 6, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Elena Santidrián Yebra-Pimentel, Marina Gebert, Hans J Jansen, Susanne A Jong-Raadsen, Ron P H Dirks
Despite efforts to restore Atlantic sturgeon in European rivers, aquaculture techniques result in animals with high post-release mortality due to, among other reasons, their low tolerance to increasing water temperature. Marker genes to monitor heat stress are needed in order to identify heat-resistant fish. Therefore, an Atlantic sturgeon cell line was exposed to different heat shock protocols (30 °C and 35 °C) and differences in gene expression were investigated. In total 3020 contigs (∼1.5%) were differentially expressed...
March 9, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A D Zhang, Y F Wang, G F Shi, C Han, J Zhang, L Wang, H Liu, Y Li
Objective: To explore the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MR-DWI) technique in predicting the efficacy of radiotherapy in patients with esophageal cancer, using experimental animal models. Methods: BALB/c nude mice were subcutaneously injected with Eca-109 cell lines and then tumor formed. The experimental group (16 cases) received a single dose of 15 Gy (6 MV X-rays) delivered by a medical linear accelerator, while the control group (24 cases) did not receive any treatment. The two groups were scanned every other day, started one day before the radiotherapy...
February 23, 2019: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Zhihua Wang, Unchol Kim, Yanting Jiao, Chaowen Li, Yingying Guo, Xiaoyao Ma, Ming Jiang, Zhi-Hong Jiang, Yuanyuan Hou, Gang Bai
Ginsenosides have previously been demonstrated to effectively inhibit cancer cell growth and survival in both animal models and cell lines. However, the specific ginsenoside component that is the active ingredient for cancer treatment through interaction with a target protein remains unknown. By an integrated quantitative proteomics approach via affinity mass spectrum(MS) technology, we deciphered the core structure of the ginsenoside active ingredient derived from crude extracts of ginsenosides and progressed toward identifying the target protein that mediates its anti-cancer activity...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Proteome Research
Jeffrey S Souris, Hannah J Zhang, Urszula Dougherty, Nai-Tzu Chen, Joseph V Waller, Leu-Wei Lo, John Hart, Chin-Tu Chen, Marc Bissonnette
Although valuable insights into colon cancer biology have been garnered from human colon cancer cell lines and primary colonic tissues, and animal studies using human colon cancer xenografts, immunocompetent mouse models of spontaneous or chemically-induced colon cancer better phenocopy human disease. As most sporadic human colon tumors present adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations, considerable effort has gone into developing mice that express mutant Apc alleles that mimic human colon cancer pathogenesis...
March 12, 2019: Carcinogenesis
Lasse Neukirch, Tea Kirkegaard Nielsen, Henriette Laursen, Joana Daradoumis, Christian Thirion, Peter Johannes Holst
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that make up 8% of the human genome have been associated with the development and progression of cancer. The murine model system of the melanoma associated retrovirus (MelARV), which is expressed in different murine cancer cell lines, can be used to study mechanisms and therapeutic approaches against ERVs in cancer. We designed a vaccine strategy (Ad5-MelARV) of adenoviruses encoding the MelARV proteins Gag and Env that assemble in vivo into virus-like particles displaying the cancer-associated MelARV Env to the immune system...
February 15, 2019: Oncotarget
Lieselotte Lemoine, Elsy Thijssen, Robert Carleer, Jirka Cops, Veerle Lemmens, Peter Van Eyken, Paul Sugarbaker, Kurt Van der Speeten
Worldwide, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) are used in current clinical practice for colorectal peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM) treatment. Although, there is an acknowledged standardization regarding the CRS, we are still lacking a much-needed standardization amongst the various intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy protocols, including the HIPEC dosing regimen. We should rely on pharmacologic evidence building towards such a standardization. The current IP chemotherapy dosing regimens can be divided into body surface area (BSA)-based and concentration-based protocols...
February 15, 2019: Oncotarget
Qingmei Wang, Rongzhang He, Tan Tan, Jia Li, Zheng Hu, Weihao Luo, Lili Duan, Wenna Luo, Dixian Luo
Background: The abnormal expression of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been reported in the progression of various tumors. However, the potential biological roles and regulatory mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, it is crucial to identify that lncRNAs can be used for the clinical prevention and treatment of CRC. Methods: In our previous work, we identificated a novel lncRNA, lncRNA-KAT7, and found that the expression of lncRNA-KAT7 in CRC tissues was significantly lower than that in matched normal intestinal tissues, and the expression in CRC cell lines was lower than that of normal intestinal epithelial cells (P < 0...
2019: Cancer Cell International
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