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Alireza Rabbani, Mehdi Kargarfard, Carlo Castagna, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Craig Twist
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of accumulated Global Positioning System (GPS)-accelerometer-based and heart rate (HR)-based training metrics to changes in high-intensity intermittent running capacity during an in-season phase in professional soccer players. METHODS: Eleven male professional players (mean ± SD, age: 27.2 ± 4.5 years) performed the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT ) before and after a five-week in-season training phase, and the final velocity (VIFT ) was considered as players' high-intensity intermittent running capacity...
January 24, 2019: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Scott M Shepard, Christopher C Cummins
Trimetaphosphate (TriMP, [P3 O9 ]3- ) reacts with PyAOP ([(H8 C4 N)3 PON4 C5 H3 ][PF6 ]), to yield an activated TriMP, [P3 O9 P(NC4 H8 )3 ]- (1), incorporating a phosphonium moiety. Anion 1 is isolated as its bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium (PPN) salt in 70% yield and phosphorylates nucleophiles with elimination of phosphoramide OP(NC4 H8 )3 . Treatment of 1 with amines HNR1 R2 generates [P3 O8 NR1 R2 ]2- (2a: R1 = R2 = Et; 2b: R1 = H, R2 = t Bu) in greater than 70% yield as mixed PPN and alkyl ammonium salts...
January 15, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Janine C de Snoo-Trimp, Bert Molewijk, Henrica C W de Vet
BACKGROUND: To support healthcare professionals in dealing with ethically difficult situations, Clinical Ethics Support (CES) services like Moral Case Deliberation (MCD) are increasingly implemented. To assess the impact of CES, it is important to evaluate outcomes. Despite general claims about outcomes from MCD experts and some qualitative research, there exists no conceptual analysis of outcomes yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically define and categorize MCD outcomes...
November 19, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Júlio A Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y Nakamura, Pedro Figueiredo, Eduardo Oliveira, António Rebelo
The aim of the current study was to analyze the influence of the timing of training and matches, and match location, on sleep pattern and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity in female soccer players. A total of 17 female soccer players (age: 21.6 ± 2.3 years; mean ± SD) wore wrist actigraph units and heart rate (HR) monitors during night-sleep throughout 18 night-training days (NTD), 18 resting days (RD), and 6 match-days (MD; 3 away-matches [AM] and 3 home-matches [HM]) of the competitive period. Training load was quantified by session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate (HR), training impulse (TRIMP), and subjective well-being...
November 18, 2018: Chronobiology International
Aitor Iturricastillo, Cristina Granados, Jesús Cámara, Raúl Reina, Daniel Castillo, Itziar Barrenetxea, Lander Lozano, Javier Yanci
PURPOSE: The main purpose of the present study was to determine physiological responses in wheelchair basketball (WB) matches in relation to heart rate (HR), match load (ML), differentiated perceived exertion (dRPE), lactate concentrations (LA), and tympanic temperature (TEMP), while specifying the individual player's playing time during different types of matches. METHOD: Nine Spanish First Division WB players participated in the study. Three groups were determined for each observation (i...
December 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
David P Looney, William R Santee, Laurie A Blanchard, Anthony J Karis, Alyssa J Carter, Adam W Potter
This study examined complex terrain march performance and cardiorespiratory responses when carrying different Soldier loads. Nine active duty military personnel (age, 21 ± 3 yr; height, 1.72 ± 0.07 m; body mass (BM), 83.4 ± 12.9 kg) attended two test visits during which they completed consecutive laps around a 2.5-km mixed terrain course with either a fighting load (30% BM) or an approach load (45% BM). Respiratory rate and heart rate data were collected using physiological status monitors. Training impulse (TRIMP) scores were calculated using Banister's formula to provide an integrated measure of both time and cardiorespiratory demands...
November 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Dajo Sanders, Teun van Erp, Jos J de Koning
PURPOSE: This study provides a retrospective analysis of a large competition database describing the intensity and load demands of professional road cycling races, highlighting the differences between men's and women's races. METHOD: Twenty male and ten female professional cyclists participated in this study. During 4 consecutive years, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output (PO) data were collected during both male (n = 3024) and female (n = 667) professional races...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stuart R Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt, Roger Eston
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the validity of internal and external Australian football (AF) training-load measures for predicting preseason variation of match-play exercise intensity (MEI sim/min) using a variable dose-response model. METHODS: Twenty-on professional male AF players completed an 18-wk preseason macrocycle. Preseason internal training load was quantified using session RPE (sRPE) and external load from satellite and accelerometer data. Using a training-impulse (TRIMPs) calculation, external load expressed in arbitrary units (a...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Thomas J O'Leary, Samantha C Saunders, Stephen J McGuire, Michelle C Venables, Rachel M Izard
PURPOSE: To compare training loads between men and women during 14-weeks of British Army standard entry basic training. METHODS: Thirty-one male (mean ± SD, age 21 ± 4 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 m, mass 77.1 ± 10.5 kg) and 28 female (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.65 ± 0.05 m, mass 63.9 ± 8.9 kg) British Army recruits had external (distance) and internal (heart rate [HR], training impulse [TRIMP], ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) training loads measured during weeks 1, 2, 6, 12 and 13 of basic training...
July 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ramires Alsamir Tibana, Nuno Manuel Frade de Sousa, Gabriel Veloso Cunha, Jonato Prestes, Carlos Fett, Tim J Gabbett, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
The aim of this study was to validate the quantification of internal training load (session rating perceived exertion, sRPE) and the effect of recall timing of sRPE during high-intensity functional training (HIFT) sessions. Thirteen male HIFT practitioners (age 27.2 ± 33 years, height 177.1 ± 4.0 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 9.0 kg) were monitored during two common HIFT training sessions: Fight Gone Bad (FGB) and Fran. The Edwards summated heart-rate-zone method was used as a reference measure of internal training load...
July 23, 2018: Sports
Travis Anderson, Amy R Lane, Anthony C Hackney
The cortisol awakening response (CAR) is commonly used as a marker of psychological stress; however, it is unknown whether CAR is affected by regular physical-exercise-induced stress. PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between training load and CAR. METHODS: Recreational endurance athletes were recruited from local running clubs. Subjects (n = 15) completed training logs for 2 wk, with various training loads, including psychometric analysis (Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes)...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei, Thomas Wyss
PURPOSE: Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) is an often-used measure to assess athletes' training load (TL). However, little is known about which factors could optimize the quality of data collection thereof. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the survey methods and the time points when sRPE was assessed on the correlation between subjective (sRPE) and objective (heart-rate training impulse; TRIMP) assessment of TL. METHODS: In the first part of the study, 45 well-trained subjects (30 men and 15 women) performed 20 running sessions with a heart-rate monitor and reported sRPE 30 min after training cessation...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Christoph Zinner, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Billy Sperlich
PURPOSE: The aim was to compare mesocycles with progressively increasing workloads and varied training intensity distribution (TID), that is, high-intensity (HIGH, > 4 mmol·L blood lactate), low-intensity (LOW, < 2 mmol·L blood lactate) or a combination of HIGH and LOW (referred to as "polarized" [POL]) on 5000-m running time and key components of endurance performance in recreational runners. METHODS: Forty-two runners (peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak): 45...
August 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sonja de Groot, Sven P Hoekstra, Paul Grandjean Perrenod Comtesse, Ingrid Kouwijzer, Linda J Valent
OBJECTIVE: To establish the relationship between internal and external handcycling training load for monitoring training in people with paraplegia. DESIGN: Observational study. SUBJECTS: Ten people with paraplegia. METHODS: All participants performed a graded peak exercise test. Power output and heart rate (HR) were measured and the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was determined during a 12-week training period...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Aaron D Heishman, Michael A Curtis, Ethan Saliba, Robert J Hornett, Steven K Malin, Arthur L Weltman
Heishman, AD, Curtis, MA, Saliba, E, Hornett, RJ, Malin, SK, and Weltman, AL. Noninvasive assessment of internal and external player load: implications for optimizing athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1280-1287, 2018-Few data exist that assess athlete tracking and monitoring for the development of strategies to optimize performance and reduce fatigue in elite athletes. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of external load and internal stress monitoring as assessment tools for examining a performance index of fatigue...
May 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Júlio A Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y Nakamura, Eduardo M Oliveira, António N Rebelo
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of nocturnal heart-rate-variability-monitoring methods to the effects of late-night soccer training sessions in female athletes. METHODS: Eleven female soccer players competing in the first division of the Portuguese soccer league wore heart-rate monitors during sleep at night throughout a 1-wk competitive in-season microcycle, after late-night training sessions (n = 3) and rest days (n = 3). Heart rate variability was analyzed through "slow-wave sleep episode" (10-min duration) and "hour by hour" (all the RR intervals recorded throughout the hours of sleep)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Shaun J McLaren, Tom W Macpherson, Aaron J Coutts, Christopher Hurst, Iain R Spears, Matthew Weston
BACKGROUND: The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships...
March 2018: Sports Medicine
Miranda J Menaspà, Paolo Menaspà, Sally A Clark, Maurizio Fanchini
PURPOSE: To validate the quantification of training load (session rating of perceived exertion [s-RPE]) in an Australian Olympic squad (women's water polo), assessed with the use of a modified RPE scale collected via a newly developed online system (athlete management system). METHODS: Sixteen elite women water polo players (age = 26 [3] y, height  = 1.78 [0.05] m, and body mass  = 75.5 [7.1] kg) participated in the study. Thirty training sessions were monitored for a total of 303 individual sessions...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Dajo Sanders, Mathieu Heijboer, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Tony Myers, Ibrahim Akubat
This study evaluated the changes in ratios of different intensity (rating of perceived exertion; RPE, heart rate; HR, power output; PO) and load measures (session-RPE; sRPE, individualized TRIMP; iTRIMP, Training Stress Score™; TSS) in professional cyclists. RPE, PO and HR data was collected from twelve professional cyclists (VO2max 75 ± 6 ml∙min∙kg-1 ) during a two-week baseline training period and during two cycling Grand Tours. Subjective:objective intensity (RPE:HR, RPE:PO) and load (sRPE:iTRIMP, sRPE:TSS) ratios and external:internal intensity (PO:HR) and load (TSS:iTRIMP) ratios were calculated for every session...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Alessandro Fornasiero, Aldo Savoldelli, Damiano Fruet, Gennaro Boccia, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena
The aims of the study were to describe the physiological profile of a 65-km (4000-m cumulative elevation gain) running mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) and to identify predictors of MUM performance. Twenty-three amateur trail-runners performed anthropometric evaluations and an uphill graded exercise test (GXT) for VO2max, ventilatory thresholds (VTs), power outputs (PMax, PVTs) and heart rate response (HRmax, HR@VTs). Heart rate (HR) was monitored during the race and intensity was expressed as: Zone I (<VT1), Zone II (VT1-VT2), Zone III (>VT2) for exercise load calculation (training impulse, TRIMP)...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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