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Long term effects associated with clonazepam use

Sari Frankel, Natalia Medvedeva, Samuel Gutherz, Catherine Kulick, Alexei Kondratyev, Patrick A Forcelli
Anticonvulsant drugs, when given during vulnerable periods of brain development, can have long-lasting consequences on nervous system function. In rats, the second postnatal week approximately corresponds to the late third trimester of gestation/early infancy in humans. Exposure to phenobarbital during this period has been associated with deficits in learning and memory, anxiety-like behavior, and social behavior, among other domains. Phenobarbital is the most common anticonvulsant drug used in neonatology...
April 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marc Guaita, Birgit Högl
Despite numerous case reports, the evidence for treatment of bruxism is still low. Different treatment modalities (behavioral techniques, intraoral devices, medications, and contingent electrical stimulation) have been applied. A clinical evaluation is needed to differentiate between awake bruxism and sleep bruxism and rule out any medical disorder or medication that could be behind its appearance (secondary bruxism). A polysomnography is required only in a few cases of sleep bruxism, mostly when sleep comorbidities are present...
February 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Fabrizio Rinaldi, Andrea Galbiati, Sara Marelli, Luigi Ferini Strambi, Marco Zucconi
Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease (RLS/WED) is a common condition characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs, concomitant with an unpleasant sensation in the lower limbs, which is typically relieved by movement. Symptoms occur predominantly at rest and prevail in the afternoon or evening. Treatment of patients with RLS/WED is indicated for those patients who suffer from clinically relevant symptoms. The management of mild forms of RLS/WED is mainly based on dopamine agonists (DA) therapy (including pramipexole and ropinirole) and α-2-δ calcium-channel ligand...
February 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Usman Iqbal, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Shabbir Syed-Abdul, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Chih-Wei Huang, Wen-Shan Jian, Min-Huei Hsu, Yun Yen, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
The carcinogenicity of benzodiazepines (BZDs) is still unclear. We aimed to assess whether long-term benzodiazepines use is risk for cancer.We conducted a longitudinal population-based case-control study by using 12 years from Taiwan National Health Insurance database and investigated the association between BZDs use and cancer risk of people aged over 20 years. During the study period, 42,500 cases diagnosed with cancer were identified and analyzed for BZDs use. For each case, six eligible controls matched for age, sex, and the index date (ie, free of any cancer in the date of case diagnosis) by using propensity score...
February 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marco Pozzi, Valentino Conti, Federica Locatelli, Sara Galbiati, Sonia Radice, Giuseppe Citerio, Emilio Clementi, Sandra Strazzer
OBJECTIVE: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is widely described as occurring during intensive care, but in a number of patients it may last longer into the rehabilitation phase. Furthermore, drug therapy has been based on isolated observations. In this study, our aims are to describe a group of 26 pediatric rehabilitation patients with PSH and to quantify the effect of several drugs used to suppress PSH episodes. SETTING: Neurorehabilitation unit of IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini (LC), Italy...
September 2015: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
M L C Rodríguez, J Campos, C Forcato, R Leiguarda, H Maldonado, V A Molina, M E Pedreira
A consolidated memory recalled by a specific reminder can become unstable (labile) and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time. This labilization phase is followed by a process of stabilization called reconsolidation. The phenomenon has been shown in diverse types of memory, and different pharmacological agents have been used to disclose its presence. Several studies have revealed the relevance of the GABAergic system to this process. Consequently, our hypothesis is that the system is involved in the reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
Robert H Howland
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a serious complication associated with the long-term use of dopamine receptor-blocking drugs. No drugs are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating TD. A number of drugs appear to have some benefit for its treatment, including branched-chain amino acids, piracetam (Nootropil(®), Nootrop(®), Nootropyl(®)), clonazepam (Klonopin(®)), levetiracetam (Keppra(®)), propranolol (Inderal(®)), and clonidine (Catapres(®)), and they would be clinically reasonable to try...
July 2011: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Kirstie N Anderson, John M Shneerson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of the normal muscle atonia during REM sleep associated with disruptive motor activity related to the acting out of dreams. There is frequently injury to the patient or bed partner, and treatment is usually required. Clonazepam has been the first-line therapy for many years, with 2 large case series reporting efficacy with few side effects in the majority of patients. However, long-acting hypnotics in the elderly or those with cognitive impairment can be associated with adverse events especially unacceptable daytime sedation, confusion, and exacerbation of existing sleep apnea...
June 15, 2009: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Ewa Wojda, Aleksandra Wlaz, Philip N Patsalos, Jarogniew J Luszczki
The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effects of levetiracetam (LEV) in combination with the various antiepileptic drugs (clonazepam [CZP], oxcarbazepine [OXC], phenobarbital [PB], tiagabine [TGB], and valproate [VPA]), in the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model. Limbic (psychomotor) seizure activity was evoked in albino Swiss mice by a current (32 mA, 6 Hz, 3s stimulus duration) delivered via ocular electrodes and isobolographic analysis for parallel and non-parallel dose-response effects was used to characterize the consequent anticonvulsant interactions between the various drug combinations...
October 2009: Epilepsy Research
Jin Chen, Fangcheng Cai, Jie Cao, Xiaoping Zhang, Sixiu Li
Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that are commonly used to treat seizures in children also affect cognition, and these effects can persist into adulthood, long after drug withdrawal. Widespread enhancement of apoptosis may be one mechanism underlying these lasting cognitive changes. Whether AEDs affect other processes in brain development during early postnatal life has not, however, been systematically analyzed. Here we determined whether chronic administration of common AEDs during early life alters cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus...
October 2009: Journal of Neuroscience Research
P Hubert, D Parain, L Vallée
Convulsive status epilepticus in childhood is a life threatening condition with serious risk of neurological sequelae which constitutes a medical emergency. Clinical and experimental data suggest that prolonged seizures can have immediate and long-term adverse consequences on the immature and developing brain. So the child who presents with a continuous generalized convulsive seizure lasting greater than five minutes should be promptly treated. The outcome is mainly determined by the underlying etiology, age and duration of status epilepticus...
April 2009: Revue Neurologique
Herman G M Westenberg
The common occurrence and high level of morbidity and burden associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are gaining widespread recognition. Interest in understanding and treating the disorder has also grown in response to large-scale investigations that have demonstrated high levels of efficacy with both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments. Such trials indicate that many patients with generalized SAD (roughly 40% to 60%) respond (eg, Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement rating 1 or 2) after an adequate treatment trial, despite having suffered with disabling symptoms for most of their adult lives...
February 2009: CNS Spectrums
Jarogniew J Luszczki, Neville Ratnaraj, Philip N Patsalos, Stanislaw J Czuczwar
PURPOSE: Isobolographic analysis was used to characterize the interactions between stiripentol (STP) and clonazepam (CZP), ethosuximide (ETS), phenobarbital (PB), and valproate (VPA) in suppressing pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures in mice. METHODS: The anticonvulsant and acute adverse (neurotoxic) effects of STP in combination with the various conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), at fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1, were evaluated in the PTZ and chimney tests in mice using the isobolographic analysis...
November 2006: Epilepsia
Mohamad A Mikati, Alhan N Shamseddine
Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) is an acquired epileptic aphasia disorder in which children, usually 3-8 years of age who have developed age-appropriate speech, experience language regression with verbal auditory agnosia, abnormal epileptiform activity, behavioral disturbances, and sometimes overt seizures. There are no controlled clinical trials investigating the therapeutic options for LKS. Only open-label data are available. Early diagnosis and initiation of prompt medical treatment appear to be important to achieving better long-term prognosis...
2005: Paediatric Drugs
Tim F Oberlander, Ruth Eckstein Grunau, Colleen Fitzgerald, Michael Papsdorf, Dan Rurak, Wayne Riggs
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective study, we examined biobehavioral responses to acute procedural pain at 2 months of age in infants with prenatal and postnatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication exposure. Based on previous findings showing reduced pain responses in newborns after prenatal exposure, we hypothesized that altered pain reactivity would also be found at 2 months of age. METHODS: Facial action (Neonatal Facial Coding System) and cardiac autonomic reactivity derived from the respiratory activity and heart rate variability (HRV) responses to a painful event (heel-lance) were compared between 3 groups of infants: (1) infants with prenatal SSRI exposure alone (n = 11; fluoxetine, n = 2; paroxetine, n = 9); (2) infants with prenatal and postnatal SSRI (via breast milk) exposure (total n = 30; fluoxetine, n = 6; paroxetine, n = 20; sertraline, n = 4); and (3) control infants (n = 22; nonexposed) during baseline, lance, and recovery periods...
February 2005: Pediatrics
Jarogniew J Luszczki, Joanna Wojcik-Cwikla, Marta M Andres, Stanislaw J Czuczwar
To characterize the anticonvulsant effects and types of interactions exerted by mixtures of vigabatrin (VGB) and conventional antiepileptic drugs (valproate (VPA), ethosuximide (ESM), phenobarbital (PB), and clonazepam (CZP)) in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice, the isobolographic analysis for three fixed-ratio combinations of 1 : 3, 1 : 1, and 3 : 1 was used. The adverse-effect profile of the combinations tested, at the doses corresponding to their median effective doses (ED(50)) at the fixed-ratio of 1 : 1 against PTZ-induced seizures, was determined by the chimney (motor performance), step-through passive avoidance (long-term memory), pain threshold (pain sensitivity), and Y-maze (general explorative locomotor activity) tests in mice...
May 2005: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Bradley F Boeve, Michael H Silber, Tanis J Ferman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment response with melatonin for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) associated with other neurologic disorders. BACKGROUND: Clonazepam has been considered the treatment of choice for RBD. However, an alternative treatment is desirable for those with RBD refractory to clonazepam, for those who experience intolerable side-effects with clonazepam, and for those in whom clonazepam precipitates or aggravates obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)...
July 2003: Sleep Medicine
J R T Davidson
OBJECTIVE: To review placebo-controlled medication trials in social phobia (SP). METHOD: Published and/or presented placebo-controlled trials of medication were reviewed and summarized. RESULTS: Phenelzine is effective in 60-70% of patients with SP and always superior to placebo. Although reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are safer, their benefits are unpredictable. SSRIs, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline are superior to placebo in generalized SP...
2003: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum
Susan M. McCurry, Sonia Ancoli-Israel
Changes in sleep architecture and circadian rhythms, including increased sleep latency and nighttime awakenings, decreased slow-wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and total sleep time, and increased daytime napping are widespread in people with dementia. In addition, cyclic agitation episodes ("sundowning"), nightmares or hallucinations, sleep attacks, and nocturnal behavioral outbursts are associated with specific dementia syndromes. Sleep hygiene recommendations, particularly those aimed at reducing daytime sleep and improving the sleep environment and routine, can offset the circadian disturbances of some dementia patients...
May 2003: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Matthias K. Lee, Christian Guilleminault
Among the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-related parasomnias, the most common and important disorder for which patients present is REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is often undiagnosed for many years, despite the sometimes bizarre and harmful behaviors involved. Complete evaluation and accurate diagnosis are essential for proper management. This includes medical, sleep/wake, psychiatric, and neurologic histories. Although they may raise feelings of guilt or shame, questions related to sexual and violent behaviors should be directed towards the identified patient as well as their bed partners...
March 2002: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
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