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Shu-Chun Huang, Richard Casaburi, Ming-Feng Liao, Kuo-Cheng Liu, Yu-Jen Chen, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Hong-Ren Su
We hypothesized that blood lactate concentration([Lac]blood ) is a function of cardiopulmonary variables, exercise intensity and some anthropometric elements during aerobic exercise. This investigation aimed to establish a mathematical model to estimate [Lac]blood noninvasively during constant work rate (CWR) exercise of various intensities. 31 healthy participants were recruited and each underwent 4 cardiopulmonary exercise tests: one incremental and three CWR tests (low: 35% of peak work rate for 15 min, moderate: 60% 10 min and high: 90% 4 min)...
February 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Katharina Schulz, Christopher Pöhlmann, Richard Dietrich, Erwin Märtlbauer, Thomas Elßner
Phycotoxins and mycotoxins, such as paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, type A trichothecenes, and aflatoxins are among the most toxic low molecular weight toxins associated with human poisoning incidents through the consumption of naturally contaminated food. Therefore, there is an utmost need for rapid and sensitive on-site detection systems. Herein, an electrochemical biochip for fast detection of saxitoxin, T-2 toxin as well as aflatoxin M1 and their corresponding congeners, respectively, using a portable and fully automated detection platform (pBDi, portable BioDetector integrated) was developed...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Ranjit I Kylat, Joel Addams, Richard E Sobonya
Herpes Simplex Virus infections (HSV) are ubiquitous. The neonatal HSV infection (NHSV) is rare. The incidence is estimated globally at only 10.3 per 100,000 births, but it can cause devastating disease in premature infants. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be the etiologic agents in this type of vertically transmittted NHSV infection. Here we describe the pathological findings from a complete autopsy of a very low birth weight infant who succumbed to the infection despite early institution of antiviral treatment. We urge more awareness of this disease with continued surveillance; every effort should be taken to make an early diagnosis and thus prevent this devastating disease...
October 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Lindsay C Burrage, John J Reynolds, Nissan Vida Baratang, Jennifer B Phillips, Jeremy Wegner, Ashley McFarquhar, Martin R Higgs, Audrey E Christiansen, Denise G Lanza, John R Seavitt, Mahim Jain, Xiaohui Li, David A Parry, Vandana Raman, David Chitayat, Ivan K Chinn, Alison A Bertuch, Lefkothea Karaviti, Alan E Schlesinger, Dawn Earl, Michael Bamshad, Ravi Savarirayan, Harsha Doddapaneni, Donna Muzny, Shalini N Jhangiani, Christine M Eng, Richard A Gibbs, Weimin Bi, Lisa Emrick, Jill A Rosenfeld, John Postlethwait, Monte Westerfield, Mary E Dickinson, Arthur L Beaudet, Emmanuelle Ranza, Celine Huber, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Wei Shen, Rong Mao, Jason D Heaney, Jordan S Orange, Débora Bertola, Guilherme L Yamamoto, Wagner A R Baratela, Merlin G Butler, Asim Ali, Mehdi Adeli, Daniel H Cohn, Deborah Krakow, Andrew P Jackson, Melissa Lees, Amaka C Offiah, Colleen M Carlston, John C Carey, Grant S Stewart, Carlos A Bacino, Philippe M Campeau, Brendan Lee
SPONASTRIME dysplasia is an autosomal-recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia characterized by spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, metaphyseal striations, and disproportionate short stature. Scoliosis, coxa vara, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia have also been reported in this disorder. Although an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern has been hypothesized, pathogenic variants in a specific gene have not been discovered in individuals with SPONASTRIME dysplasia...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Human Genetics
Sabine Irtan, Boo Messahel, Veronica Moroz, Roger E Taylor, Richard Grundy, Anna Kelsey, Gordan Vujanic, Kathy Pritchard-Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of patients with stage III Wilms tumours (WT) treated in the UKW3 trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with a pathologically confirmed stage III non-anaplastic WT at nephrectomy (Group A) or with an 'inoperable' tumour at diagnosis managed by biopsy and pre-operative chemotherapy (Actinomycin D-Vincristine-Doxorubicin) but stage I or II at subsequent nephrectomy (Group B) were included. RESULTS: The 4-year overall (OS)/event free survival (EFS) for Group A (n = 117) patients was 90%(95%CI:83-94)/81%(CI:73-87) and for Group B (n = 32) 94%(CI:77-98)/88%(CI:70-95)...
February 2019: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Radmila Terentyeva, Peter Bronk, Tae Yun Kim, Karim Roder, Richard T Clements, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Small-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels expressed in ventricular myocytes are dormant in health yet become functional in cardiac disease. SK channels are voltage independent and their gating is controlled by intracellular [Ca2+ ] in a biphasic manner. Submicromolar [Ca2+ ] activates the channel via constitutively-bound calmodulin, while higher [Ca2+ ] exerts inhibitory effect during depolarization. Using a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by thoracic aortic banding, we found that functional upregulation of SK2 channels in hypertrophic rat ventricular cardiomyocytes is driven by PKA phosphorylation...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Rodolfo G Gatto, Allen Q Ye, Luis Colon-Perez, Thomas H Mareci, Anna Lysakowski, Steven D Price, Scott T Brady, Muge Karaman, Gerardo Morfini, Richard L Magin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work is to study the changes in white matter integrity in R6/2, a well-established animal model of Huntington's disease (HD) that are captured by ex vivo diffusion imaging (DTI) using a high field MRI (17.6 T). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI and continuous time random walk (CTRW) models were used to fit changes in the diffusion-weighted signal intensity in the corpus callosum of controls and in R6/2 mice. RESULTS: A significant 13% decrease in fractional anisotropy, a 7% increase in axial diffusion, and a 33% increase in radial diffusion were observed between R6/2 and control mice...
February 15, 2019: Magma
Thomas A Perry, Andrew Gait, Terence W O'Neill, Matthew J Parkes, Richard Hodgson, Michael J Callaghan, Nigel K Arden, David T Felson, Timothy F Cootes
PURPOSE: Synovitis is common in knee osteoarthritis and is associated with both knee pain and progression of disease. Semiautomated methods have been developed for quantitative assessment of structure in knee osteoarthritis. Our aims were to apply a novel semiautomated assessment method using 3D active appearance modeling for the quantification of synovial tissue volume (STV) and to compare its performance with conventional manual segmentation. METHODS: Thirty-two sagittal T1 -weighted fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced MRIs were assessed for STV by a single observer using 1) manual segmentation and 2) a semiautomated approach...
February 15, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Peter C Adamson, Gareth J Veal, Richard B Womer, Holly J Meany, M Brooke Bernhardt, A Lindsay Frazier, Frank M Balis
BACKGROUND: Carboplatin is often adaptively dosed based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR), usually estimated by nuclear medicine tests. At least five pediatric adaptive dosing formulas have been developed. In an effort to standardize dosing in Children's Oncology Group protocols, we explored methodologic variation in GFR estimation and adaptive-dosing formula performance. PROCEDURE: Nuclear medicine GFR data from published series of ≥100 children with cancer were compared...
February 15, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Negin Ashoori, Marc Teixido, Stephanie Spahr, Gregory H LeFevre, David L Sedlak, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater is increasingly being valued as a freshwater resource in arid regions and can provide opportunities for beneficial reuse via aquifer recharge if adequate pollutant removal can be achieved. We envision a multi-unit operation approach to capture, treat, and recharge (CTR) stormwater using low energy, cost-effective technologies appropriate for larger magnitude, less frequent events. Herein, we tested nutrient, metal, and trace organic contaminant removal of a pilot-scale CTR system in the laboratory using biochar-amended woodchip bioreactors following eight months of aging under field conditions with exposure to real stormwater...
February 2, 2019: Water Research
Richard Capra, Stefano A Bini, Dawn E Bowden, Katherine Etter, Matt Callahan, Richard T Smith, Thomas Parker Vail
Optimizing surgical instrumentation may contribute to value-based care, particularly in commonly performed procedures. We report our experience in implementing a perioperative efficiency program in 2 types of orthopedic surgery (primary total-knee arthroplasty, TKA, and total-hip arthroplasty, THA).A comparative before-and-after study with 2 participating surgeons, each performing both THA and TKA, was conducted. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of surgical tray optimization on operating and processing time, cost, and waste associated with preparation, delivery, and staging of sterile surgical instruments...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thomas J Jackson, Richard D Williams, Jesper Brok, Tanzina Chowdhury, Milind Ronghe, Mark Powis, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Gordan M Vujanić
INTRODUCTION: The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols recommend preoperative chemotherapy appropriate for Wilms tumors (WTs) in children with renal tumors aged ≥6 months, reserving biopsy for "atypical" cases. The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) joined the SIOP-WT-2001 study but continued the national practice of biopsy at presentation. METHOD: Retrospective study of concordance between locally reported renal tumor biopsies and central pathology review nephrectomy diagnoses of children enrolled by CCLG centers in the SIOP-WT-2001 study...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Sarah B Bateni, Anders J Davidson, Mili Arora, Megan E Daly, Susan L Stewart, Richard J Bold, Robert J Canter, Candice A M Sauder
BACKGROUND: Current treatment guidelines for male breast cancer are predominantly guided by female-only clinical trials. With scarce research, it is unclear whether breast-conserving therapy (BCT) is equivalent to mastectomy in men. We sought to compare overall survival (OS) among male breast cancer patients who underwent BCT versus mastectomy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 8445 stage I-II (T1-2 N0-1 M0) male breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Database (2004-2014)...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Emily W Sun, Alyce M Martin, David A Wattchow, Dayan deFontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Richard L Young, Damien J Keating
Context: The anti-diabetic drug Metformin causes weight loss, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Recent clinical studies show that metformin increases plasma levels of the anorectic gut hormone, PYY, but whether this is through a direct effect on the gut is unknown. Objective: We hypothesised that exposure of human gut mucosal tissue to metformin would acutely trigger PYY secretion. Design, Setting, Participants, and Interventions: Mucosal tissue was prepared from 46 human colonic and 9 ileal samples obtained after surgical resection and ex vivo secretion assays performed...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karlene T Barrett, Shabih U Hasan, Morris H Scantlebury, Richard J A Wilson
The stress peptide, PACAP, and its specific receptor, PAC1, have been implicated in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). PACAP is also critical to the neonatal cardiorespiratory response to homeostatic stressors identified in SIDS, including hypoxia. However, which of PACAP's three receptors, PAC1, VPAC1 and/or VPAC2, are involved is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that PAC1, but not VPAC2, is involved in mediating the cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia during neonatal development. To test this hypothesis, head-out plethysmography and surface ECG electrodes were used to assess the cardiorespiratory variables of unanesthetized postnatal day 4 PAC1 and VPAC2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice in response to a 10% hypoxic challenge...
February 13, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Nicholas C Woodward, Amanda L Crow, Yang Zhang, Sam Epstein, Jaana Hartiala, Richard Johnson, Heidi Kocalis, Arian Saffari, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, Omid Akbari, Gajalakshmi Ramanathan, Jesus A Araujo, Caleb E Finch, Sebastien G Bouret, Constantinos Sioutas, Todd E Morgan, Hooman Allayee
Emerging evidence from epidemiological and animal studies suggests that exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5 ) contributes to development of obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. However, it is not known whether nanoscale particulate matter (nPM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤200 nm have similar adverse metabolic effects. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal and early life exposure to nPM on metabolic homeostasis in mice...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Simon M Schoenbuchner, Carmel Dolan, Martha Mwangome, Andrew Hall, Stephanie A Richard, Jonathan C Wells, Tanya Khara, Bakary Sonko, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore
Background: The etiologic relationship between wasting and stunting is poorly understood, largely because of a lack of high-quality longitudinal data from children at risk of undernutrition. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the interrelationships between wasting and stunting in children aged <2 y. Methods: This study involved a retrospective cohort analysis, based on growth-monitoring records spanning 4 decades from clinics in rural Gambia...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stefan Wolf, Adam Taylor, Ali Zaid, Joseph Freitas, Lara J Herrero, Shambhavi Rao, Andreas Suhrbier, Mark R Forwood, Richard Bucala, Suresh Mahalingam
OBJECTIVE: Arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Ross River virus (RRV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Barmah Forest virus, o'nyong-nyong virus and Mayaro virus cause sporadic and sometimes large outbreaks worldwide. These viruses particularly affect joints of the extremities and can lead to debilitating and potentially chronic polyarthritis/polyarthralgia. The host's innate immune response plays a crucial role in inducing pro-inflammatory host factors, leading to tissue destruction and bone loss in the joints...
February 12, 2019: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Srihari Mahadev, Zhezhen Jin, Benjamin Lebwohl, Richard M Rosenberg, Reuben J Garcia-Carrasquillo, Ivonne Ramirez, Daniel E Freedberg
Background  Endoscopy training remains an apprenticeship, and the characteristics that facilitate transfer of high quality procedural skills from role models to trainees are unknown. We sought to determine whether unobserved supervisor performance influences the quality of colonoscopy performed by trainees, by studying how supervisors perform alone and how trainees perform while under those same supervisors. Methods  This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among ambulatory adults ≥ 50 years old who underwent colonoscopy for cancer screening or polyp surveillance from 2006 to 2015 at one academic medical center...
January 2019: Endoscopy International Open
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