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aroma and vitis

Yu Yang, Guo-Jie Jin, Xing-Jie Wang, Cai-Lin Kong, JiBin Liu, Yong-Sheng Tao
The chemical profiles and aroma contribution of terpene compounds in Meili grapes and wine were analyzed. Bound terpene compounds were extracted using methanol, purified using Amberlite XAD-2 resin, concentrated in methanol/ethyl acetate, and enzymatically hydrolyzed to release aglycones. Free terpene compounds were identified using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Wine aroma characteristics were quantified by a trained sensory panel. Seventeen terpene glycosides were quantified in grapes and wines as pentosyl-glucopyranoside, the content of which ranged from 804 to 836 μg/kg, and from 155 to 192 μg/L, respectively...
June 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Mar Vilanova, María Fandiño, Samuel Frutos-Puerto, Javier J Cancela
Vineyard management can influence the growth and yield components in the vineyards and therefore on the grape and wine quality. In this work, a chemical study was conducted (2014-2015) to examine the effect of fertigation on chemical composition of Albariño. A control (Rain-fed) and fertigation (60% and 100%) treatments were apply at same irrigation depth, where fertigation 100% is complete nutrient requirements to Albariño trellis system in this location (Rias Baixas AOC, NW Spain). Results showed that non-volatile compounds of Albariño musts were not affected by fertigation treatments...
April 25, 2019: Food Chemistry
José Pérez-Navarro, Pedro Miguel Izquierdo-Cañas, Adela Mena-Morales, Jesús Martínez-Gascueña, Juan Luis Chacón-Vozmediano, Esteban García-Romero, Sergio Gómez-Alonso, Isidro Hermosín-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Due to the currently dominance of a few grape varieties in the wine market, the aim of this work was to study the detailed phenolic and volatile composition, chromatic characteristics and sensorial properties of red wines elaborated with new Vitis vinifera grapes identified (Moribel and Tinto Fragoso) using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS, GC-MS, CIELab colour space and Napping ® technique. RESULTS: Tinto Fragoso wine showed higher phenolic content than Moribel, with more anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbenes...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sharon Marie Bahena-Garrido, Tomoko Ohama, Yuka Suehiro, Yuko Hata, Atsuko Isogai, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Nami Goto-Yamamoto, Kazuya Koyama
BACKGROUND: Koshu, a hybrid of Vitis vinifera L. and V. davidii Foex, is the most popular indigenous cultivar for wine production in Japan. However, little is known about the potential aroma compounds it contains and how environmental factors affect these. In this study, we obtained comprehensive profiles of the volatile (both glycosidically bound and free) and phenolic compounds that occur in Koshu berries, and compared these with similar profiles for V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay. We then compared the response of these two cultivars to bunch shading and the ripening-related phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA)...
September 30, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Sha Xie, Yonghong Tang, Peng Wang, Changzheng Song, Bingbing Duan, Zhenwen Zhang, Jiangfei Meng
This study was conducted during the 2014 and 2015 vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot and Cabernet Gernischt to investigate whether natural variation in berry size could affect grape aromatic compounds. Grape berries were separated into three size categories based on their diameter: small, middle and large. The results showed that berry size exerted a significant influence on the volatile profiles of both winegrape varieties. Hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated that the volatile profiles of middle berries were different from those of large and small berries...
2018: PloS One
Ebru Arslan, Zeynep Dilan Çelik, Turgut Cabaroğlu
The cultivar of Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera , grown in Tokat city, the Mid-Black Sea Region of Anatolia. In this study, the effects of pure and mixed autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii -214 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae -1088 cultures on the fermentation behavior and aroma compounds of Narince wines were investigated. Volatile compounds formed in wines were extracted using a liquid⁻liquid extraction method and determined by GC-MS-FID. Narince grape must was fermented in duplicate, under the following three conditions...
September 5, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Matthew Noestheden, Benjamin Noyovitz, Seamus Riordan-Short, Eric G Dennis, Wesley F Zandberg
The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. berries to forest fire smoke changes the concentration of phenylpropanoid metabolites in berries and the resulting wine. The exposure of Vitis vinifera L. berries (i.e., wine grapes) to forest fire smoke can lead to a wine defect known as smoke taint that is characterized by unpleasant "smoky" and "ashy" aromas and flavors. The intensity of smoke taint is associated with the concentration of organoleptic volatile phenols that are produced during the combustion-mediated oxidation of lignocellulosic biomass and subsequently concentrated in berries prior to fermentation...
December 2018: Planta
Hubert Alem, Peggy Rigou, Rémi Schneider, Hernán Ojeda, Laurent Torregrosa
Aroma compounds are secondary metabolites that play a key role in grape quality for enological purposes. Terpenes, C13 -norisoprenoids, phenols, and non-terpenic alcohols are the most important aroma compounds in grapes and they can be found as free volatiles or glycoconjugated (bound) molecules. The non-volatile glycosylated group is the largest, and it is present in all varieties of Vitis vinifera (L.), the most widely used species for wine production. These aroma precursors represent the reserve of aroma molecules that can be released during winemaking...
August 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Bjørn Dueholm, Damian P Drew, Crystal Sweetman, Henrik T Simonsen
Five Vitis vinifera sesquiterpene synthases were characterized, two was previously uncharacterized, one being a caryophyllene/cubebene synthase and the other a cadinene synthase. Residue differences with other Vitis sesquiterpene synthases are described. The biochemical composition of grape berries at harvest can have a profound effect on the varietal character of the wine produced. Sesquiterpenes are an important class of volatile compounds produced in grapes that contribute to the flavor and aroma of wine, making the elucidation of their biosynthetic origin an important field of research...
August 22, 2018: Planta
Itay Maoz, Rachel Davidovich Rikanati, Daniel Schlesinger, Einat Bar, Itay Gonda, Elena Levin, Tatiana Kaplunov, Noa Sela, Amnon Lichter, Efraim Lewinsohn
Volatile esters contribute to the aroma and flavor of many fruits but are normally absent in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). To examine the biosynthetic potential of grape berries to form volatile esters, berry sections were incubated with exogenous L-Phe, L-Leu or L-Met. In general, amino-acid incubation caused the accumulation of the respective aldehydes and alcohols. Moreover, L-Leu incubation resulted in the accumulation of 3-methylbutyl acetate and L-Phe incubation resulted in the accumulation 2-phenylethyl acetate in 'Muscat Hamburg' but not in the other grape accessions...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Marijan Bubola, Igor Lukić, Sanja Radeka, Paolo Sivilotti, Kristina Grozić, Andreja Vanzo, Dejan Bavčar, Klemen Lisjak
BACKGROUND: Leaf removal is a viticultural practice that promotes the biosynthesis of several important grape constituents by improving fruit zone microclimate. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hand and mechanical leaf removal, applied at the pea-size stage of berry development, on fruit zone microclimate, volatile aroma compounds, hydroxycinnamates and sensory characteristics of Istrian Malvasia (Vitis vinifera L.) wines. Three different sunlight exposure conditions were applied: hand leaf removal (HLR), mechanical leaf removal (MLR) and untreated control (UC)...
July 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Emiliano Trigo-Córdoba, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Concentrations of amino acids and volatile compounds of a given grapevine cultivar might be altered by inter-annual climate variability and management practices such as irrigation. These compounds determine, in part, aroma and sensory characteristics of wines. The current study aimed at assessing the amino acid profile of musts and wines and the volatile composition of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Godello' grown in the Ribeiro Designation of Origin (NW Spain) under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation (SI) conditions over three years (2012-2014)...
September 2018: Food Research International
Tina Ilc, Gautier Arista, Raquel Tavares, Nicolas Navrot, Eric Duchêne, Amandine Velt, Frédéric Choulet, Etienne Paux, Marc Fischer, David R Nelson, Philippe Hugueney, Danièle Werck-Reichhart, Camille Rustenholz
Cytochromes P450 are enzymes that participate in a wide range of functions in plants, from hormonal signaling and biosynthesis of structural polymers, to defense or communication with other organisms. They represent one of the largest gene/protein families in the plant kingdom. The manual annotation of cytochrome P450 genes in the genome of Vitis vinifera PN40024 revealed 579 P450 sequences, including 279 complete genes. Most of the P450 sequences in grapevine genome are organized in physical clusters, resulting from tandem or segmental duplications...
2018: PloS One
Mehmet Ali Tetik, Onur Sevindik, Hasim Kelebek, Serkan Selli
The principal purpose of the present work is to characterize the aroma, aroma-active, and anthocyanin profiles of Okuzgozu wines and to observe the effect of the pomace pressing technique on these parameters. A total of 58 and 59 volatile compounds were identified and quantified in free-run juice wine (FRW) and pressed pomace wine (PW). Alcohols were found as the most dominant group among aroma compounds followed by esters and acids. However, among all these compounds, only 11 and 13 of them could be considered as key odorants in aromatic extracts of FRW and PW, respectively...
May 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Gastón Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Teresa Garde-Cerdán, Marioli Carrasco-Quiroz, Eva Pilar Pérez-Álvarez, Ana María Martínez-Gil, María Del Alamo-Sanza, Yerko Moreno-Simunovic
BACKGROUND: Carignan noir is one of the minor and ancient varieties from the Chilean wine scenario that has had a resurgence as a result of to its rediscovered oenological potential when cultivated under the conditions of the interior dryland area. Under these growing conditions Carignan noir wines stand out as fruit driven and fresh compared to those originating from other growing areas. On the other hand, it is well known that wine aroma composition depends mainly on variety, viticultural management and winemaking...
August 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Anju Bajpai, Kasim Khan, M Muthukumar, S Rajan, N K Singh
Mango fruit is cherished by masses for its taste and nutrition, contributed by color, flavor, and aroma. Among these, peel color is an important trait contributing to fruit quality and market value. We attempted to elucidate the role of key genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway related to fruit peel color from the leaf transcriptome of mango cultivar Amrapali. A total of 108 mined transcript sequences were assigned to the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid pathway from which 15 contigs representing anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were annotated...
March 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
Xu Qian, Lei Sun, Xiao-Qing Xu, Bao-Qing Zhu, Hai-Ying Xu
C6 volatiles are synthesized through lipoxygenase-hydroperoxide lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway and these volatiles play important roles in the aromatic quality of grape berries. This study investigated the evolution of both C6 volatiles and the key genes in the LOX-HPL pathway in different table grape cultivars during the berry development period, and further assessed the correlation between the accumulation of C6 volatiles and the expression of these genes in these cultivars. Results showed that hexanal, ( E )-2-hexenal, ( E )-2-hexen-1-ol and ( Z )-3-hexen-1-ol were found to be the dominant C6 volatiles in these ripened grape cultivars under two consecutive vintages, and their flavor notes were incorporated in the overall aroma of these cultivars...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yolanda Bouzas-Cid, Elena Falqué, Ignacio Orriols, José M Mirás-Avalos
Amino acids and volatile compounds play an important role in wine aroma and sensory characteristics. The concentrations of these compounds might be altered by climate interanual variability and by management practices such as irrigation. The aim of the current study was to assess the amino acid profile of musts and wines, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from Vitis vinifera (L.) cultivar 'Treixadura' obtained from vines under rain-fed and irrigation conditions over three consecutive vintages (2012-2014)...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Christophe Aubert, Guillaume Chalot
Six table grape cultivars (Centennial Seedless, Chasselas, Italia, Italia Rubi, Alphonse Lavallée, and Muscat de Hambourg) were analyzed for their levels of soluble solids, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, vitamin C and E, carotenoids, polyphenolics and volatile compounds during two successive years. Descriptive sensory analyses of the six table grape varieties were also performed. Mainly due to anthocyanins, black cultivars had the highest total phenolic contents. Alphonse Lavallée had also both the highest levels of trans-resveratrol and piceid, and Muscat de Hambourg the highest levels of α-tocopherol, β-carotene and monoterpenols, well-known key aroma compounds in Muscat varieties having also interesting pharmacological properties...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Alexandre Pons, Nadia Mouakka, Laurent Deliere, Jean Christophe Crachereau, Ludivine Davidou, Pierre Sauris, Pascal Guilbault, Philippe Darriet
This work reports the identification of volatile compounds involved in the particular and atypical flavor detected in Vitis vinifera red Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes infected and wilted by brown rot (Plasmopara viticola). Must made from withered grapes had green aromas while red wines were marked by intense odor reminiscent of green, herbaceous notes but also figs and cooked fruit. Thanks to GC-O and GC-MS analysis, cooked fruit notes were identified as 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione, γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone, whereas herbaceous and green aromas were identified as (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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