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Adolescent opioid

Wiktor Urbanski, Rafał Zaluski, Anis Kokaveshi, Silvester Aldobasic, Grzegorz Miekisiak, Piotr Morasiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Surgical management of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in spite of usually favourable outcomes is still a major operation. Therefore, efforts are being undertaken to minimalize the procedure, reduce the surgical trauma and postoperative convalescence. The study was designed to compare posterior minimal invasive surgery using navigation based on intraoperative 3D imaging and standard open instrumented fusion in Lenke 5C idiopathic scoliosis treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From eight patients with Lenke 5C curves planned for posterior correction and instrumented fusion, four were treated with minimally invasive and four had open procedure...
March 14, 2019: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Piyali Mandal, A Parmar, A Ambekar, A Dhawan
INTRODUCTION: Substance use among adolescents is on the rise across the globe along with a diminution of gender gap observed earlier posing a huge public health burden. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of literature on adolescent substance use. The literature is even sparse about substance use among adolescent girls. The current study aims to provide a glimpse of the profile and pattern of substance use among Indian adolescent girls seeking treatment for substance use problems in a specialty addiction treatment centre in India...
March 6, 2019: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Maria A Parker
The peak risk of first extramedical use of prescription pain relievers (PPRs) is in mid-adolescence, often after underage drinking has begun. This research aims to investigate discrete classes of similar young people based on their newly incident extramedical use of PPR and alcohol involvement, with empirical evaluation of the underlying structure of identified subgroups and their epidemiological distributions in the United States. The U.S. National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2013, sampled, recruited, and assessed 24,789 newly incident extramedical PPR users ages 12-20 years, with self-interviews on PPR, alcohol, and covariates...
March 14, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
George L Caldwell, Michael A Selepec
Background: Pain management after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) may pose a risk of prolonged opioid use. Questions/Purposes: The purposes of this study in ACLR were to investigate the efficacy of a surgeon-administered local-regional block of specific genicular nerves on post-operative analgesia following ACLR and to quantify the outpatient opioid consumption and duration through the complete post-operative course. Methods: Prospectively, all patients undergoing primary ACLR by a single surgeon were studied over a 10-month period...
February 2019: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
Stuart Hartshorn, Patrick Dissmann, Frank Coffey, Mark Lomax
Introduction: The undertreatment of acute pain presents a significant challenge in the Emergency Department. This post hoc subgroup analysis of a previously reported randomized controlled UK study reports the efficacy and safety of low-dose methoxyflurane analgesia in treating adolescent patients with moderate-to-severe trauma pain. Patients and methods: Three hundred patients (96 in the adolescent subgroup) aged ≥12 years requiring analgesia for acute trauma pain (pain score of 4-7 on the Numerical Rating Scale) at triage were randomized 1:1 to methoxyflurane (up to 6 mL) or placebo (normal saline), both administered using a Penthrox® inhaler...
2019: Journal of Pain Research
Dong-Mei Wang, Jian-Jun Zhang, Yan-Bei Huang, Yin-Zhu Zhao, Nan Sui
Animal studies demonstrate that peripubertal social stress markedly increases the risk for subsequent substance use in adulthood. However, whether non-social stress has a similar long-term impact is not clear, and whether male and female animals show different sensitivity to peripubertal non-social stress has not been examined. In the present study, we addressed these issues by introducing two non-social stressors (elevated platform and predator odor 2,5-Dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) to male and female Wistar rats during adolescence (postnatal days 28-30, 34, 36, 40, and 42), then tested reward-related behaviors during adulthood, including morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP, 1 mg/kg morphine or 5 mg/kg morphine) and hyperlocomotor activity (5 mg/kg morphine)...
March 12, 2019: Developmental Psychobiology
Philip Baiden, Genevieve Graaf, Mariama Zaami, Charles K Acolatse, Yvonne Adeku
Although some studies have examined the association between prescription opioid misuse and mental health outcomes, few studies have examined the effects of prescription opioid misuse on suicidal behaviors among adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the association between prescription opioid misuse and suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt among adolescents. Data for this study came from the 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. A sample of 8830 adolescents aged 14-18 years (50...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Mir M Ali, Rachel Mosher Henke, Ryan Mutter, Peggy L O'Brien, Eli Cutler, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Jesse M Pines
It is recognized that family members are a major source of diverted opioids. Yet it is not known how family member opioid prescriptions predict the development of an opioid use disorder (OUD).We conducted an observational study using commercial health care claims to investigate the association between a family member opioid prescription and an individual having an OUD-related claim in a large sample of patients with commercial insurance. We found that individuals had higher odds of having an OUD when a family member had an opioid prescription...
February 28, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Kelly Quinn, Bartley C Frueh, Joy Scheidell, Daniel Schatz, Faith Scanlon, Maria R Khan
BACKGROUND: Research demonstrates strong associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPO), but pathways are not understood, hindering prevention and treatment responses. METHODS: We assessed hypothesized mediators of the association between ACEs and NMPO in a nationally-representative U.S. SAMPLE: National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data (N = 12,288) yielded an ordinal exposure comprising nine ACEs (neglect; emotional, physical, sexual abuse; parental incarceration and binge drinking; witnessed, threatened with, experienced violence) and a binary lifetime NMPO outcome...
February 14, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kelly L Matson, Peter N Johnson, Van Tran, Evan R Horton, Jennifer Sterner-Allison
Limited guidance on opioid use exists in the pediatric population, causing medication safety concerns for pain management in children and adolescents. Opioid misuse and use disorder continue to greatly affect adolescents and young adults in the United States, furthering the apprehension of their use. Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (PPAG) recommends pharmacists contribute their knowledge to pain management in children, including the discussion of appropriate use of non-opioid alternatives for pain and when to recommend coprescribing of naloxone...
January 2019: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Jaimie P Meyer, Krystyna Isaacs, Omar El-Shahawy, A Kathleen Burlew, Wendee Wechsberg
BACKGROUND: Research on women with substance use disorders has expanded, yet knowledge and implementation gaps remain. METHODS: Drawing from topics discussed at the 2017 meeting of InWomen's in Montreal, Canada, this article reviews key progress in research on substance use among women, adolescents, and families to delineate priorities for the next generation of research. RESULTS: The field has seen significant accomplishments in multiple domains, including the management of pregnant women with substance use and comorbid psychiatric disorders, caring for neonates in opioid withdrawal, greater inclusion of and treatment options for LGBTQ + communities, gendered instrumentation, and gender-focused HIV interventions for adolescent girls and women...
February 21, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Francesca Felicia Caputi, Lucia Caffino, Sanzio Candeletti, Fabio Fumagalli, Patrizia Romualdi
BACKGROUND: Early-life stressful events affect the neurobiological maturation of cerebral circuitries including the endogenous opioid system and the effects elicited by adolescent cocaine exposure on this system have been poorly investigated. Here, we evaluated whether cocaine exposure during adolescence causes short- or long-term alterations in mRNAs codifying for selected elements belonging to the opioid system. Moreover, since brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may undergo simultaneous alterations with the opioid peptide dynorphin, we also evaluated its signaling pathway as well...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Calista M Harbaugh, Jay S Lee, Kao-Ping Chua, Brooke Kenney, Theodore John Iwashyna, Michael J Englesbe, Chad M Brummett, Amy S Bohnert, Jennifer F Waljee
Importance: Prior studies have found a substantial risk of persistent opioid use among adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures. It is unknown whether family-level factors, such as long-term opioid use in family members, is associated with persistent opioid use. Objective: To determine whether long-term opioid use in family members is associated with persistent opioid use among opioid-naive adolescents and young adults undergoing surgical and dental procedures...
February 27, 2019: JAMA Surgery
Pamela C Griesler, Mei-Chen Hu, Melanie M Wall, Denise B Kandel
BACKGROUND: To date, intergenerational patterns of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use have not been examined. We investigate the association between parental and adolescent NMPO use in the United States. METHODS: Data are from 35 000 parent-child dyads with an adolescent aged 12 to 17 years from the 2004-2012 nationally representative National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we estimated the association between self-reported parental and adolescent lifetime NMPO use, controlling for parental and adolescent use of other drugs, attitudes about drug use, parental and adolescent psychosocial risk factors, and sociodemographic characteristics...
February 25, 2019: Pediatrics
Edore Onigu-Otite, Daryl Shorter
Introduction: Addiction is developmentally a pediatric-onset disease. Adolescent addiction recently gained the nation's attention due to the steep increase in opioid-related drug overdose deaths. Educating future adolescent health providers on adolescent addiction is a strategic initiative to mitigate the impact of this challenging public health concern. Methods: We used a logic model worksheet to identify key target areas informing the curriculum content development...
May 7, 2018: MedEdPORTAL Publications
T Celeste Napier, Amanda L Persons
Opioid abuse and overdosing have reached epidemic status in the United States, and this epidemic has profound negative effects on the lives of adolescents and their families. A combination of readily available opioids (including illicit opioids, such as heroin, and overprescribed prescription opioid-based painkillers) and an abuse vulnerability inherent to adolescence drives the problem. The pharmacology of opioids in the context of adolescent brain neurobiology helps explain the enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse experienced by the young...
February 14, 2019: Orthopaedic Nursing
Lan Guo, Min Luo, Wanxin Wang, Guoliang Huang, Wei-Hong Zhang, Ciyong Lu
Nonmedical use of prescription drug (NMUPD) among adolescents has increased substantially over the last 2 decades, and evidence suggests that sleep duration may impact upon drug use and academic performance. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sleep duration, NMUPD, and academic performance among Chinese adolescents, to test the independent associations of sleep duration with NMUPD, and to investigate whether these associations vary by academic performance. Data were from the 2015 School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey using a multi-stage, stratified-cluster, random-sampling method to collect information from 162,601 high school students [mean age (SD) =15...
February 18, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Maryam Azadi, Hossein Azizi, Abbas Haghparast
The developing brain is extremely sensitive to drugs during adolescence. The devastating impacts of opioid abuse in this critical period not only do involve individuals but also are witnessed in the subsequent generations. Therefore, what is recognized as the population susceptible to the effects of opioid abuse could be much greater in number. In this study, we explored the transgenerational effects of morphine exposure in adolescent stage on morphine reward in male offspring through the patriline. Male Wistar rats underwent 10 days of incremental doses of morphine administration during adolescence; the broad spectrum of neurobehavioral alterations in rat adolescence is akin to that of human adolescence...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research Bulletin
Ty S Schepis, Timothy E Wilens, Sean Esteban McCabe
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent controlled prescription drug misuse (PDM) co-occurs with significant consequences, including lower educational achievement, substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and psychopathology. Nonetheless, adolescent PDM sources and the prevalence of other substance use, SUD and mental health outcomes associated with sources remain poorly understood. METHOD: Data were from the 2009-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, including 103,920 adolescents (12-17 years)...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Thomas W Wojciechowski
AIMS: Investigate patterns of change and continuity in opioid use among juvenile offenders during adolescence and early adulthood. Identify demographic characteristics of trajectory groups of opioid users. Examine the relevance of risk factors for predicting assignment to opioid use trajectory groups. METHODS: The Pathways to Desistance sample, consisting of longitudinal data of 1,134 juvenile offenders, was utilized in analyses. Using group-based trajectory modeling, patterns of opioid use were identified...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
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