Read by QxMD icon Read

defense response

Yuan Meng, Liang Zhang, Linquan Wang, Chunju Zhou, Yuxian Shangguan, Yang Yang
The enrichment of Cadmium in vegetables is threatening human health. The study aimed to screen Cd low-enriched leafy vegetables and explore whether antioxidative enzymes and heavy metal chelators are synergistic defensive mechanisms. In this paper, the Cd accumulation and translocation of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were examined by soil pot culture and hydroponic experiments. The responses of oxidative stress markers, antioxidative enzymes activity, and thiol pool (cysteine, γ-glutamylcysteine, glutathione, and phytochelatins) content to Cd stress were assayed...
February 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Qingsong Liu, Dalin Xiong, Jiasong Zhang
Harmful effects of water pollutants are myriad. Sulfide from water bodies affects the aquatic animals. Intestine barrier function serves as the front-line of animals defense. Our previous study confirmed the toxic effect of sulfide on intestine immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the transcriptomic and microbiota responses of the L. vannamei intestine subjected to acute sulfide exposure. Sulfide decreased bacterial richness and altered the intestine microbiota composition...
February 14, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Madalena Andrade, Lucia De Marchi, Carlo Pretti, Federica Chiellini, Andrea Morelli, Etelvina Figueira, Rui J M Rocha, Amadeu M V M Soares, Rosa Freitas
With the increased production and research on nanoparticles, the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aquatic systems is very likely to increase. Although it has been shown that CNTs may cause toxicity in marine organisms, to our knowledge, the possible impacts under global temperature increase is still unknown. For this reason, biochemical and physiological impacts induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis due to the presence of functionalized multi-walled CNTs (f-MWCNTs) and increased temperature were investigated in the present study...
January 29, 2019: Marine Environmental Research
Jian Ma, Yongfei Wang, Xiaoding Ma, Lingzhi Meng, Ruonan Jing, Fan Wang, Shuai Wang, Zhijun Cheng, Xin Zhang, Ling Jiang, Jiulin Wang, Jie Wang, Zhichao Zhao, Xiuping Guo, Qibing Lin, Fuqing Wu, Shanshan Zhu, Wu Chuanyin, Yulong Ren, Cailin Lei, Huqu Zhai, Jianmin Wan
Lesion mimic mutants that exhibit spontaneous hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrotic lesions are ideal experimental systems for elucidating molecular mechanisms involved in plant cell death and defense responses. Here we report identification of a rice lesion mimic mutant, spotted leaf 35 (spl35), and cloning of the causal gene by TAIL-PCR strategy. spl35 exhibited decreased chlorophyll content, higher accumulation of H2 O2 , up-regulated expression of defense-related marker genes, and enhanced resistance to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice...
February 16, 2019: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Vladimir Ramirez-Carrozzi, Naruhisa Ota, Arivazhagan Sambandam, Kit Wong, Jason Hackney, Nadia Martinez-Martin, Wenjun Ouyang, Rajita Pappu
IL-17 family cytokines are critical to host defense responses at cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. Whereas IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-17C induce overlapping inflammatory cascades to promote neutrophil-mediated immunity, IL-17E/IL-25 drives type 2 immune pathways and eosinophil activity. Genetic and pharmacological studies reveal the significant contribution these cytokines play in antimicrobial and autoimmune mechanisms. However, little is known about the related family member, IL-17B, with contrasting reports of both pro- and anti-inflammatory function in rodents...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Charles Bou-Nader, Jackson M Gordon, Frances E Henderson, Jinwei Zhang
The interferon-inducible protein kinase R (PKR) is a key component of host innate immunity that restricts viral replication and propagation. As one of the four eIF2alpha kinases that sense diverse stresses and direct the integrated stress response (ISR) crucial for cell survival and proliferation, PKR's versatile roles extend well beyond antiviral defense. Targeted by numerous host and viral regulators made of RNA and proteins, PKR is subject to multiple layers of endogenous control and external manipulation, driving its rapid evolution...
February 15, 2019: RNA
Marcelo M Samsa, Lesley C Dupuy, Clayton W Beard, Carolyn M Six, Connie S Schmaljohn, Peter W Mason, Andrew J Geall, Jeffrey B Ulmer, Dong Yu
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a known biological defense threat. A live-attenuated investigational vaccine, TC-83, is available, but it has a high non-response rate and can also cause severe reactogenicity. We generated two novel VEE vaccine candidates using self-amplifying mRNA (SAM). LAV-CNE is a live-attenuated VEE SAM vaccine formulated with synthetic cationic nanoemulsion (CNE) and carrying the RNA genome of TC-83. IAV-CNE is an irreversibly-attenuated VEE SAM vaccine formulated with CNE, delivering a TC-83 genome lacking the capsid gene...
January 7, 2019: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Neda Zareei, Hamid Reza Miri, Mohammad Hossein Karimi, Afsoon Afshari, Bita Geramizadeh, Jamshid Roozbeh, Ramin Yaghobi
Polyomavirus BK infection is a common complication and a major cause of morbidity after kidney transplantation. Surveillance of kidney transplant recipients was threatened by reactivation of polyomavirus BK infection can lead to polyomavirus BK-associated nephropathy (PVN). Antiviral immunoregulatory markers like Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) might also affect the polyomavirus BK pathogenesis for its role in antiviral host defense, graft rejection, and regulative of the adaptive immune responses. After screening polyomavirus BK infection, using Real time PCR (Taq-Man), the possible association between polyomavirus BK infection with IFN-γ gene expression was assessed...
February 12, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato
Aquatic prey species show sophisticated mechanisms to adjust their antipredator behaviours to the level of risk, which they estimate either by direct experience with predators or from indirect indicators such as chemical alarm cues released by injured conspecifics. For instance, evidence suggests that the alarm cues of tadpoles exposed to high levels of background predation risk elicit a stronger antipredator response compared to alarm cues of tadpoles exposed to low risk. Similarly, the alarm cues of tadpoles from environments with reduced vegetation cover might cause a stronger response than alarm cues of tadpoles from environments with abundant vegetation because tadpoles suffer high predation when vegetation is scarce...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Processes
Steven C Kyle, Gordon M Burghardt, Mathew A Cooper
In several rodent species social play appears to be necessary for proper deployment of species-specific patterns of aggressive and reproductive behavior. Specifically, in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), play has been linked to the development of adult aggression. We quantified several types of social play behavior in same-sex peer groups ofSyrian hamsters three times per week for three consecutiveweeksafter weaning, which included postnatal days 22-42 (PD22 to PD42).Male hamsters increased playful contact during PD36-PD42, whereas females showed peak playful contact during PD29-PD35...
February 12, 2019: Brain Research
Franz Puttur, Lisa G Gregory, Clare M Lloyd
The lungs present a challenging immunological dilemma for the host. Anatomically positioned at the environmental interface, they are constantly exposed to antigens, pollutants and microbes, while simultaneously facilitating vital gas exchange. Remarkably, the lungs maintain a functionally healthy state, ignoring harmless inhaled proteins, adapting to toxic environmental insults and limiting immune responses to allergens and pathogenic microbes. This functional strategy of environmental adaptation maintains immune defense, reduces tissue damage, and promotes and sustains lung immune tolerance...
February 15, 2019: Immunology and Cell Biology
Diego A Rojas, Pablo A Iturra, Andrea Méndez, Carolina A Ponce, Rebeca Bustamante, Miriam Gallo, Pamela Bórquez, Sergio L Vargas
Airway mucus responses to subclinical infections may explain variations in progression of chronic lung diseases and differences in clinical expression of respiratory infections across individuals. Pneumocystis associates to more severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma, respiratory distress of premature newborns, and is a consistent subclinical infection between 2 and 5 months of age when hospitalizations for respiratory cause and infant mortality are higher. This atypical fungus associates to increased mucin 5AC (MUC5AC), a central effector of Th2-type allergic inflammation, in infant lungs...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sarah H Merkling, Human Riahi, Gijs J Overheul, Annette Schenck, Ronald P van Rij
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a valuable model organism for the discovery and characterization of innate immune pathways, but host responses to virus infection remain incompletely understood. Here, we describe a novel player in host defense, Sgroppino (Sgp). Genetic depletion of Sgroppino causes hypersensitivity of adult flies to infections with the RNA viruses Drosophila C virus, cricket paralysis virus, and Flock House virus. Canonical antiviral immune pathways are functional in Sgroppino mutants, suggesting that Sgroppino exerts its activity via an as yet uncharacterized process...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ping Wang, Jing Geng, Jiahui Gao, Hao Zhao, Junhong Li, Yiran Shi, Bingying Yang, Chen Xiao, Yueyue Linghu, Xiufeng Sun, Xin Chen, Lixin Hong, Funiu Qin, Xun Li, Jau-Song Yu, Han You, Zengqiang Yuan, Dawang Zhou, Randy L Johnson, Lanfen Chen
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytes is a major defense mechanism against pathogens. However, the cellular self-protective mechanism against such potential damage from oxidative stress remains unclear. Here we show that the kinases Mst1 and Mst2 (Mst1/2) sense ROS and maintain cellular redox balance by modulating the stability of antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. Site-specific ROS release recruits Mst1/2 from the cytosol to the phagosomal or mitochondrial membrane, with ROS subsequently activating Mst1/2 to phosphorylate kelch like ECH associated protein 1 (Keap1) and prevent Keap1 polymerization, thereby blocking Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation to protect cells against oxidative damage...
February 14, 2019: Nature Communications
Xinyue Mei, Yixiang Liu, Huichuan Huang, Fei Du, Lanlin Huang, Jiaqing Wu, Yiwen Li, Shusheng Zhu, Min Yang
Benzothiazole (BZO) is an antimicrobial secondary metabolite volatilized by many plants and microbes. However, the mechanism of BZO against phytopathogens is still unclear. Here, we found that BZO has antimicrobial activity against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. Transcriptome and proteome analyses demonstrated that BZO significantly suppressed the expression of genes and proteins involved in morphology, abiotic stress defense and detoxification, but induced the activity of apoptosis. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining confirmed that the process of apoptosis was significantly induced by BZO at concentration of 150 mg L-1 ...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Zhongxiang Sun, Qi Shi, Qilin Li, Rumeng Wang, Cuicui Xu, Huanhuan Wang, Chunxia Ran, Yuanyuan Song, Rensen Zeng
Generalist phytophagous insects adapt to adventurous chemical environment in a wide variety of host plants by extraordinary detoxifying metabolic abilities. However, how polyphagous insect cope with the diversity of plant defenses remains largely unknown and only a few counter-defense genes detoxifying a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites have been well characterized. Here, we identify a cytochrome P450 gene (CYP6AB60) from tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) in response to three different plant's defense metabolites...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sabah Haq, Jensine Grondin, Suhrid Banskota, Waliul I Khan
The intestinal mucosa is a site of multiple stressors and forms the barrier between the internal and external environment. In the intestine, a complex interplay between the microbiota, epithelial barrier and the local immune system maintains homeostasis and promotes a healthy gut. One of the major cellular catabolic processes that regulate this homeostasis is autophagy. Autophagy is required to maintain anti-microbial defense, epithelial barrier integrity and mucosal immune response. Dysregulation of the autophagy process causes disruption of several aspects of the intestinal epithelium and the immune system that can lead to an inappropriate immune response and subsequent inflammation...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Science
Vahid Reza Askari, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Amin Assaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Inflammation is defined as a defensive response of the body against either the endogenous or exogenous triggers, while this process becomes chronic leading to various disorders such as asthma, cancers, and multiple sclerosis. Recently, pharmacological properties of different constituents of F. szowitsiana have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of F. szowitsiana root on human isolated lymphocytes. The effects of either F...
February 14, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Zilan Wen, Tommaso Raffaello, Zhen Zeng, Mirko Pavicic, Fred O Asiegbu
Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen of Norway spruce (Picea abies). H. parviporum genome encodes numerous necrotrophic small secreted proteins (SSP) which might be important for promoting and sustaining the disease development. However, their transcriptional dynamics and plant defense response during infection are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a necrotrophic SSP named HpSSP35.8 and its coding gene was highly expressed in the pre-symptomatic phase of host (Norway spruce) infection...
February 11, 2019: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Ming Chang, Jinping Zhao, Huan Chen, Guangyong Li, Jian Chen, Min Li, Ian A Palmer, Junqi Song, James R Alfano, Fengquan Liu, Zheng Qing Fu
Plant immunity is mediated by the positive regulators PBS3 and EDS1 and the negative regulators NPR3 and NPR4. However, the relationships among these important immune regulators remain elusive. Here, we show that PBS3 interacts with EDS1 in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus and is required for EDS1 protein accumulation. NPR3 and NPR4, which function as SA receptors and adaptors of Cullin3-based E3 ligase, interact with and mediate the degradation of EDS1 via the 26S proteasome. We prove that PBS3 inhibits the poly-ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of EDS1 by reducing the association of EDS1 with the Cullin3 adaptors NPR3 and NPR4...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Plant
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"