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Lung immunosuppression

Christopher Nnaoma, Ogechukwu Chika-Nwosuh, Christian Engell
BACKGROUND Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth. Parasitism is caused by penetration of the larvae through the skin. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and in the United States occurs in the southeastern region. It has a tendency to remain dormant or progress to a state of hyper-infection during immunosuppression. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 70-year-old Nigerian who developed fatal ARDS secondary to Strongyloides infection after been treated with steroids for treatment of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Xinghua Qin, Ziwei Chen
Cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant to prevent organ transplant rejection, is associated with an increased cancer risk following transplantation, particularly in the lung. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, using human non‑small cell lung cancer A549 cells, it was determined that CsA (0.1 or 1 µM) promoted cell proliferation with glucose alone as the energy source. CsA treatment increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and consequently the expression of Cyclin D1...
March 18, 2019: Oncology Reports
Hui Liu, Manman Zou, Pei Li, Haifeng Wang, Xijun Lin, Jin Ye
The dendritic cell (DC)‑regulatory T (Treg) system serves a leading role in the immunosuppression of the tumor microenvironment, which is not conducive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for lung cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of oxymatrine (OMT) on the DC‑Treg system in the tumor microenvironment in vitro and to examine its mechanism. The expressions of CD83 antigen, T‑lymphocyte activation antigen CD86, CD11 antigen‑like family member C and major histocompatibility complex II in DCs were increased upon treatment with 1 mg/ml OMT, as detected by flow cytometry...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Josué Díaz-Delgado, Kátia R Groch, Eva Sierra, Simona Sacchini, Daniele Zucca, Óscar Quesada-Canales, Manuel Arbelo, Antonio Fernández, Elitieri Santos, Joana Ikeda, Rafael Carvalho, Alexandre F Azevedo, Jose Lailson-Brito, Leonardo Flach, Rodrigo Ressio, Cristina T Kanamura, Marcelo Sansone, Cíntia Favero, Brian F Porter, Cinzia Centelleghe, Sandro Mazzariol, Ludovica Di Renzo, Gabriella Di Francesco, Giovanni Di Guardo, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) is a major natural cause of morbidity and mortality in cetaceans worldwide and results in epidemic and endemic fatalities. The pathogenesis of CeMV has not been fully elucidated, and questions remain regarding tissue tropism and the mechanisms of immunosuppression. We compared the histopathologic and viral immunohistochemical features in molecularly confirmed CeMV-infected Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from the Southwestern Atlantic (Brazil) and striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Northeast-Central Atlantic (Canary Islands, Spain) and the Western Mediterranean Sea (Italy)...
2019: PloS One
Yixian Zhang, Haolan Zhang, Zhengwei Mao, Changyou Gao
Although the negative impacts of particulate matter (PM2.5) on human health have been well recognized, very a few efforts have been paid to find new strategies to suppress the toxicity of PM2.5 both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive nanoparticles made of poly(1,4-phenleneacetonedimethylene thioketal) (PPADT) were used to load immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus (FK506) with a drug loading efficiency of around 44%. The PPADT particles showed very good ROS-responsiveness, and were degraded in an oxidation environment...
March 19, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Ratna Acharya, Krina Amin, Dhanashree Rajderkar, Matthew Washam, Nailee Pekkucuksen, Sudha Mannemuddhu, Kiran Upadhyay
Nocardia infection after RT is uncommon. The most common modes of exposure are inhalation of dust containing nocardia or contaminated soil/water and surgical instruments. Isolated abdominal nocardiosis following RT has not been reported. We report an 11-year-old female who developed nocardia abscesses of the abdomen post-RT. ESRD was secondary to FSGS and she had received multiple immunosuppressive agents prior to transplant. Induction immunosuppression consisted of thymoglobulin and maintenance was with tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and prednisone...
March 19, 2019: Pediatric Transplantation
Jan Philipp Bewersdorf, Maximilian Stahl, Amer M Zeidan
Immune system evasion is essential for tumor cell survival and is mediated by the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and the activation of inhibitory immune checkpoints. While immune checkpoint-based therapy yielded impressive results in several advanced solid malignancies such as melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, its role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is still evolving. Areas covered: Here we review the immunology in the tumor microenvironment in the bone marrow and discuss the current preclinical and clinical data for immune checkpoint-based therapy in myeloid neoplasms...
March 19, 2019: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
D Wolff, I Hilgendorf, E Wagner-Drouet, Z Jedlickova, F Ayuk, R Zeiser, K Schäfer-Eckart, A Gerbitz, M Stadler, S Klein, J-M Middeke, A Lawitschka, J Winkler, J Halter, E Holler, G Kobbe, M Stelljes, M Ditschkowski, H Greinix
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) remains the leading cause of late morbidity and mortality. Despite the growing number of treatment options in cGvHD evidence remains sparse. The German-Austrian-Swiss GvHD Consortium performed a survey on clinical practice in treatment of cGvHD among transplant centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland in 2009 and 2018 and compared the results. The survey performed in 2009 contained 20 questions on 1st line treatment and related issues and 4 questions on 2nd line scenarios followed by a survey on all systemic and topic treatment options known and applied with 31/36 (86%) transplant centers responding...
March 12, 2019: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Tobias A Wagner-Altendorf, Klaus-Peter Wandinger, Alex Frydrychowicz, Axel S Merseburger, Thomas F Münte
Paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalopathic syndromes have been described most often in association with small cell lung cancer or breast cancer, tumours of the ovaries, testes, lymphoma and thymoma. Antibodies associated with paraneoplastic encephalopathies are, among others, anti-Hu, anti-Ma2 and, in part, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)-receptor antibodies. Here, we present the case of a 72-year-old patient hospitalised due to progressive cognitive decline and disorientation. Diagnostic workup revealed paraneoplastic anti-amphiphysin associated limbic encephalitis on the basis of an aortic angiosarcoma with metastases to kidney, muscle and bones...
March 14, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Khurram Abbass, Hollis Krug
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was diagnosed in a patient with a 16-month history of IgG4-related lung disease that spontaneously became asymptomatic. Cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was positive at the time of diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but there was no vasculitis or kidney disease. Sixteen months later he developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis that responded to cyclophosphamide treatment. While undergoing treatment for GPA, he was found to have a lung mass identified as small cell lung cancer...
March 14, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Seungwha Paik, Jin Ho Choe, Ga-Eun Choi, Ji-Eun Kim, Jin-Man Kim, Gyu Yong Song, Eun-Kyeong Jo
The immunobiological functions of Rg6, a rare ginsenoside from ginseng, have been largely unreported. In this paper, we demonstrate that Rg6 has a significant immunosuppressive function on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4-induced systemic inflammatory responses. Rg6 was found to negatively regulate pro-inflammatory responses and severity in vivo, and thus induced recovery in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. Rg6 treatment also facilitated recovery in mice with LPS-induced lung damage via reduced neutrophil infiltration and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in lung tissues...
March 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Takashi Hirama, Jussi Tikkanen, Prodipto Pal, Sean Cleary, Matthew Binnie
BACKGROUND: Recipients of solid organ transplants are prone to various complications that are seldom encountered in immunocompetent individuals. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is the best known and commonest Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-associated malignancy post solid organ transplant. EBV-associated-smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMT) including leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas are rare and much less studied than PTLD. We recently encountered two cases of EBV-SMT post lung transplantation and here we summarize their clinical features and course together with a literature review...
March 12, 2019: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Kiem Vu, Javier A Garcia, Angie Gelli
Fungal infections of the central nervous system are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Cryptococcus neoformans ( Cn ) is the primary cause of fungal meningitis. Infection begins in the lung after inhalation of fungal spores but often spreads to other organs, particularly the brain in immunosuppressed individuals. Cn 's ability to survive phagocytosis and endure the onslaught of oxidative attack imposed by the innate immune response facilitates dissemination to the central nervous system (CNS)...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Morinobu Seki, Akinori Uruha, Yuko Ohnuki, Sachiko Kamada, Tomoko Noda, Asako Onda, Masayuki Ohira, Aiko Isami, Sumie Hiramatsu, Makoto Hibino, Shunya Nakane, Seiya Noda, Sachiko Yutani, Akira Hanazono, Hiroshi Yaguchi, Masaki Takao, Takashi Shiina, Masahisa Katsuno, Jin Nakahara, Shiro Matsubara, Ichizo Nishino, Shigeaki Suzuki
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the inflammatory myopathy associated with programmed cell death 1 inhibitors (PD-1 myopathy). METHODS: We studied 19 Japanese patients with PD-1 myopathy (13 men and 6 women, mean age 70 years), who were referred to Keio University. As control groups, we used 68 patients with anti-signal recognition particle antibodies, 51 patients with anti-aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase antibodies and 460 healthy subjects. RESULTS: In regard to muscle-disease severity, 10 patients showed a mild form of disease and 9 patients showed a severe form...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Autoimmunity
Mariaelena Occhipinti, Silvia Bosello, Leuconoe Grazia Sisti, Giuseppe Cicchetti, Chiara de Waure, Tommaso Pirronti, Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Elisa Gremese, Anna Rita Larici
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) and its changes during treatment by using quantitative analysis (QA) compared to semi-quantitative analysis (semiQA) of chest computed tomography (CT) scans. To assess the prognostic value of QA in predicting functional changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively selected 35 consecutive patients with SSc-ILD with complete pulmonary functional evaluation, Doppler-echocardiography, immunological tests, and chest CT scan at both baseline and follow-up after immunosuppressive therapy...
2019: PloS One
Gerhard Hamilton, Barbara Rath
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with a dismal prognosis that is currently being tested for theclinical activity of checkpoint inhibitors. SCLC is associated with smoking and exhibits a high mutational burden. However, low expression of PD-L1 and MHC antigens, as well low levels of immune cell infiltration and rapid tumor progress seems to limit the efficacy of anticancer immunity. Nevertheless, long-term survival was reported from studies using anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 agents. Areas covered: Data of clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in SCLC show lower success rates compared to NSCLC...
March 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Ruhui Zhang, Yongquan Dong, Mingjiao Sun, Yina Wang, Changqing Cai, Yun Zeng, Yueguang Wu, Qiong Zhao
The tumor-associated inflammatory microenvironment plays a pivotal role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development. FGFR1 and TLR4 involve in the regulation of inflammatory microenvironment of NSCLC.However, the relationship between the FGFR1 and TLR4 signaling and the mechanisms that involved in tumor-associated microenvironment are still unclear. We investigated the expression of FGFR1 and TLR4 in cancerous tissues and noncancerous lung tissues from 60 primary NSCLC patients using immunohistochemical staining...
2019: Journal of Cancer
S Salah, S Abad, A P Brézin, D Monnet
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis characterized by the formation of epithelioid and giant cell granulomas without caseous necrosis. To make the diagnosis, it is necessary to prove systemic granulomatosis involving at least two organs; but in practice, a combination of clinical, paraclinical and histologic findings is used. It affects predominantly women with a bimodal age distribution: 25-29years and 65-69years. The most commonly affected organs are the mediastinal lymphatic system, lungs, skin and eyes...
March 5, 2019: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Rong Guo, Yong Li, Zhijie Wang, Hua Bai, Jianchun Duan, Shuhang Wang, Lvhua Wang, Jie Wang
Some driver gene mutations including EGFR have been reported to be involved in expression regulation of the immunosuppressive checkpoint protein programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Here, we investigated the potential role and precise mechanism of EGFR mutants in PD-L1 expression regulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Examination of pivotal EGFR signaling effectors in eight NSCLC cells indicated apparent associations of PD-L1 overexpression with phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, especially with increased protein levels of phospho-IκBα (p-IκBα) and HIF-1α...
March 7, 2019: Cancer Science
Leah Winer, Nadine Beckmann, Rosalie A Veile, Michael D Goodman, Charles C Caldwell, Vanessa Nomellini
Patients who survive the acute phase of sepsis can progress to persistent inflammation, immunosuppression, and catabolism syndrome (PICS). Although sepsis is characterized by early hypercoagulability and delayed hypocoagulability, coagulopathy during chronic critical illness is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine whether sepsis-induced PICS is associated with coagulation abnormalities. Using our previously described murine PICS model, outbred mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture, and coagulability was characterized after 8 days...
March 6, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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