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When Good Go Bad

Joerg Fingerhut, Jesse J Prinz
Evaluative concepts qualify as abstract because they seem to go beyond what is given in experience. This is especially clear in the case of moral concepts. Justice, for example, has no fixed appearance. Less obviously, aesthetic concepts may also qualify as abstract. The very same sensory input can be regarded as beautiful by one person and ugly by another. Artistic success can also transcend sensory accessible features. Here, we focus on moral badness and aesthetic goodness and argue that both can be grounded in emotional responses...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Ruth M J Byrne, Shane Timmons
Five experiments identify an asymmetric moral hindsight effect for judgments about whether a morally good action should have been taken, e.g., Ann should run into traffic to save Jill who fell before an oncoming truck. Judgments are increased when the outcome is good (Jill sustained minor bruises), as Experiment 1 shows; but they are not decreased when the outcome is bad (Jill sustained life-threatening injuries), as Experiment 2 shows. The hindsight effect is modified by imagined alternatives to the outcome: judgments are amplified by a counterfactual that if the good action had not been taken, the outcome would have been worse, and diminished by a semi-factual that if the good action had not been taken, the outcome would have been the same...
May 26, 2018: Cognition
Raymond A Jean, Alexander S Chiu, Daniel J Boffa, Frank C Detterbeck, Justin D Blasberg, Anthony W Kim
BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission after major thoracic surgery has a marked effect on health care delivery, particularly in the era of value-based reimbursement. We sought to investigate the additive impact of comorbidity and postoperative complications on the risk of readmission after thoracic lobectomy. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Readmission Database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project between 2010 and 2014 for discharges after pulmonary lobectomy with a primary diagnosis of lung cancer...
August 2018: Surgery
Charles R Caffrey, Patrick M Lank
Patients can use numerous drugs that exist outside of existing regulatory statutes in order to get "legal highs." Legal psychoactive substances represent a challenge to the emergency medicine physician due to the sheer number of available agents, their multiple toxidromes and presentations, their escaping traditional methods of analysis, and the reluctance of patients to divulge their use of these agents. This paper endeavors to cover a wide variety of "legal highs," or uncontrolled psychoactive substances that may have abuse potential and may result in serious toxicity...
2018: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
A Hunter Threadgill, Philip A Gable
Traditionally, the reward positivity (RewP) is thought to index a binary performance monitoring system sensitive to approach motivation. However, recent theoretical models have argued that feedback processing extends beyond simple "good" vs. "bad" associations, such that performance monitoring incorporates the complex, multi-step sequence of behaviors often necessary to attain rewards. The present study sought to go beyond simple stimulus-response paradigms to examine how approach-motivated states occurring in multi-step goal pursuit impacts the RewP...
December 21, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Preethi Kunchala, Sudhakiranmayi Kuravi, Roy Jensen, Joseph McGuirk, Ramesh Balusu
Nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) is a nucleolar phosphoprotein that performs diverse biological functions including molecular chaperoning, ribosome biogenesis, DNA repair, and genome stability. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease, more than half of the AML cases exhibit normal karyotype (NK). Approximately 50-60 percent of patients with NK-AML carry NPM1 mutations which are characterized by cytoplasmic dislocation of the NPM1 protein. In AML, mutant NPM1 (NPM1c+) acts in a dominant negative fashion and also blocks the differentiation of myeloid cells through gain-of-function for the AML phenotype...
May 2018: Blood Reviews
Allison R McMullen, Neil Anderson, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, C A Burnham
Infections with Corynebacterium striatum have been described in the literature over the last 2 decades, with the majority being bacteremia, central line infections, and occasionally, endocarditis. In recent years, the frequency of C. striatum infections appears to be increasing; a factor likely contributing to this is the increased ease and accuracy of the identification of Corynebacterium spp., including C. striatum , from clinical cultures. The objective of this study was to retrospectively characterize C...
November 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Manon M S Richard, Frank L W Takken
A recent study finds that the Arabidopsis DM1 and DM2d proteins physically interact and trigger autoimmunity in plants. The DM1-DM2d interaction pattern differs from that of known immune receptor pairs, portraying the versatility in NLR functioning.
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Jennifer Trueland
When nursing students go on clinical placement they see patient safety practice in action - good and bad.
April 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
Siwei Liu, Marie-Anne Vanderhasselt, Juan Zhou, Annett Schirmer
Often we know whether an upcoming event is going to be good or bad. But does that knowledge help us regulate ensuing emotions? To address this question, we exposed participants to alleged social feedback that was either positive or negative. On half the trials, a preceding cue indicated the feedback's affective quality. On the remaining trials, the cue was uninformative. In two different blocks, participants either appraised feedback spontaneously or down-regulated ensuing emotions using a controlled appraisal strategy...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Meharban Singh
Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21st century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Luke Gessel, Joseph Alcorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Claudine Brelet
When we want to implant efficient, lasting healthcare programmes in order to improve the health conditions of a population, we have to be able to distance ourselves from our own conceptions of what is ethical or not, good or bad, better or worse. In fact, these notions can be conceived differently according to the sociocultural context. Thus, international aid has taught us how harmful it can be to impose changes which, a priori, may go against "other" ethics. The imbalances and misunderstandings that result always jeopardise the success of programmes which, otherwise, might have been accepted and even taken over by the populations concerned...
October 2015: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
Shao-Yi Cheng, Sang-Yeon Suh, Tatsuya Morita, Yasuhiro Oyama, Tai-Yuan Chiu, Su Jin Koh, Hyun Sook Kim, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Taeko Yoshie, Satoru Tsuneto
The primary aim of this study was to explore common beliefs and practices when death is approaching in East-Asian countries. A cross-sectional survey was performed involving palliative care physicians in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Measurement outcomes were physician-perceived frequencies of the following when patient death was approaching: (1) reluctance to take part in end-of-life discussions, (2) role of family members, (3) home death, and (4) circumstances surrounding death. A total of 505, 211, and 207 responses were obtained from Japanese, Korea, and Taiwan physicians, respectively...
September 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Craig D Parks, Jeff Joireman, Paul A M Van Lange
One of the most continually vexing problems in society is the variability with which citizens support endeavors that are designed to help a great number of people. In this article, we examine the twin roles of cooperative and antagonistic behavior in this variability. We find that each plays an important role, though their contributions are, understandably, at odds. It is this opposition that produces seeming unpredictability in citizen response to collective need. In fact, we suggest that careful consideration of the research allows one to often predict when efforts to provide a collectively beneficial good will succeed and when they will fail...
December 2013: Psychological Science in the Public Interest: a Journal of the American Psychological Society
Tara Haelle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Scientific American
Sidsel Ellingsen, Åsa Roxberg, Kjell Kristoffersen, Jan Henrik Rosland, Herdis Alvsvåg
The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of time when living with severe incurable disease. A phenomenological and philosophical approach of description and deciphering were used. In our modern health care system there is an on-going focus on utilizing and recording the use of time, but less focus on the patient's experience of time, which highlights the need to explore the patients' experiences, particularly when life is vulnerable and time is limited. The empirical data consisted of 26 open-ended interviews with 23 participants receiving palliative care at home, in hospital or in a nursing home in Norway...
May 2015: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Zhonggao Wang, Zhiwei Hu, Jimin Wu, Feng Ji, Hongtao Wang, Yungang Lai, Xiang Gao, Yachan Ning, Chengchao Zhang, Zhitong Li, Weitao Liang, Jianjun Liu
At the very time of global paying the highest attention to the worst insults of smoking as well as haze on the airway, everybody knows both are exogenous and noticeable. However, people mostly, including many medical personnel, do not know how badly the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) insults on our own airway. Symptoms of GER are commonly seen as heartburn and regurgitation, which can be mostly tolerated. However, when the up going gastric content reversely passes the esophagus and then the distal pharynx, where it appears a beak like stricture, serving as a nozzle, so as to produce numerous micro-particles and reach the oro-nasal cavity and also the airway causing allergic rhinitis and asthmatic attacks, even pulmonary parenchyma lesions...
March 2015: Frontiers of Medicine
Aline Moraes Menacho, Adriano Reimann, Lie Mara Hirata, Caroline Ganzerella, Flavio Heuta Ivano, Ricardo Sugisawa
BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is the most frequent exam used to evaluate colonic mucosa, allowing the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The appropriate bowel preparation is indispensable for the realization of colonoscopy. Therefore, it is necessary the use of laxative medications, preferentially by oral administration. AIM: To compare two medications used in bowel preparation in adult patients going to ambulatory colonoscopy and to analyze the patients' profile...
January 2014: Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery: ABCD
Min J Kang, Colin F Camerer
Hypothetical bias is the common finding that hypothetical monetary values for "goods" are higher than real values. We extend this research to the domain of "bads" such as consumer and household choices made to avoid aversive outcomes (e.g., insurance). Previous evidence of hot-cold empathy gaps suggest food disgust is likely to be strongly underestimated in hypothetical (cold) choice. Depending on relative underestimation of food disgust and pain of spending, the hypothetical bias for aversive bad scan go in the typical direction for goods, disappear, or reverse in sign...
2013: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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