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"Amino acid"

A-Reum Kim, Jee Young Sung, Seung Bae Rho, Yong-Nyun Kim, Kyungsil Yoon
Suppressor of Variegation 3-9 Homolog 2 (SUV39H2) methylates the lysine 9 residue of histone H3 and induces heterochromatin formation, resulting in transcriptional repression or silencing of target genes. SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 have a role in embryonic development, and SUV39H1 was shown to suppress cell cycle progression associated with Rb. However, the function of human SUV39H2 has not been extensively studied. We observed that forced expression of SUV39H2 decreased cell proliferation by inducing G₁ cell cycle arrest...
February 15, 2019: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jia-Lei Tao, Yan-Zhen Chen, Qi-Gang Dai, Man Tian, Shou-Chuan Wang, Jin-Jun Shan, Jian-Jian Ji, Li-Li Lin, Wei-Wei Li, Bin Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a global problem and complex disease suited for metabolomic profiling. This study explored the candidate biomarkers specific to paediatric asthma and provided insights into asthmatic pathophysiology. METHODS: Children (aged 6-11 years) meeting the criteria for healthy control (n = 29), uncontrolled asthma (n = 37) or controlled asthma (n = 43) were enrolled. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on urine samples of the patients to explore the different types of metabolite profile in paediatric asthma...
February 14, 2019: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Federico Tondini, Tom Lang, Liang Chen, Markus Herderich, Vladimir Jiranek
Wine fermentations typically involve the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, many other yeast species participate to the fermentation process, some with interesting oenological traits. In this study the species Torulaspora delbrueckii, used occasionally in mixed or sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae to improve wine sensory profile, was investigated to understand the physiological differences between the two. Next generation sequencing was used to characterize the transcriptome of T. delbrueckii and highlight the different genomic response of these yeasts during growth under wine-like conditions...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Nina Sillner, Alesia Walker, Eva-Maria Harrieder, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Michael Witting
The fecal metabolome is a complex mixture of endogenous, microbial metabolites, and food derived compounds. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) enables the analysis of polar compounds, which is a valuable alternative to reversed-phase liquid chromatography in the field of metabolomics due to its ability to retain a greater portion of the polar metabolome. The objective of the study was to find the optimal chromatographic solution to perform non-targeted metabolomics of feces by means of HILIC ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS)...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Corinna Pietsch, Uwe G Liebert
BACKGROUND: Sapovirus is a common cause of self-limiting diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals chronic infections occur, but are incompletely investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate viral evolution in immunocompromised hosts during chronic sapovirus infection. STUDY DESIGN: From January 2010 to September 2018 stool samples of 5333 in-patients were analyzed for the presence of sapovirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR. In follow-up samples of chronic diarrhea cases nucleic acid sequencing of sapovirus genomes was performed...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
F S Santos, E C Sousa Junior, S F S Guerra, P S Lobo, E T Penha Junior, A B F Lima, C B G Vinente, E H N Chagas, M C A Justino, A C Linhares, J Matthijnssens, L S Soares, J D P Mascarenhas
Worldwide rotaviruses A (RVA) are responsible for approximately 215,000 deaths annually among children aged <5 years. RVA G1P[8] remains associated with >50% of gastroenteritis cases in this age group. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic variability of G1P[8] strains detected in children with severe diarrhea in Belém, Pará, Brazil, during the post-rotavirus vaccine introduction era. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the VP4 and VP7 genes of 40 samples selected between 2009 and 2011 into lineages found to be different from the Rotarix® vaccine strain...
February 11, 2019: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Anh H Cao-Pham, Kum C Hiong, Mel V Boo, Celine Y L Choo, Caryn Z Pang, Wai P Wong, Mei L Neo, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
The fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, lives in symbiosis with photosynthetic zooxanthellae, and can engage in light-enhanced growth and shell formation. Light-enhanced shell formation necessitates the elimination of excess H+ from the extrapallial fluid adjacent to the shell. This study aimed to clone Na+ /H+ Exchanger (NHE) from the whitish inner mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid of T. squamosa, to determine its cellular and subcellular localization, and to evaluate the effect of light exposure on its mRNA expression level and protein abundance therein...
February 11, 2019: Gene
Sarah R C Lentz, Pratik R Chheda, Lisa M Oppegard, Tyrell R Towle, Robert J Kerns, Hiroshi Hiasa
A Mg2+ -water bridge between the C-3, C-4 diketo moiety of fluoroquinolones and the conserved amino acid residues in the GyrA/ParC subunit is critical for the binding of a fluoroquinolone to a topoisomerase-DNA covalent complex. The fluoroquinolone UING-5-249 (249) can bind to the GyrB subunit through its C7-aminomethylpyrrolidine group. This interaction is responsible for enhanced activities of 249 against the wild type and quinolone-resistant mutant topoisomerases. To further evaluate the effects of the 249-GyrB interaction on fluoroquinolone activity, we examined the activities of decarboxy- and thio-249 against DNA gyrase and conducted docking studies using the structure of a gyrase-ciprofloxacin-DNA ternary complex...
February 11, 2019: Biochimie
Juliah Khayeli Akhwale, Manfred Rohde, Christine Rohde, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Hans-Peter Klenk, Hamadi Iddi Boga, Johannes Wittmann
We report complete genome sequences of eight bacteriophages isolated from Haloalkaline Lake Elmenteita found on the floor of Kenyan Rift Valley. The bacteriophages were sequenced, annotated and a comparative genomic analysis using various Bioinformatics tools carried out to determine relatedness of the bacteriophages to each other, and to those in public databases. Basic genome properties like genome size, percentage coding density, number of open reading frames, percentage GC content and gene organizations revealed the bacteriophages had no relationship to each other...
2019: PloS One
Beáta Török-Nagy, József Antal, Béla Dénes
The commercially available D-dimer assays used in the clinical practice often show differences in the results, and their specificity and sensitivity are rather unsatisfactory. Our aim was to develop a new monoclonal antibody against D-dimer with a proper specificity, and estimating its suitability using in a latex agglutination diagnostic test. Monoclonal antibodies were generated using hybridoma technology. Their titer was determined by a self-developed ELISA method. The cross-reactions of the antibodies were tested...
2019: PloS One
Saúl Jijón-Moreno, Beatriz Eugenia Baca, Diana Carolina Castro-Fernández, Alberto Ramírez-Mata
Azospirillum brasilense is one of the most studied species of diverse agronomic plants worldwide. The benefits conferred to plants inoculated with Azospirillum have been primarily attributed to its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen and synthesize phytohormones, especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The principal pathway for IAA synthesis involves the intermediate metabolite indole pyruvic acid. Successful colonization of plants by Azospirillum species is fundamental to the ability of these bacteria to promote the beneficial effects observed in plants...
2019: PloS One
Ziad S Mahmassani, Paul T Reidy, Alec I McKenzie, Chris Stubben, Michael T Howard, Micah J Drummond
Short-term muscle disuse is characterized by skeletal muscle insulin resistance, though this response is divergent across subjects. The mechanisms regulating inactivity-induced insulin resistance between populations that are more or less susceptibile to disuse-induced insulin resistance are not known. RNA sequencing was conducted on vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from subjects before and after bed rest (n=26) to describe the transcriptome of inactivity-induced insulin resistance. Subjects were separated into Low (n=14) or High (n=12) Susceptibility based on the magnitude of change in insulin sensitivity after 5-days of bed rest...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
S Tony Wolf, Anna E Stanhewicz, Megan M Clarke, Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick, W Larry Kenney
Aging is associated with altered water, electrolyte, and glucose handling. Alternative beverages to those containing carbohydrate (CHO) should be considered for older adults. We hypothesized that reduced sodium (CNa+ ) and/or water (CH2 O) clearance would underlie greater beverage retention in older compared to young adults, secondary to reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We further hypothesized that amino acid (AA)- and CHO-based beverages would promote retention better than water. Over 5 visits, 12 young (23±3y, 7M/5F) and 12 older (67±6y, 5M/7F) subjects consumed 1 L of distilled water or beverages with 6% CHO, 0...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Xinya Hemu, Xiaohong Zhang, James P Tam
A biomimetic one-step ligase-catalyzed cyclo-oligomerization mediated by butelase 1, an Asn/Asp-specific ligase, is introduced that is time-, concentration-, length-, and sequence-dependent. This reaction yields cyclic mono-, di-, tri-, and tetramers from peptide precursors containing 3-15 amino acids ended with Asn and a His-Val tail. The cyclomonomers were favored when the peptide lengths were >9 amino acids. A turn-forming Pro residue at the P2 position favored the formation of higher-order cyclo-oligomers...
February 14, 2019: Organic Letters
Jon E Paczkowski, Amelia R McCready, Jian-Ping Cong, Zhijie Li, Philip D Jeffrey, Chari D Smith, Brad R Henke, Frederick M Hughson, Bonnie L Bassler
Bacteria use a cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing to coordinate collective behaviors. Quorum sensing relies on production and group-wide detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. Here, we probe the activity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR quorum-sensing receptor using synthetic agonists based on the structure of the native homoserine lactone autoinducer. The synthetic compounds range from low to high potency, and agonist activity tracks with the ability of the agonist to stabilize the LasR protein...
February 14, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
Laetitia-Marie Petit, Andréas Nydegger, Pascal Müller
The vegan diet, although beneficial for adults in the prevention of metabolic diseases, raises questions about its benefits for a growing child : adequate caloric and protein intake, quality of essential amino acids, presence of essential fatty acids, inhibition of absorption of trace elements (including iodine, iron and zinc) and supply of various vitamins. Whereas vegan food is vitamin B12 deprived, the biggest challenge remains the vitamin B12 substitution in pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and children at any age...
February 13, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Alessandra Santillo, Sara Falvo, Maria M Di Fiore, Federica Di Giacomo Russo, Paolo Chieffi, Alessandro Usiello, Claudia Pinelli, Gabriella Chieffi Baccari
Excitatory amino acids (EAAs) are found present in the nervous and reproductive systems of animals. Numerous studies have demonstrated a regulatory role for Glutamate (Glu), d-aspartate ( d-Asp) and N-methyl- d-aspartate (NMDA) in the control of spermatogenesis. EAAs are able to stimulate the Glutamate receptors, including the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR). Here in, we assess expression of the main AMPAR subunits, GluA1 and GluA2/3, in the mouse testis and in spermatogonial GC-1 cells...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Ajay Verma, Rashmi Parihar, Bikash Baishya
NMR is a fast method for obtaining a holistic snapshot of the metabolome and also offers quantitative information without separating the compounds present in a complex mixture. Identification of the metabolites present in a plant extract sample is a crucial step for all plant metabolomics studies. In the present work, we used various two dimensional (2D) NMR methods such as J-Resolved NMR, TOCSY, and HSQC NMR spectroscopy for the identification of thirty-six common metabolites present in Coriandrum sativum L...
February 14, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Sijia Wu, Xiaoming Wu, Jie Tian, Xiaobo Zhou, Liyu Huang
Fusion peptide (FP) is a pivotal domain for the entry of retrovirus into host cells to continue self-replication. The crucial role indicates that FP is a promising drug target for therapeutic intervention. A FP model proposed in our previous work is relatively not efficient to predict FP in retroviruses. Thus in this work, we come up with a new computational model to predict FP domains in all the retroviruses. It basically predicts FP domains through recognizing their start and end sites separately with SVM method combing the hydrophobicity knowledge of the subdomain around furin cleavage site...
February 12, 2019: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Tingzhang Hu, Yuanli Liu, Shanshan Zhu, Juan Qin, Wenping Li, Nong Zhou
The group 5 LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins are an atypical LEA protein group, which is associated with resistance to multiple stresses. In this study, OsLea14-A gene was isolated from Oryza sativa L., which encodes a 5C LEA protein with 151 amino acids. The qPCR analysis showed that OsLea14-A expressed in all tissues and organs at all times. The expression of OsLea14-A in the panicles of plumping stage were dramatically increased. The heterologous expression of OsLea14-A in Escherichia coli improved its growth performance under salinity, desiccation, high temperature, and freeze-thaw stresses...
February 14, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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