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Geehyuk Kim, Jemberu Taye, Kwangmin Yu, Sunyoung Park, Jungho Kim, Sunghyun Kim, Dongsup Lee, Hye-Young Wang, Kwang Hwa Park, Hyeyoung Lee
After breast and colon cancer, cervical cancer is the third most common cancer of women worldwide. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to be the predominant cause of cervical cancer, molecular HPV screening is currently used along with cytological and histological examination methods for precancer diagnosis. Nevertheless, the sensitivity of the current HPV test is less than 80%; thus, many cervical cancer cases are not able to be diagnosed by HPV screening alone, and likewise, patients with cervical cancer are often determined to be HPV-negative by the current screening methods...
2019: Analytical Cellular Pathology (Amsterdam)
Jung Yoon, Jung Ah Kwon, Soo Young Yoon, Woong Sik Jang, Dong June Yang, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim
Microscopic examination of blood smears is the standard method for malaria diagnosis but is labor-intensive and requires expert staff. CellaVision DM96 (CellaVision, Lund, Sweden) is a digital hematology analyzer available for advanced morphological analysis of blood films including intracellular parasites. Here, we evaluated the CellaVision DM96 Advanced RBC Application for malaria detection in stained peripheral blood (PB) smears. Two hundred and twenty thin PB smear slides (84 P. vivax, 14 P. falciparum, 122 negative controls) were stained with Wright-Giemsa using automated slidemaker/strainers of Beckman Coulter hematology systems (LH780, Beckman Coulter Inc...
February 12, 2019: Acta Tropica
Wasswa William, Andrew Ware, Annabella Habinka Basaza-Ejiri, Johnes Obungoloch
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is preventable if effective screening measures are in place. Pap-smear is the commonest technique used for early screening and diagnosis of cervical cancer. However, the manual analysis of the pap-smears is error prone due to human mistake, moreover, the process is tedious and time-consuming. Hence, it is beneficial to develop a computer-assisted diagnosis tool to make the pap-smear test more accurate and reliable. This paper describes the development of a tool for automated diagnosis and classification of cervical cancer from pap-smear images...
February 12, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
Saumya Shukla, Nuzhat Husain, Anurag Gupta, Nidhi Anand
Background: The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement is a predictive and prognostic marker in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. A series of clinical and pathological features have been documented in patients who harbor this translocation. Aims: The objectives of this study were to analyze the specific cytomorphological features of lung adenocarcinoma that harbored the ALK gene rearrangement and to compare the morphological features with the mutation-negative cases...
January 2019: Journal of Cytology
Jeremiah W Sanders, Steven J Frank, Rajat J Kudchadker, Teresa L Bruno, Jingfei Ma
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate a sliding-window convolutional neural network (CNN) for radioactive seed identification in MRI of the prostate after permanent implant brachytherapy. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients underwent prostate cancer low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy using radioactive seeds stranded with positive contrast MR-signal seed markers and were scanned using a balanced steady-state free precession pulse sequence with and without an endorectal coil (ERC)...
February 8, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Kirtika Verma, Ashok Patel
Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) mediates metabolic reshuffling and is ubiquitously upregulated in several cancer types. The non-metabolic function of PKM2 as key nuclear kinase and modulator of gene expression is instrumental in cancer progression and tumorigenesis. Here, we attempt to discern the non-canonical function of PKM2 as an epigenetic modulator and the underlying implication of this activity. Using 5'-FAM labelled reconstituted mononucleosome we have shown that PKM2 interacts with the complex through Histone H3 and possibly obstruct the access to DNA binding factors...
2019: PloS One
Kritika Gupta, Cheryl Sarah Philipose, Sharada Rai, John Ramapuram, Gagandeep Kaur, Hema Kini, Chaithra Gv, Deepa Adiga
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study the spectrum of epithelial abnormalities on Pap smears of HIV-positive women categorized as per the Bethesda System of Reporting Cervical Cytology, to correlate them with CD4 lymphocyte counts, and to compare them with the spectrum of abnormalities seen in a HIV-negative control group. Study Design and Methodology: The present study was a 6-year retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, which included 150 Pap smears from HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, respectively...
February 5, 2019: Acta Cytologica
Tamaki Kobayashi, Jay Sikalima, Jonathan B Parr, Mike Chaponda, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, Modest Mulenga, Steven R Meshnick, William J Moss, For The Southern And Central Africa International Centers Of Excellence For Malaria Research
We attempted to identify Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2/3 ( pfhrp2/3 ) deletions among rapid diagnostic test (RDT)-negative but PCR- or microscopy-positive P. falciparum -infected individuals in areas of low transmission (Choma District, 2009-2011) and high transmission (Nchelenge District, 2015-2017) in Zambia. Through community-based surveys, 5,167 participants were screened at 1,147 households by PfHRP2-based RDTs. Slides were made and dried blood spots were obtained for molecular analysis...
February 4, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vahid Alizadehyazdi, Aiva Simaite, Matthew Spenko
The development of microstructure (gecko-like) adhesives has focused almost solely on their adhesive strength. However, for practical applications, especially in real-world environments, the adhesive's long-term performance is arguably equally important. One impediment to long-term viability is the adhesive's susceptibility to contamination. It is a challenge to develop an adhesive that can both adhere to a substrate while not becoming contaminated with dust and debris. In response, this paper experimentally explores the effect of modulus of elasticity, work of separation, and work of adhesion (adhesion energy) on the shear stress and particle detachment capabilities of wedge-shaped, directional microstructured adhesives...
February 4, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Doruk Akgün, Justus Bürger, Matthias Pumberger, Michael Putzier
PURPOSE: C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be a powerful parameter for detecting acute postoperative spinal implant infections (PSII) with a high sensitivity and specificity. However, little data are available on the performance of CRP in the diagnosis of delayed PSII. The aim of the current study was therefore to establish cutoff values for diagnosing delayed infection based on serum CRP. METHODS: All patients who underwent a revision surgery after instrumented spinal fusion from January 2013 through January 2016 were included...
February 2, 2019: European Spine Journal
Priya E Skaria, Atif A Ahmed, Hong Yin, Kathleen Nicol, Kimberly J Reid, Vivekanand Singh
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common differentiated thyroid cancer in children; and the follicular variant is the second most common variant after the classic subtype. The histological appearance of follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), can be mimicked by benign follicular nodules. Pediatric pathologists encountering such lesions with FVPTC-like appearance may err on diagnosing the benign lesions as malignant. In adult patients, several immunohistochemical markers have emerged recently as a useful adjunct to distinguish differentiated thyroid carcinomas from benign follicular lesions...
January 28, 2019: Pathology, Research and Practice
Cheng Xu, Binbin Zhang, Aurelia Chi Wang, Haiyang Zou, Guanlin Liu, Wenbo Ding, Changsheng Wu, Ming Ma, Peizhong Feng, Zhiqun Lin, Zhong Lin Wang
It is known that contact-electrification (or triboelectrification) usually occurs between two different materials, which could be explained by several models for different materials systems (Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, 1706790; Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, 1803968). But contact between two pieces of the chemically same material could also result in electrostatic charges although the charge density is rather low, which is hardly to be understood from the physics point of view. In this paper, by preparing a contact-separation mode triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) using two pieces of an identical material, the direction of charge transfer during contact-electrification is studied regarding to its dependence on curvatures of the sample surfaces...
February 1, 2019: ACS Nano
Vanishri Chandrashekhar Haragannavar, Anand S Tegginamani, Shashidara Raju, Shailesh Kudva, Celestina Dawn Peter, D K Shruthi
Background: FHIT (Fragile histidine triad) a member of tumor suppressor family, has been extensively studied in many solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Among all head and neck cyst and tumors odontogenic lesions account approximately 3%-9%. The molecular pathogenesis of these lesions is less explored. Defects in cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressor genes could result in the development of odontogenic cyst and tumors. Hence, we aimed to determine the significant role of a tumor suppressor gene FHIT in most commonly occurring odontogenic lesions mainly ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst and dentigerous cyst...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Teik-Cheng Lim
A new 2D microstructure is proposed herein in the form of rigid unit cells, each taking the form of a cross with two opposing crossbars forming slots and the other two opposing crossbars forming sliders. The unit cells in the microstructure are arranged in a rectangular array in which the nearest four neighboring cells are rotated by 90° such that a slider in each unit cell is connected to a slot from its nearest neighbor. Using a kinematics approach, the Poisson's ratio along the axes of symmetry can be obtained, while the off-axis Poisson's ratio is obtained using Mohr's circle...
January 30, 2019: Materials
Louis J Vaickus, Arief A Suriawinata, Jason W Wei, Xiaoying Liu
BACKGROUND: The Paris System for Urine Cytopathology (the Paris System) has succeeded in making the analysis of liquid-based urine preparations more reproducible. Any algorithm seeking to automate this system must accurately estimate the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio and produce a qualitative "atypia score." The authors propose a hybrid deep-learning and morphometric model that reliably automates the Paris System. METHODS: Whole-slide images (WSI) of liquid-based urine cytology specimens were extracted from 51 negative, 60 atypical, 52 suspicious, and 54 positive cases...
January 31, 2019: Cancer Cytopathology
Yelda Dere, Osman Ozkaraca, Gurcan Cetin, Ozcan Dere
OBJECTIVE: To design an application which can calculate Ki67 and compare its results with the traditional method in gastroenteropancreatic (GEP)-neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive analytical study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Faculties of Medicine and Technology of Mugla Sitki Kocman University between January 2015 to January 2016. METHODOLOGY: A new analyser for detecting the exact percentage of positive cells in images captured from different slides retrospectively selected from hospital records was designed and the concordance with results given by an expert pathologist was compared...
February 2019: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
G Y Song, W Wang, Y P Wang, M Liu, Y X Wang, Y Liu, C R Liu
Objective: To investigate the significance of Silva pattern system about clinical application in invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma. Methods: Data obtained from the Maternity Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University was analyzed, 78 endocervical adenocarcinoma cases were included from December, 2006 to August, 2017. The average age of patients was (45.1±9.1) years old (ranged 27-71 years old). Clinical stage: stageⅠa 26 cases and Ⅰb 49 cases and stage Ⅱa 3 cases. All pathological slides were reviewed, stratified cases into pattern A, B and C according to Silva system criteria...
January 25, 2019: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Helen Y Buse, Brian Morris, Ian T Struewing, Jeffrey G Szabo
Building water systems promote the regrowth and survival of opportunistic pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila , especially within biofilms, where most drinking water microbes reside. However, compared to their planktonic form, disinfection efficacy for the biofilm-associated forms of water-based pathogens is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of free chlorine and monochloramine in the inactivation of biofilm-associated L. pneumophila strain Philadelphia-1 serogroup 1 (Lp)...
January 25, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Matevž Kuhta, Klemen Bošnjak, Rok Vengust
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to determine whether obtaining adequate lumbar (LL) or segmental (SL) lordosis during instrumented TLIF for one-level degenerative spondylolisthesis affects midterm clinical outcome. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective one, including 57 patients who underwent single-level TLIF surgery for degenerative spondylolisthesis. Patients were analyzed globally with additional subgroup analysis according to pelvic incidence (PI)...
January 24, 2019: European Spine Journal
Ruyang Zhang, Linjing Lai, Jieyu He, Chao Chen, Dongfang You, Weiwei Duan, Xuesi Dong, Ying Zhu, Lijuan Lin, Sipeng Shen, Yichen Guo, Li Su, Andrea Shafer, Sebastian Moran, Thomas Fleischer, Maria Moksnes Bjaanæs, Anna Karlsson, Maria Planck, Johan Staaf, Åslaug Helland, Manel Esteller, Yongyue Wei, Feng Chen, David C Christiani
Hypoxia occurs frequently in human cancers and promotes stabilization and activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF-1α is specific for the hypoxia response, and its degradation mediated by three enzymes EGLN1, EGLN2 and EGLN3. Although EGLNs expression has been found to be related to prognosis of many cancers, few studies examined DNA methylation in EGLNs and its relationship to prognosis of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed EGLNs DNA methylation data from tumor tissue samples of 1,230 early-stage NSCLC patients from five international cohorts, as well as gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
January 21, 2019: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
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