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Salmonella bacteremia

James J Gilchrist, Calman A MacLennan
Nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) are a major cause of invasive (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, manifesting as bacteremia and meningitis. Available epidemiological data indicate that iNTS disease is endemic in much of the region. Antimicrobial resistance is common and case fatality rates are high. There are well-characterized clinical associations with iNTS disease, including young age, HIV infection, malaria, malnutrition, anemia, and sickle cell disease. However, the clinical presentation of iNTS disease is often with fever alone, so clinical diagnosis is impossible without blood culture confirmation...
January 2019: EcoSal Plus
Hassan Zafar, Milton H Saier
The communities of beneficial bacteria that live in our intestines, the gut microbiome, are important for the development and function of the immune system. Bacteroides species make up a significant fraction of the human gut microbiome, and can be probiotic and pathogenic, depending upon various genetic and environmental factors. These can cause disease conditions such as intra-abdominal sepsis, appendicitis, bacteremia, endocarditis, pericarditis, skin infections, brain abscesses and meningitis. In this study, we identify the transport systems and predict their substrates within seven Bacteroides species, all shown to be probiotic; however, four of them (B...
2018: PloS One
Robert Jakubowski, Lisa L Steed, Susan E Dorman, Camelia Marculescu
We describe a febrile adult returning to the U.S. from Nigeria. Malaria was diagnosed by rapid antigen testing, but recognition of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella disease was delayed. While the moniker, "typhomalaria," once used to describe an illness with features of malaria and typhoid fever, has fallen out of favor, it may nevertheless be a helpful reminder to clinicians that both infectious diseases can arise in the same patient. Blood cultures should be obtained routinely in febrile returning travelers from malaria-endemic regions, including those in whom the diagnosis of malaria has already been established...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ruklanthi de Alwis, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Nhi Le Thi Quynh, Corinne N Thompson, Katherine L Anders, Nguyen Thi Van Thuy, Nguyen Trong Hieu, Lu Lan Vi, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Vu Thuy Duong, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Pham Van Minh, Trinh Van Tan, Trang Nguyen Hoang Thu, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Guy E Thwaites, Cameron Simmons, Stephen Baker
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) organisms are a major cause of gastroenteritis and bacteremia, but little is known about maternally acquired immunity and natural exposure in infant populations residing in areas where NTS disease is highly endemic. Methods: We recruited 503 pregnant mothers and their infants (following delivery) from urban areas in Vietnam and followed infants until they were 1 year old. Exposure to the dominant NTS serovars, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were assessed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigen-specific antibodies...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Michael Dominic Chua, Brittany Dominique Walker, Jian-Ping Jin, Julian Andrew Guttman
The ingestion of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium leads to their colonization of the intestinal lumen, which ultimately causes an array of ailments ranging from diarrhea to bacteremia. Once in the intestines, these microbes generate various actin-rich structures to attach, invade or move within the host intestinal epithelial cells. Although an assortment of actin-associated proteins has been identified to varying degrees at these structures, the localization of many actin stabilizing proteins have yet to be analyzed...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Fawzia E Al Otaibi
To describe a fatal case of invasive Aspergillus flavus sinusitis in a 43-year old female with sickle cell disease (SCD) complicated by intracerebral aspergilloma and invasive Salmonella infection. Cerebral aspergilloma carries a very high mortality rate. The patient developed post-craniotomy intracerebral hemorrhage at the site of biopsy, Salmonella species sepsis and ventriculitis. She presented with a 2-month history of headache, dizziness, personality and behavioral changes, and vomiting. Initial clinical evaluation raised the suspicion of brain tumor...
September 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Ruchita Balasubramanian, Justin Im, Jung-Seok Lee, Hyon Jin Jeon, Ondari D Mogeni, Jerome H Kim, Raphaël Rakotozandrindrainy, Stephen Baker, Florian Marks
Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has emerged as a major public health concern. Yet, understanding of the global burden is incomplete, limited particularly by the breadth of blood culture-based surveillance systems that are able to accurately diagnose the etiology of bacteremia. The accessibility of whole genome sequencing has allowed for genetic characterization of pathogens, shedding light on its evolutionary history and sounding alerts for its future progression. iNTS disease is observed to be a particular threat in sub-Saharan Africa, with a case fatality rate greatly exceeding that of typhoid fever, and commonly affecting infants, young children and immunocompromised adults...
August 6, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
E McConville, D Smith, E Bélanger, C Ivory
We present a case of scleroderma overlap syndrome with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) including complications of both scleroderma renal crisis and lupus nephritis. Our patient was initially diagnosed with undifferentiated connective tissue disease in 1996. A diagnosis of scleroderma was made in 2010 after she developed scleroderma renal crisis. She remained stable until 2016, when she presented with Salmonella bacteremia, renal failure, nephrotic range proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Laboratory findings were consistent lupus with positive ds-DNA, hypocomplementemia and repeat renal biopsy showed lupus nephritis...
September 2018: Lupus
Stephanie Guyomard-Rabenirina, Blandine Muanza, Sylvaine Bastian, Edith Malpote, Pauline Jestin, Meggie Guerin, Antoine Talarmin, François-Xavier Weill, Arnaud Legrand, Sebastien Breurec
A retrospective study was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica bacteremia in infants and children in Guadeloupe, French West Indies. The 171 patients with S. enterica infection seen between 2010 and 2014 included 155 (90.6%) with acute gastroenteritis, of whom 42 (27.1%) had concomitant bacteremia, and 16 (9.4%) with primary bacteremia. Most cases (97.7%) were in infants and children with no underlying health condition. Two subspecies were recovered: enterica ( N = 161, 94...
September 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Douglas Bretzing, Tasnim Lat, Andrew Shakespeare, Mary Lee, Salim Surani, Shekhar Ghamande
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of inoculation with nontyphoid Salmonella compared to the general population. While nontyphoid Salmonella commonly manifests as gastroenteritis, Salmonella bacteremia can be seen in patients with HIV. We present a case of disseminated Salmonellosis in a patient with HIV complicated by bronchopleural fistula and secondary empyema. Case Presentation. A 40-year-old African American male with HIV noncompliant with HAART therapy presented with complaints of generalized weakness, weight loss, cough, night sweats, and nonbloody, watery diarrhea of four weeks' duration...
2018: Case Reports in Pulmonology
Don Bambino Geno Tai, Laxmi Upadhyay, Ruchika Jain, Robert Goldstein
Salmonella infection usually presents as gastroenteritis and enteric fever. Some cases of bacteremia can lead to invasion of different organ systems and become occult sources for recurrence. Almost all organs of the body can be affected and have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of repeated Salmonella enteritidis infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. She was treated with intravenous and oral antibiotics but still had recurrence of fevers and bacteremia. After a thorough workup, pancreatic abscesses were identified and drained with abscess culture revealing Salmonella enteritidis ...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ryoji Ichimi, Ayako Yoshino, Masamune Higashigawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Sonu Agrawal, Vishwanath Singh Yadav, Anurag Srivastava, Arti Kapil, Benu Dhawan
Salmonella paratyphi A causes paratyphoid fever which is characterized by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting. Localized disease can occur following both overt and silent bacteremia followed by seeding of bacteria at distant sites. Salmonella species though associated with abscess formation in various organs,are rarely associated with breast abscess. We report 2 cases of breast abscess due to Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi A. Appropriate sampling, surgery supplemented by a comprehensive microbiological work up aided in pathogen identification and appropriate antibiotic administration for a successful outcome of these patients...
May 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Seifeldin Hakim, Francisco Davila, Mitual Amin, Ismail Hader, Mitchell S Cappell
A 65-year-old Japanese man living in the United States presented with pyrexia and chills associated with intermittent lower abdominal and back pain for 5 days. He denied recent travel, rash, diarrhea, or rectal bleeding. Physical examination revealed spiking pyrexia, and routine laboratory tests revealed mild leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Abdominal CT with contrast showed findings highly compatible with aortitis. Comprehensive autoimmune evaluation was negative. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from blood cultures...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Maria Regina Pires Carneiro, Maria Iracema de Aguiar Patrício, Sona Jain, Dalia Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Sergio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza
Salmonella infections usually occur as gastroenteritis that is generally self-limited. However, some serotypes of Salmonella can cause severe extra-intestinal infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis. Here, we report the first Salmonella Panama case of meningitis in 4-month-old male newborn in Brazil. The invasive strain isolated was susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested. The genes agfA, fimA, invA, sfbA, phoP, and slyA were detected using polymerase chain reactions. These findings are relevant and physicians should be alert to the possibility of meningitis in newborns due to S...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Revathi Masilamani, Melina B Cian, Zachary D Dalebroux
Salmonellae regulate membrane lipids during infection, but the exact proteins and mechanisms that promote their survival during bacteremia remain largely unknown. Mutations in genes encoding the conserved Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S Typhimurium) Tol-Pal apparatus caused the outer membrane (OM) sensor lipoprotein, RcsF, to become activated. The capsule activation phenotype for the mutants suggested that Tol-Pal might influence envelope lipid homeostasis. The mechanism involves reducing OM glycerophospholipid (GPL) levels, since the mutant salmonellae similarly accumulated phosphatidylglycerols (PGl) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) within the OM in comparison to the wild type...
July 2018: Infection and Immunity
Angela Parry-Hanson Kunadu, Mark Holmes, Eric L Miller, Andrew J Grant
Consumer perception of poor hygiene of fresh milk products is a major barrier to promotion of milk consumption as an intervention to alleviate the burden of malnutrition in Ghana. Fresh milk is retailed raw, boiled, or processed into unfermented cheese and spontaneously fermented products in unlicensed outlets. In this study, we have determined microbiological quality of informally retailed fresh milk products and characterized the genomic diversity and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in implicated products...
July 20, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Prachi Singh, Brian P Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Shang-Yu Chen, Tzu-Hua Weng, Wen-Pin Tseng, Chia-Ming Fu, Hui-Wen Lin, Chun-Hsing Liao, Tai-Fen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh, Cheng-Chung Fang, Shey-Ying Chen
Few studies analyzed the association between blood culture time to positivity (TTP) and risk of complicated nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia. We conducted a retrospective study of 206 patients (aged 60.4 ± 17.4 years) with NTS bacteremia during a 30-month period. Complicated NTS bacteremia was defined as the presence of 30-day mortality, complicated infection requiring surgery or abscess drainage, or requirement of intensive care unit admission. Serogroup D (75.7%) was the predominant isolates. Malignancy (44...
July 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jr-Jiun Lin, Tzu-Hua Weng, Wen-Pin Tseng, Shang-Yu Chen, Chia-Ming Fu, Hui-Wen Lin, Chun-Hsing Liao, Tai-Fen Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh, Shey-Ying Chen
BACKGROUND: Vascular infections (VI) are potentially catastrophic complications of nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS). We aimed to develop a scoring model incorporating information from blood culture time to positivity (TTP-NTSVI) and compared the prediction capability for VI among adults with NTS bacteremia between TTP-NTSVI and a previously published score (Chen-NTSVI). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 217 adults with NTS bacteremia ≧ 50 years old...
October 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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