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H1N1 influenza

Herath M T K Karunarathna, Ranawaka A P M Perera, Vicky J Fang, Hui-Ling Yen, Benjamin John Cowling, Malik Peiris
Haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titres are a correlate of protection for influenza virus infection, but several studies have also demonstrated the protective role of anti-neuraminidase (anti-NA) antibodies. However, there is limited data on anti-NA antibody responses in naturally occurring human influenza. We investigated anti-NA antibody responses to pandemic N1 and seasonal N1 in 18 RT-PCR-confirmed patients with naturally acquired pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 disease detected as part of a prospective community study of influenza...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Weike Zhou, Yanni Xiao, Jane Marie Heffernan
Mass media reports can induce individual behaviour change during a disease outbreak, which has been found to be useful as it reduces the force of infection. We propose a compartmental model by including a new compartment of the intensity of the media reports, which extends existing models by considering a novel media function, which is dependent both on the number of infected individuals and on the intensity of mass media. The existence and stability of the equilibria are analyzed and an optimal control problem of minimizing the total number of cases and total cost is considered, using reduction or enhancement in the media reporting rate as the control...
2019: PloS One
Jack N Salto-Quintana, Gerardo Rivera-Alfaro, Evelyn L Sánchez-Ramos, Alejandro Gómez-Gómez, Daniel E Noyola
Influenza is a leading cause of respiratory tract infections worldwide and there is limited information on the impact of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm virus on mortality after the 2009 pandemic. Using national mortality register data through 1998-2015 in Mexico, influenza-associated mortality was estimated for respiratory, cardiovascular, and all-cause events. The proportion of influenza-associated respiratory and cardiovascular deaths among different age groups were compared. There were 8,853,986 death registries included for the 1998-2015 winter seasons, average influenza-associated respiratory, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality rates were 5...
March 21, 2019: Pathogens and Global Health
Lankeshwara Munasinghe, Yusuke Asai, Hiroshi Nishiura
BACKGROUND: Social contact surveys can greatly help in quantifying the heterogeneous patterns of infectious disease transmission. The present study aimed to conduct a contact survey in Japan, offering estimates of contact by age and location and validating a social contact matrix using a seroepidemiological dataset of influenza. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted, covering all 47 prefectures in Japan and including a total of 1476 households...
March 20, 2019: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Atsuhiro Yasuhara, Seiya Yamayoshi, Maki Kiso, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Michiko Koga, Eisuke Adachi, Tadashi Kikuchi, I-Hsuan Wang, Shinya Yamada, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza viruses possess two surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA). Although haemagglutinin plays a major role as a protective antigen, immunity to NA also contributes to protection. The NA protein consists of a stalk and a head portion, the latter of which possesses enzymatic NA (or sialidase) activity. Like haemagglutinin, NA is under immune pressure, which leads to amino acid alterations and antigenic drift. Amino acid changes accumulate around the enzymatic active site, which is located at the top of the NA head...
March 18, 2019: Nature Microbiology
Sergey A Tarasov, Vladimir V Zarubaev, Evgeniy A Gorbunov, Svetlana A Sergeeva, Oleg I Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2019: Antiviral Research
Emily A Voigt, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Richard B Kennedy, Diane E Grill, Krista M Goergen, Daniel J Schaid, Gregory A Poland
Background: Sex differences in immune responses to influenza vaccine may impact efficacy across populations. Methods: In a cohort of 138 older adults (50-74 years old), we measured influenza A/H1N1 antibody titers, B-cell ELISPOT response, PBMC transcriptomics, and PBMC cell compositions at 0, 3, and 28 days post-immunization with the 2010/11 seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine. Results: We identified higher B-cell ELISPOT responses in females than males. Potential mechanisms for sex effects were identified in four gene clusters related to T, NK, and B cells...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Cheng-Chung Lee, Chih-Ya Yang, Li-Ling Lin, Tzu-Ping Ko, Alarng Hsun-Lang Chang, Stanley Shi-Chung Chang, Andrew H-J Wang
Influenza is a contagious acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus infection. Hemagglutinin (HA) is an important target in the therapeutic treatment and diagnostic detection of the influenza virus. Influenza A virus encompasses several different HA subtypes with different strains, which are constantly changing. In this study, we identified a fully human H1N1 neutralizing antibody (32D6) via an Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cell-based technology. 32D6 specifically neutralizes the clinically isolated H1N1 strains after the 2009 pandemic but not the earlier strains...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jose Manuel Mendez-Legaza, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu, Ivan Sanz
Neuraminidase (NA) content is not standardized in current seasonal influenza vaccines; neither anti-NA antibodies (anti-NA Abs) are measured nor is it well-defined as a correlate of humoral protection. In this work, the presence of NA1 antibodies against classical A(H1N1) and A(H1N1) pdm09 subtypes was studied before and after vaccination with seasonal vaccines containing A/California/07/2009 strain (A(H1N1) pdm09 subtype). By Enzyme-Linked Lectin Assay (ELLA; Consortium for the Standardization of Influenza Seroepidemiology), we analyzed serum samples from two different cohorts (adults and elderly)...
March 13, 2019: Vaccines
N S Korsun, S G Angelova, I T Trifonova, I L Georgieva, I S Tzotcheva, S D Mileva, S E Voleva, A M Kurchatova, P I Perenovska
In this study, we investigated the antigenic and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses circulating in Bulgaria during the 2017/2018 season. The detection and typing/subtyping of influenza viruses were performed using real-time RT-PCR. Results of antigenic characterisation, phylogenetic and amino acid sequence analyses of representative influenza strains are presented. The season was characterised by the predominance of B/Yamagata viruses, accounting for 77% of detected influenza viruses, followed by A(H1N1)pdm09 (17%), B/Victoria (3...
January 2019: Epidemiology and Infection
M Pan, H P Yang, J Jian, Y Kuang, J N Xu, T S Li, X Zhou, W L Wu, Z Zhao, C Wang, W Y Li, M Y Li, S S He, L L Zhou
The seasonality of individual influenza subtypes/lineages and the association of influenza epidemics with meteorological factors in the tropics/subtropics have not been well understood. The impact of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on the prevalence of seasonal influenza virus remains to be explored. Using wavelet analysis, the periodicities of A/H3N2, seasonal A/H1N1, A/H1N1pdm09, Victoria and Yamagata were identified, respectively, in Panzhihua during 2006-2015. As a subtropical city in southwestern China, Panzhihua is the first industrial city in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River...
January 2019: Epidemiology and Infection
Jurre Y Siegers, Marco W G van de Bildt, Zhanmin Lin, Lonneke M Leijten, Rémon A M Lavrijssen, Theo Bestebroer, Monique I J Spronken, Chris I De Zeeuw, Zhenyu Gao, Eefje J A Schrauwen, Thijs Kuiken, Debby van Riel
Central nervous system (CNS) disease is one of the most common extra-respiratory tract complication of influenza A virus infections. Remarkably, zoonotic H5N1 virus infections are more frequently associated with CNS disease than seasonal or pandemic viruses. Little is known about the interaction between influenza A viruses and cells of the CNS, and therefore it is currently unknown which viral factors are important for efficient replication. Here, we determined the replication kinetics of a seasonal, pandemic, zoonotic, and lab-adapted influenza A virus in human neuron-like (SK-N-SH), astrocyte-like (U87-MG) cells and primary mouse cortex neurons...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
Somayeh Mashayekhi, Peter Beerli
An approach to the coalescent, the fractional coalescent (f-coalescent), is introduced. The derivation is based on the discrete-time Cannings population model in which the variance of the number of offspring depends on the parameter α. This additional parameter α affects the variability of the patterns of the waiting times; values of [Formula: see text] lead to an increase of short time intervals, but occasionally allow for very long time intervals. When [Formula: see text], the f-coalescent and the Kingman's n-coalescent are equivalent...
March 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yanfeng Yao, Huadong Wang, Jianjun Chen, Zhiyong Shao, Bin He, Jie Chen, Jiaming Lan, Quanjiao Chen, Ze Chen
Current influenza vaccines provide hemagglutinin strain-specific protection, but rarely provide cross-protection against divergent strains. It is, therefore, particularly important to develop a universal vaccine against conserved proteins or conserved regions of the virus. In this study, we used N-terminal extracellular region of the influenza virus M2 protein (M2e) as the target antigen and constructed two optimized M2e DNA vaccines (p-tPA-p3M2e and p-p3M2e) with increased antigenic epitope density and enhanced antigen secretion...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Jonathan Kozinn, W Cole Wrisinger
The technology to provide Extracorporeal Life Support (ELS) has existed for over four decades. Its use has increased markedly in the last decade, initially in response to severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) in adults during the 2009 H1N1 influenza epidemic and continuing with the increasing acceptance of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for the treatment of severe respiratory failure in adults from other causes.1 We highlight the use of ECMO, particularly at our institution.
January 2019: Missouri Medicine
Åsa Wiman, Theresa Enkirch, AnnaSara Carnahan, Blenda Böttiger, Tove Samuelsson Hagey, Per Hagstam, Rosmarie Fält, Mia Brytting
In January 2019, a human seasonal reassortant influenza A(H1N2) virus with a novel 7:1 genetic constellation was identified in a 68-year-old female patient with suspected pneumonia. The virus harboured A(H3N2) neuraminidase and remaining genes from A(H1N1)pdm09. The patient recovered after severe illness. No additional cases have been detected. This is the second identified A(H1N2) seasonal reassortant in a human in Europe within 1 year; a previous case was detected in the Netherlands in March 2018.
February 2019: Euro Surveillance: European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Hannah Segaloff, Angeliki Melidou, Cornelia Adlhoch, Dmitriy Pereyaslov, Emmanuel Robesyn, Pasi Penttinen, Sonja J Olsen, Who European Region And The European Influenza Surveillance Network
In the World Health Organization European Region, the 2018/19 influenza season started in week 49 2018, crossing 10% virus-positivity in sentinel surveillance specimens. At week 5 2019, activity remained elevated with positivity rates at 55%. Both A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulated widely and detection levels in primary care and hospital settings were similar to past seasons. Hospitalisation data may suggest an increased susceptibility to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in older age groups.
February 2019: Euro Surveillance: European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Naser Al-Husban, Nathir Obeidat, Oqba Al-Kuran, Khaled Al Oweidat, Faris Bakri
Background and Objective: H1N1 infection carries an increased risk in pregnancy. Our aim was to study the feto-maternal outcome and the effect of early initiation of therapy. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study. Confirmed infected cases were included. Maternal age, parity, gestational age at diagnosis, presenting symptoms, the time between presentation and starting therapy, ICU admission, and maternal and perinatal outcome were evaluated. Results: Nineteen confirmed patients were included...
2019: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Toshiki Sekiya, Edin J Mifsud, Marumi Ohno, Naoki Nomura, Mayumi Sasada, Daisuke Fujikura, Takuji Daito, Masashi Shingai, Yuki Ohara, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masafumi Endo, Ryotarou Mitsumata, Tomio Ikeda, Hironori Hatanaka, Hiroki Kitayama, Kenji Motokawa, Tomoyoshi Sobue, Saori Suzuki, Yasushi Itoh, Lorena E Brown, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Yoichiro Kino, Hiroshi Kida
In contrast to current ether- or detergent-disrupted "split" vaccines (SVs) for influenza, inactivated whole influenza virus particle vaccines (WPVs) retain the original virus structure and components and as such may confer similar immunity to natural infection. In a collaboration between academia and industry, the potential of WPV as a new seasonal influenza vaccine was investigated. Each of the four seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers in Japan prepared WPVs and SVs from the same batches of purified influenza virus...
March 8, 2019: Vaccine
Sandra Andorf, Sanchita Bhattacharya, Brice Gaudilliere, Gary M Shaw, David K Stevenson, Atul J Butte, Marina Sirota
PROBLEM: Preterm birth (PTB), or the delivery of an infant prior to 37 weeks of gestation, is a major health concern. Although a variety of social, environmental, and maternal factors have been implicated in PTB, causes of preterm labor have remained largely unknown. There is evidence of effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, however fewer studies have looked at vaccination response as an indicator of an innate host response that may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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