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Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

Somik Chatterjee, Hongshan Yin, Weini Li, Jeongkyung Lee, Vijay K Yechoor, Ke Ma
Rev-erbα is a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor and a key repressor of the molecular clock transcription network. Accumulating evidence indicate that the circadian clock machinery governs diverse biological processes in skeletal muscle, including muscle growth, repair and mass maintenance. The physiological function of Rev-erbα in myogenic regulation remains largely unknown. Here we show that Rev-erbα exerts cell-autonomous inhibitory effects on proliferation and differentiation of myogenic precursor cells, and these actions concertedly inhibit muscle regeneration in vivo...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xianzhen Xin, Jiannan Wu, Ao Zheng, Delong Jiao, Yang Liu, Lingyan Cao, Xinquan Jiang
Background: Irisin is a cytokine produced by skeletal muscle and usually plays a pivotal role in inducing fat browning and regulating energy expenditure. In recent years, it was found that irisin might be the molecular entity responsible for muscle-bone connectivity and is useful in osteogenesis induction. Materials and methods: To study its effect on bone regeneration, we developed silk/calcium silicate/sodium alginate (SCS) composite scaffold based on an interpenetrating network hydrogel containing silk fibroin, calcium silicate, sodium alginate...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Laura Forcina, Carmen Miano, Bianca Maria Scicchitano, Antonio Musarò
Muscle regeneration, characterized by the activation and proliferation of satellite cells and other precursors, is accompanied by an inflammatory response and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), necessary to remove cellular debris and to mechanically support newly generated myofibers and activated satellite cells. Muscle repair can be considered concluded when the tissue architecture, vascularization, and innervation have been restored. Alterations in these connected mechanisms can impair muscle regeneration, leading to the replacement of functional muscle tissue with a fibrotic scar...
March 11, 2019: Cells
Rohit Kansal, Rajendra Kumar Kanojia, Vishal Kumar, Kim Vaiphei, Mandeep Singh Dhillon
The rising incidence of mangled extremity seen in modern trauma has lead to significant patient mortality. A lot of research is going on at microcellular level for a better understanding of tissue injury, repair and regeneration. PAX-7 is one such transcription factor, a marker of satellite stem cells in skeletal muscle. Though few studies have shown concrete evidence of increased expression of PAX-7 in the nearby injured zone in skeletal muscle post-injury, none has studied its expression in an event of mangled injury of limb in humans...
March 9, 2019: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Ruoyu Wu, Chengsheng Huang, Qingkai Wu, Xiang Jia, Mengyu Liu, Zhuowei Xue, Yu Qiu, Xin Niu, Yang Wang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed that urine-derived stem cells (USCs) could promote myogenesis after the impairment of the sphincter muscles. However, the effects of exosomes secreted by USCs (USCs-Exo) were not elucidated. Exosomes are nanosized membrane vesicles secreted by the cells. They have been proved to be effective in protecting against tissue injury and therapeutic in tissue repair. USCs are ideal sources of exosomes because of the noninvasive obtaining method and self-renewal abilitiy...
March 8, 2019: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Taimoor H Qazi, Georg N Duda, Melanie J Ort, Carsten Perka, Sven Geissler, Tobias Winkler
Diseases that jeopardize the musculoskeletal system and cause chronic impairment are prevalent throughout the Western world. In Germany alone, ~1.8 million patients suffer from these diseases annually, and medical expenses have been reported to reach 34.2bn Euros. Although musculoskeletal disorders are seldom fatal, they compromise quality of life and diminish functional capacity. For example, musculoskeletal disorders incur an annual loss of over 0.8 million workforce years to the German economy. Among these diseases, traumatic skeletal muscle injuries are especially problematic because they can occur owing to a variety of causes and are very challenging to treat...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Neia Naldaiz-Gastesi, María Goicoechea, Isabel M-ª Aragón, Virginia Pérez-López, Sandra Fuertes-Alvarez, Bernardo Herrera-Imbroda, Adolfo López de Munain, Resi de Luna-Diaz, Pedro M Baptista, M Alejandro Fernández, María Fernanda Lara, Ander Izeta
Human myogenic precursor cells have been isolated and expanded from a number of skeletal muscles, but alternative donor biopsy sites must be sought after in diseases where muscle damage is widespread. Biopsy sites must be relatively accessible, and the biopsied muscle dispensable. Here, we aimed to histologically characterize the cremaster muscle with regard number of satellite cells and regenerative fibres, and to isolate and characterize human cremaster muscle-derived stem/precursor cells in adult male donors with the objective of characterizing this muscle as a novel source of myogenic precursor cells...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jay Prakash Sah, Nguyen Thi Thu Hao, Yunhye Kim, Tamar Eigler, Eldad Tzahor, Sang-Heon Kim, Yongsung Hwang, Jeong Kyo Yoon
The robust capacity of skeletal muscle stem cells (SkMSCs, or satellite cells) to regenerate into new muscles in vivo has offered promising therapeutic options for the treatment of degenerative muscle diseases. However, the practical use of SkMSCs to treat muscle diseases is limited, owing to their inability to expand in vitro under defined cultivation conditions without loss of engraftment efficiency. To develop an optimal cultivation condition for SkMSCs, we investigated the behavior of SkMSCs on synthetic maltose-binding protein (MBP)-fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)-immobilized matrix in vitro ...
February 28, 2019: International Journal of Stem Cells
Jing Wang, Qiaoling Ren, Liushuai Hua, Junfeng Chen, Jiaqing Zhang, Hongjie Bai, Haili Li, Bin Xu, Zhihai Shi, Hai Cao, Baosong Xing, Xianxiao Bai
Circular RNA (circRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) are known to participate in adipogenesis and myogenic differentiation, but their impact on porcine muscle traits is not well understood. We compared their expressional profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Chinese Huainan pigs (HN, the fat type) and Western commercial Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire) (DLY, the thin type) pigs, and 854 mRNAs, 233 lncRNAs, and 66 circRNAs (p < 0.05 and |log₂FoldChange|>1) were found to be differentially expressed...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alvin Wong, Jason H Pomerantz
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle denervation is a complex clinical problem that still lacks a comprehensive solution. Previous studies have suggested that prolonged periods of denervation lead to a decline in the muscle stem cell population, negatively affecting the ability of muscle to regenerate following reinnervation. Recent advances in the understanding of muscle stem cell biology, along with new techniques that increase the ability to identify and manipulate these cells, provide an opportunity to definitively address the impact of muscle stem cells in recovery from denervation and their potential role in treatment...
March 2019: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Xiaoguang Liu, Lifang Zhen, Yongzhan Zhou, Yingjie Chen, Peijie Chen, Weihua Xiao
Skeletal muscle contusion is one of the most common muscle injuries in sports medicine and traumatology. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has been proposed as a promising strategy to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of BMSCs in the regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration are still not completely clear. Here, we investigated the role of BMSC transplantation after muscle contusion. BMSCs were immediately transplanted into gastrocnemius muscles (GMs) following direct contusion...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Krishna Patel, Andrew Joseph Dunn, Muhamed Talovic, Gabriel Haas, Madison Marcinczyk, Hady Elmashhady, Emily Growney, Scott A Sell, Koyal Garg
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a loss of over ~10% of muscle mass that results in functional impairment. Although skeletal muscle possesses the ability to repair and regenerate itself following minor injuries, VML injuries are irrecoverable. Currently, there are no successful clinical therapies for the treatment of VML. Previous studies have treated VML defects with decellularized extracellular matrix (D-ECM) scaffolds derived from either pig urinary bladder or small intestinal submucosa. These therapies were unsuccessful due to the poor mechanical stability of D-ECM leading to quick degradation in vivo...
February 27, 2019: Biomedical Materials
Dimuthu K Wasgewatte Wijesinghe, Eleanor J Mackie, Charles N Pagel
BACKGROUND: Osteopontin is secreted by skeletal muscle myoblasts and macrophages, and its expression is upregulated in muscle following injury. Osteopontin is present in many different structural forms, which vary in their expression patterns and effects on cells. Using a whole muscle autograft model of muscle injury in mice, we have previously shown that inflammation and regeneration of muscle following injury are delayed by the absence of osteopontin. The current study was undertaken to determine whether muscle or non-muscle cells provide the source of osteopontin required for its role in muscle regeneration...
February 26, 2019: Skeletal Muscle
Yao-Fa Lin, Zheng Xie, Jun Zhou, Hui-Hao Chen, Wan-Wan Shao, Hao-Dong Lin
Polyethylene glycol can connect the distal and proximal ends of an injured nerve at the cellular level through axonal fusion to avoid Wallerian degeneration of the injured distal nerve and promote peripheral nerve regeneration. However, this method can only prevent Wallerian degeneration in 10% of axons because the cytoskeleton is not repaired in a timely fashion. Reconstruction of the cytoskeletal trunk and microtubule network has been suggested to be the key for improving the efficiency of axonal fusion. As a microtubule-severing protein, spastin has been used to enhance cytoskeletal reconstruction...
July 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
L R Iwasaki, D A Covell, S A Frazier-Bowers, S S Huja, S Kapila, J C Nickel
AUTHORS: Iwasaki LR, Covell DA Jr, Frazier-Bowers SA, Huja SS, Kapila S, Nickel JC. OBJECTIVE: A third focused workshop explored how to transfer novel findings into clinical orthodontic practice. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: Participants met at the Scottsdale Plaza Resort, September 12-16, 2018 for the Consortium for Orthodontic Advances in Science and Technology 2018 Innovators' Workshop. Thirty speakers and four lunch-hour focus group leaders shared and exchanged information with approximately 45 registered attendees...
February 23, 2019: Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Péter Szentesi, László Csernoch, László Dux, Anikó Keller-Pintér
Reduction in muscle strength with aging is due to both loss of muscle mass (quantity) and intrinsic force production (quality). Along with decreased functional capacity of the muscle, age-related muscle loss is associated with corresponding comorbidities and healthcare costs. Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress are the central driving forces for age-related skeletal muscle abnormalities. The increased oxidative stress in the aged muscle can lead to altered excitation-contraction coupling and calcium homeostasis...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Giselle A Joseph, Margaret Hung, Aviva J Goel, Mingi Hong, Marysia-Kolbe Rieder, Noam D Beckmann, Madhavika N Serasinghe, Jerry E Chipuk, Parvathi M Devarakonda, David J Goldhamer, Paulina Aldana-Hernandez, Jonathan Curtis, René L Jacobs, Robert S Krauss
BACKGROUND: Group I Paks are serine/threonine kinases that function as major effectors of the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and they regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, cell polarity, and transcription. We previously demonstrated that Pak1 and Pak2 function redundantly to promote skeletal myoblast differentiation during postnatal development and regeneration in mice. However, the roles of Pak1 and Pak2 in adult muscle homeostasis are unknown. Choline kinase β (Chk β) is important for adult muscle homeostasis, as autosomal recessive mutations in CHKβ are associated with two human muscle diseases, megaconial congenital muscular dystrophy and proximal myopathy with focal depletion of mitochondria...
February 21, 2019: Skeletal Muscle
David E Lee, Akshay Bareja, David B Bartlett, James P White
Skeletal muscle has remarkable regenerative capacity, relying on precise coordination between resident muscle stem cells (satellite cells) and the immune system. The age-related decline in skeletal muscle regenerative capacity contributes to the onset of sarcopenia, prolonged hospitalization, and loss of autonomy. Although several age-sensitive pathways have been identified, further investigation is needed to define targets of cellular dysfunction. Autophagy, a process of cellular catabolism, is emerging as a key regulator of muscle regeneration affecting stem cell, immune cell, and myofiber function...
February 20, 2019: Cells
Beenish Fayyaz, Hafiz J Rehman, Hakim Uqdah
Inflammatory myopathies are characterized by the skeletal muscle inflammation leading to symptoms of myopathy along with varying involvement of other organs such as lung, skin and joints. The strong association between inflammatory myopathies and malignancy has been well recognized. Recently, ‘cancer-associated myositis (CAM)’, has been proposed to be a paraneoplastic syndrome due to the anti-tumor immunity secondary to similar tumor and regenerating muscle antigens. As the prognosis of myositis depends on the prognosis and treatment of the underlying malignancy, physicians must determine the degree of testing necessary to detect cancer both at myositis onset and thereafter...
2019: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
Haoxiang Chen, Juchang Zhong, Jian Wang, Ruiying Huang, Xiaoyin Qiao, Honghui Wang, Zhikai Tan
Background: Skeletal muscle tissue engineering often involves the prefabrication of muscle tissues in vitro by differentiation and maturation of muscle precursor cells on a platform which provides an environment that facilitates the myogenic differentiation of the seeded cells. Methods: Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) 3D printed scaffolds, which simulate the highly complex structure of extracellular matrix (ECM), were fabricated by E-jet 3D printing in this study...
2019: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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