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V Scorpio, S Crema, F Marra, M Righini, G Ciccarese, M Borga, M Cavalli, A Corsini, L Marchi, N Surian, F Comiti
Large floods may produce remarkable channel changes, which determine damages and casualties in inhabited areas. However, our knowledge of such processes remains poor, as is our capability to predict them. This study analyses the geomorphic response of the Nure River (northern Italy) and nine tributaries to a high-magnitude flood that occurred in September 2015. The adopted multi-disciplinary approach encompassed: (i) hydrological and hydraulic analysis; (ii) analysis of sediment delivery to the stream network by means of landslides mapping; (iii) assessment of morphological modifications of the channels, including both channel width and bed elevation changes...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Rogger, M Agnoletti, A Alaoui, J C Bathurst, G Bodner, M Borga, V Chaplot, F Gallart, G Glatzel, J Hall, J Holden, L Holko, R Horn, A Kiss, S Kohnová, G Leitinger, B Lennartz, J Parajka, R Perdigão, S Peth, L Plavcová, J N Quinton, M Robinson, J L Salinas, A Santoro, J Szolgay, S Tron, J J H van den Akker, A Viglione, G Blöschl
Research gaps in understanding flood changes at the catchment scale caused by changes in forest management, agricultural practices, artificial drainage, and terracing are identified. Potential strategies in addressing these gaps are proposed, such as complex systems approaches to link processes across time scales, long-term experiments on physical-chemical-biological process interactions, and a focus on connectivity and patterns across spatial scales. It is suggested that these strategies will stimulate new research that coherently addresses the issues across hydrology, soil and agricultural sciences, forest engineering, forest ecology, and geomorphology...
July 2017: Water Resources Research
Günter Blöschl, Julia Hall, Juraj Parajka, Rui A P Perdigão, Bruno Merz, Berit Arheimer, Giuseppe T Aronica, Ardian Bilibashi, Ognjen Bonacci, Marco Borga, Ivan Čanjevac, Attilio Castellarin, Giovanni B Chirico, Pierluigi Claps, Károly Fiala, Natalia Frolova, Liudmyla Gorbachova, Ali Gül, Jamie Hannaford, Shaun Harrigan, Maria Kireeva, Andrea Kiss, Thomas R Kjeldsen, Silvia Kohnová, Jarkko J Koskela, Ondrej Ledvinka, Neil Macdonald, Maria Mavrova-Guirguinova, Luis Mediero, Ralf Merz, Peter Molnar, Alberto Montanari, Conor Murphy, Marzena Osuch, Valeryia Ovcharuk, Ivan Radevski, Magdalena Rogger, José L Salinas, Eric Sauquet, Mojca Šraj, Jan Szolgay, Alberto Viglione, Elena Volpi, Donna Wilson, Klodian Zaimi, Nenad Živković
A warming climate is expected to have an impact on the magnitude and timing of river floods; however, no consistent large-scale climate change signal in observed flood magnitudes has been identified so far. We analyzed the timing of river floods in Europe over the past five decades, using a pan-European database from 4262 observational hydrometric stations, and found clear patterns of change in flood timing. Warmer temperatures have led to earlier spring snowmelt floods throughout northeastern Europe; delayed winter storms associated with polar warming have led to later winter floods around the North Sea and some sectors of the Mediterranean coast; and earlier soil moisture maxima have led to earlier winter floods in western Europe...
August 11, 2017: Science
E Petridou, M Kibiro, C Gladwell, P Malcolm, A Toms, A Juette, M Borga, O Dahlqvist Leinhard, T Romu, B Kasmai, E Denton
AIM: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived breast density measurements using automatic segmentation algorithms with radiologist estimations using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (BI-RADS) density classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty women undergoing mammography and dynamic breast MRI as part of their clinical management were recruited. Fat-water separated MRI images derived from a two-point Dixon technique, phase-sensitive reconstruction, and atlas-based segmentation were obtained before and after intravenous contrast medium administration...
July 2017: Clinical Radiology
Janne West, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Thobias Romu, Rory Collins, Steve Garratt, Jimmy D Bell, Magnus Borga, Louise Thomas
INTRODUCTION: Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects...
2016: PloS One
Magnus Borga, E Louise Thomas, Thobias Romu, Johannes Rosander, Julie Fitzpatrick, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Jimmy D Bell
Central obesity is the hallmark of a number of non-inheritable disorders. The advent of imaging techniques such as MRI has allowed for a fast and accurate assessment of body fat content and distribution. However, image analysis continues to be one of the major obstacles to the use of MRI in large-scale studies. In this study we assess the validity of the recently proposed fat-muscle quantitation system (AMRA(TM) Profiler) for the quantification of intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) from abdominal MR images...
December 2015: NMR in Biomedicine
Thobias Romu, Louise Elander, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, Martin E Lidell, Matthias J Betz, Anders Persson, Sven Enerbäck, Magnus Borga
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the possibility of quantifying brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume and fat concentration with a high resolution, long echo time, dual-echo Dixon imaging protocol. METHODS: A 0.42 mm isotropic resolution water-fat separated MRI protocol was implemented by using the second opposite-phase echo and third in-phase echo. Fat images were calibrated with regard to the intensity of nearby white adipose tissue (WAT) to form relative fat content (RFC) images...
December 2015: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Giulio Radeschi, Felice Urso, Sara Campagna, Paola Berchialla, Sara Borga, Andrea Mina, Roberto Penso, Carlo Di Pietrantonj, Claudio Sandroni
AIM: To identify factors underlying attitudes towards the medical emergency team (MET) and barriers to its utilisation among ward nurses and physicians. METHODS: Multicentre survey using an anonymous questionnaire in hospitals with a fully operational MET system in the Piedmont Region, Italy. Response to questions was scored on a 5-point Likert-type agreement scale. Dichotomised results were included in a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Among 2279 staff members who were contacted, 1812 (79...
March 2015: Resuscitation
Kathleen M Nokes, Jay Verkuilen, Dorothy E Hickey, Judith C James-Borga, Jing Shan
The purpose of this preliminary work was to develop a new short tool to assess personal health records (PHRs) self-efficacy. Prior work had found 4 distinct skills related to creating, updating, tracking symptoms, and sharing information with health care providers using PHR. Although PHRs have great promise, their uptake has been rather limited, especially in economically limited populations. A convenience sample of community-living persons with HIV/AIDS (N = 100) was asked to complete the new tool along with other self-efficacy measures...
February 2013: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Rodrigo Moreno, Magnus Borga, Orjan Smedby
PURPOSE: The mean intercept length tensor is the most used technique to estimate microstructure orientation and anisotropy of trabecular bone. This paper proposes an efficient extension of this technique to gray-scale images based on a closed formulation of the mean intercept length tensor and a generalization using different angular convolution kernels. METHODS: First, the extended Gaussian image is computed for the binary or gray-scale image. Second, the intercepts are computed for all possible orientations through an angular convolution with the half-cosine function...
July 2012: Medical Physics
Katrine Borgå, Antonio Di Guardo
When a mechanistic food web model was parameterized for the Arctic marine ecosystem, it predicted PCB concentrations in zooplankton and fish that were two orders of magnitude lower than measured. PCB concentrations measured in zooplankton and fish were within the laboratory's accredited quality assured criteria, and were comparable to other Arctic regions. Although on a different scale, the predicted and measured PCB concentrations were highly correlated. As sensitivity analyses indicated water concentrations as the most sensitive parameter for the model output, dissolved water concentrations were predicted using measured zooplankton and air PCB concentrations, and empirical and mechanistic models...
April 15, 2005: Science of the Total Environment
S Al-Saffar, P Borgå, S Lawoko, G Edman, T Hällström
Establishing post-traumatic stress disorder as a psychiatric diagnosis has only marginally increased awareness of traumatic experiences. Traumas are inconsistently recorded in initial psychiatric histories and, when observed, rarely reflected in the primary diagnosis and treatment. The present study aimed to investigate if there is an association between sufficiently addressing trauma and long-term outcome and what factors affect whether trauma, according to the patient's view, is sufficiently addressed or not...
2004: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Carina Centerholt, Marianne Ekblom, Tomas Odergren, Olof Borgå, Gabriela Popescu, Karl-Heinz Molz, Andrea Couturier, Angelika Weil
OBJECTIVE: Clomethiazole is virtually completely eliminated by hepatic metabolism. This study was designed to assess the impact of liver impairment on its elimination and sedative effects. METHODS: Eight patients with mild liver impairment (Child-Pugh grade A), eight patients with moderate/severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh grade B/C) and eight healthy subjects of similar age were given 68 mg/kg clomethiazole edisilate according to a 24-h infusion scheme aimed at producing minimum sedation as it was intended for clinical use in patients with stroke...
June 2003: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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