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Dan Weaving, Ben Jones, Matt Ireton, Sarah Whitehead, Kevin Till, Clive B Beggs
OBJECTIVES: Professional sporting organisations invest considerable resources collecting and analysing data in order to better understand the factors that influence performance. Recent advances in non-invasive technologies, such as global positioning systems (GPS), mean that large volumes of data are now readily available to coaches and sport scientists. However analysing such data can be challenging, particularly when sample sizes are small and data sets contain multiple highly correlated variables, as is often the case in a sporting context...
2019: PloS One
Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M Nevill, Giles Warrington
Tiernan, C, Lyons, M, Comyns, T, Nevill, AM, and Warrington, G. Salivary IgA as a predictor of upper respiratory tract infections and relationship to training load in elite rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI) are among the most common illnesses reported in athletes. An URTI can result in missed training days, which in turn may lead to performance decrements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) as a predictor of URTI, while also exploring the relationship to weekly training load in elite rugby union players...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Wanderson Divino Nilo Dos Santos, Carlos A Vieira, Martim Bottaro, Vitória A Nunes, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, James Steele, James P Fisher, Paulo Gentil
Santos, WDNd, Vieira, CA, Bottaro, M, Nunes, VA, Ramirez-Campillo, R, Steele, J, Fisher, JP, and Gentil, P. Resistance training performed to failure or not to failure results in similar total volume, but with different fatigue and discomfort levels. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the acute response to 4 sets of high velocity of parallel squats performed to momentary failure (MF) or not to momentary failure (NF). Twelve women (24.93 ± 5.04 years) performed MF and NF protocols, in a randomized order with 2-3 interday rest...
January 4, 2019: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Pierpaolo Sansone, Harald Tschan, Carl Foster, Antonio Tessitore
Sansone, P, Tschan, H, Foster, C, and Tessitore, A. Monitoring training load and perceived recovery in female basketball: Implications for training design. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study investigated the relationship between internal training load and perceived recovery of semi-professional female basketball players during the competitive season. Eleven female players were monitored for 14 weeks during the in-season phase. For each event (training and game), data were collected as follows: (a) Total Quality Recovery (TQR) score before the event (TQRpre); (b) session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) 20 minutes after completion of the event, to calculate training load (s-TL) of the event; and (c) TQR scores 12 (TQRpost12) and 24 hours (TQRpost24) after the event...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Youri Geurkink, Gilles Vandewiele, Maarten Lievens, Filip de Turck, Femke Ongenae, Stijn P J Matthys, Jan Boone, Jan G Bourgois
PURPOSE: This study aimed to predict the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) in soccer and determine the main predictive indicators of the sRPE. METHODS: A total of 70 External Load Indicators (ELIs), Internal Load Indicators (ILIs), Individual Characteristics (ICs) and Supplementary Variables (SVs) were used to build a predictive model. RESULTS: The analysis using Gradient Boosting Machines showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.67 ± 0...
December 20, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Blaine E Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P Mikat, John P Porcari, Carl Foster
PURPOSE: The Session RPE (sRPE) is a well-accepted method of monitoring training load in athletes in many different sports. It is based on the Category-Ratio (0-10) RPE scale (BORG-CR10) developed by Borg. There is no evidence how substitution of the Borg 6-20 RPE scale (BORG-RPE) might influence the sRPE in athletes. METHODS: Systematically training, recreational level athletes from a number of sport disciplines performed six, randomly ordered, 30-minute interval training sessions, at intensities based on peak power output (PPO) and designed to be easy (50%PPO), moderate (75%PPO) or hard (85%PPO)...
December 20, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Avish P Sharma, Philo U Saunders, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Julien D Périard, Brad Clark, Christopher J Gore, Benjamin P Raysmith, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Kevin G Thompson
The questionable efficacy of Live High Train High altitude training (LHTH) is compounded by minimal training quantification in many studies. We sought to quantify the training load (TL) periodization in a cohort of elite runners completing LHTH immediately prior to competition. Eight elite runners (6 males, 2 females) with a V̇O2peak of 70 ± 4 mL·kg-1 ·min-1 were monitored during 4 weeks of sea-level training, then 3-4 weeks LHTH in preparation for sea-level races following descent to sea-level. TL was calculated using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method, whereby duration of each training session was multiplied by its sRPE, then summated to give weekly TL...
December 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Júlio A Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y Nakamura, Pedro Figueiredo, Eduardo Oliveira, António Rebelo
The aim of the current study was to analyze the influence of the timing of training and matches, and match location, on sleep pattern and nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity in female soccer players. A total of 17 female soccer players (age: 21.6 ± 2.3 years; mean ± SD) wore wrist actigraph units and heart rate (HR) monitors during night-sleep throughout 18 night-training days (NTD), 18 resting days (RD), and 6 match-days (MD; 3 away-matches [AM] and 3 home-matches [HM]) of the competitive period. Training load was quantified by session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate (HR), training impulse (TRIMP), and subjective well-being...
November 18, 2018: Chronobiology International
Kate Ergo, Esther De Loof, Clio Janssens, Tom Verguts
Reward prediction errors (RPEs) are crucial to learning. Whereas these mismatches between reward expectation and reward outcome are known to drive procedural learning, their role in declarative learning remains underexplored. Earlier work from our lab addressed this, and consistently found that signed reward prediction errors (SRPEs; "better-than-expected" signals) boost declarative learning. In the current EEG study, we sought to explore the neural signatures of SRPEs. Participants studied 60 Dutch-Swahili word pairs while RPE magnitudes were parametrically manipulated...
November 2, 2018: NeuroImage
Durva Vahia, Adam Kelly, Harry Knapman, Craig A Williams
PURPOSE: When exposed to the same external load, players receive different internal loads, resulting in varied adaptations in fitness. In adult soccer, internal training load is measured using heart rate (HR) and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) scales, but these have been underutilized in youth soccer. This study investigated the in-season variation in correlation between HR and sRPE estimations of training load for adolescent soccer players. METHOD: Fifteen male professional adolescent players were monitored for 7 months...
October 28, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Teun van Erp, Carl Foster, Jos J de Koning
PURPOSE: The relationship between various training load (TL) measures in professional cycling is not well explored. This study investigates the relationship between mechanical energy spent (in kJ), sRPE, LuTRIMP and TSS in training, races and time trials (TT). METHODS: From 4 consecutive years field data was collected from 21 professional cyclists and categorized as being collected in training, racing or TT's. kJ spent, sRPE, LuTRIMP and TSS were calculated and the correlations between the various TL's were made...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Robert H Mann, Craig A Williams, Bryan C Clift, Alan R Barker
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of measurement timing and concurrent validity of session (sRPE) and differential (dRPE) ratings of perceived exertion as measures of internal training load (ITL) in adolescent distance runners. METHODS: Fifteen adolescent distance runners (15.2 ± 1.6 y) performed a two-step incremental treadmill test for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate and the blood lactate responses. Participants were familiarised with RPE and dRPE during the treadmill test using Foster's modified CR-10 Borg scale...
August 30, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Rachelle D Davies, Eric C Parent, Craig D Steinback, Michael D Kennedy
Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), airway inflammation, and respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers, however it is unclear how volume and intensity of training exacerbate these problems. Thus, our purpose was to measure AHR, inflammation, and respiratory symptoms after low, moderate, and high training loads in swimmers. Competitive youth swimmers (n=8) completed nine weeks of training split into three blocks (Low, Moderate, and High intensity). Spirometry at rest and post-bronchial provocation [Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperpnea (EVH)] and Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) were completed at the end of each training block...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Derek A Crawford, Nicholas B Drake, Michael J Carper, Justin DeBlauw, Katie M Heinrich
The session rate of perceived exertion method (sRPE) has often been utilized in sports activities in which quantification of external training loads is challenging. The multi-modal, constantly varied nature of high intensity functional training (HIFT) represents a significant hurdle to calculate external work and the sRPE method may provide an elegant solution to this problem. However, no studies have investigated the psychometric properties of sRPE within HIFT interventions. Twenty-five healthy men and women participated in six weeks of HIFT...
August 21, 2018: Sports
Amber E Rowell, Robert J Aughey, Jo Clubb, Stuart J Cormack
Introduction: Training and competition load can cause neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) and modified movement strategy such as an increase in the contribution of the medio-lateral [PlayerLoadTM ML (%)] and decrease in the % vertical [PlayerLoadTM V (%)] vectors, to total PlayerLoadTM (accelerometer derived measurement in vertical, medio-lateral, and anterior-posterior planes) in matches. NMF assessment involves expensive equipment, however, given the modification of match movement strategy with NMF, this may be present in a standardized drill...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Callum J McCaskie, Warren B Young, Brendan B Fahrner, Marc Sim
PURPOSE: To examine the association between pre-season training variables and subsequent in-season performance in an elite Australian football team. METHODS: Data from forty-one elite male Australian footballers (mean±SD: age=23.4±3.1y; height=188.4±7.1cm; mass=86.7±7.9kg) was collected from one Australian Football League (AFL) club. Pre-season training data (external load, internal load, fitness testing and session participation) were collected across the 17-week pre-season phase (6-weeks pre-Christmas, 11-weeks post-Christmas)...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Sean Williams, Stephen West, Dan Howells, Simon P T Kemp, Andrew A Flatt, Keith Stokes
A systems modelling approach can be used to describe and optimise responses to training stimuli within individuals. However, the requirement for regular maximal performance testing has precluded the widespread implementation of such modelling approaches in team-sport settings. Heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to measure an athlete's adaptation to training load, without disrupting the training process. As such, the aim of the current study was to assess whether chronic HRV responses, as a representative marker of training adaptation, could be predicted from the training loads undertaken by elite Rugby Sevens players...
September 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Dajo Sanders, Teun van Erp, Jos J de Koning
PURPOSE: This study provides a retrospective analysis of a large competition database describing the intensity and load demands of professional road cycling races, highlighting the differences between men's and women's races. METHOD: Twenty male and ten female professional cyclists participated in this study. During 4 consecutive years, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output (PO) data were collected during both male (n = 3024) and female (n = 667) professional races...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Stuart R Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt, Roger Eston
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the validity of internal and external Australian football (AF) training-load measures for predicting preseason variation of match-play exercise intensity (MEI sim/min) using a variable dose-response model. METHODS: Twenty-on professional male AF players completed an 18-wk preseason macrocycle. Preseason internal training load was quantified using session RPE (sRPE) and external load from satellite and accelerometer data. Using a training-impulse (TRIMPs) calculation, external load expressed in arbitrary units (a...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Catriona Lockhart, Brendan R Scott, Bradley Thoseby, Ben J Dascombe
Lockhart, C, Scott, BR, Thoseby, B, and Dascombe, BJ. Acute effects of interset rest duration on physiological and perceptual responses to resistance exercise in hypoxia. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to determine whether manipulating interset rest periods during resistance training in hypoxia impacts on physiological and perceptual responses to exercise. Twelve healthy males completed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing for the bilateral leg extension, before completing 4 separate randomized trials comprising 5 × 10 repetitions of leg extensions at 70% 1RM...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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