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Microbiome IBS

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879252/bloating-and-abdominal-distension-clinical-approach-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Amir Mari, Fadi Abu Backer, Mahmud Mahamid, Hana Amara, Dan Carter, Doron Boltin, Ram Dickman
Functional abdominal bloating and distension (FABD) are common gastrointestinal complaints, encountered on a daily basis by gastroenterologists and healthcare providers. Functional abdominal bloating is a subjective sensation that is commonly associated with an objective abdominal distension. FABD may be diagnosed as a single entity (the sole or cardinal complaint) or may overlap with other functional gastrointestinal disorders such as functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional dyspepsia...
March 16, 2019: Advances in Therapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30840762/initial-assessment-of-post-traumatic-stress-in-a-us-cohort-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#2
Tiffany H Taft, Alyse Bedell, Meredith R Craven, Livia Guadagnoli, Sarah Quinton, Stephen B Hanauer
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress (PTS), or the psycho-physiological response to a traumatic or life-threatening event, is implicated in medical patient outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests a complex relationship between PTS, the brain-gut axis, the gut microbiome, and immune function. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be susceptible to PTS and its subsequent impacts. To date, no study has evaluated PTS in IBD in the United States. METHODS: Adult patients with IBD were recruited from an outpatient gastroenterology practice, via social media, and via a research recruitment website...
March 7, 2019: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30791775/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-review-of-the-general-aspects-and-the-potential-role-of-vitamin-d
#3
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Élen Landgraf Guiguer, Marcelo Dib Bechara
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a bowel disorder leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, modifications in the motility and bowel habits, distention, bloating, and gas. Vitamin D (VD) may interfere in a plethora of cellular mechanisms, and act directly or indirectly in the regulation of the microbiome, the release of anti-microbial peptides, modulation of the immune system and inflammation processes; which in turn, may positively interfere with the altered gut function. The main purpose of this review was to survey studies involving the impacts of VD on IBS...
January 14, 2019: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30642394/the-role-of-a-sequencing-based-clinical-intestinal-screening-test-in-patients-at-high-risk-for-clostridium-difficile-and-other-pathogens-a-case-report
#4
Maureen Hitschfeld, Elena Tovar, Sarah Gupta, Elisabeth M Bik, Christina Palmer, Michael C Hoaglin, Daniel E Almonacid, Jessica Richman, Zachary S Apte
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization and antibiotic treatment can put patients at high risk for Clostridium difficile infection, where a disturbance of the gut microbiome allows for Clostridium difficile proliferation and associated symptoms, including mild, moderate, or severe diarrhea. Clostridium difficile infection is challenging to treat, often recurrent, and leads to almost 30,000 annual deaths in the USA alone. Here we present a case where SmartGut™, an at-home, self-administered sequencing-based clinical intestinal screening test, was used to identify the presence of Clostridium difficile in a patient with worsening diarrhea...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30625189/pilot-study-of-probiotic-colostrum-supplementation-on-gut-function-in-children-with-autism-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#5
Megan R Sanctuary, Jennifer N Kain, Shin Yu Chen, Karen Kalanetra, Danielle G Lemay, Destanie R Rose, Houa T Yang, Daniel J Tancredi, J Bruce German, Carolyn M Slupsky, Paul Ashwood, David A Mills, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Kathleen Angkustsiri
Over half of all children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have gastrointestinal (GI) co-morbidities including chronic constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome. The severity of these symptoms has been correlated with the degree of GI microbial dysbiosis. The study objective was to assess tolerability of a probiotic (Bifidobacterium infantis) in combination with a bovine colostrum product (BCP) as a source of prebiotic oligosaccharides and to evaluate GI, microbiome and immune factors in children with ASD and GI co-morbidities...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30618044/what-can-the-gut-microbiome-teach-us-about-the-connections-between-child-physical-and-mental-health-a-systematic-review
#6
Janice M Kan, Caitlin S M Cowan, Chee Y Ooi, Nadine A Kasparian
A deeper understanding of the gut-brain axis is of significance in pediatrics, given the influential role of early childhood experiences and exposures in shaping the microbiome, and health, across the life course. This systematic review synthesized evidence on the connection between the gut microbiome and mental health in children with physical illness. Six electronic databases were systematically searched and data extracted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
January 8, 2019: Developmental Psychobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30579332/ketamine-interactions-with-gut-microbiota-in-rats-relevance-to-its-antidepressant-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#7
Bruk Getachew, Joseph I Aubee, Richard S Schottenfeld, Antonei B Csoka, Karl M Thompson, Yousef Tizabi
BACKGROUND: Appreciable evidence suggest that dysbiosis in microbiota, reflected in gut microbial imbalance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including depression and inflammatory diseases. Recently, the antidepressant properties of ketamine have gained prominence due to its fast and long lasting effects. Additional uses for ketamine in inflammatory disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome have been suggested. However, ketamine's exact mechanism of action and potential effects on microbiome is not known...
December 22, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30567928/gut-microbiota-composition-and-functional-changes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Arnau Vich Vila, Floris Imhann, Valerie Collij, Soesma A Jankipersadsing, Thomas Gurry, Zlatan Mujagic, Alexander Kurilshikov, Marc Jan Bonder, Xiaofang Jiang, Ettje F Tigchelaar, Jackie Dekens, Vera Peters, Michiel D Voskuil, Marijn C Visschedijk, Hendrik M van Dullemen, Daniel Keszthelyi, Morris A Swertz, Lude Franke, Rudi Alberts, Eleonora A M Festen, Gerard Dijkstra, Ad A M Masclee, Marten H Hofker, Ramnik J Xavier, Eric J Alm, Jingyuan Fu, Cisca Wijmenga, Daisy M A E Jonkers, Alexandra Zhernakova, Rinse K Weersma
Changes in the gut microbiota have been associated with two of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here, we performed a case-control analysis using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 1792 individuals with IBD and IBS compared with control individuals in the general population. Despite substantial overlap between the gut microbiome of patients with IBD and IBS compared with control individuals, we were able to use gut microbiota composition differences to distinguish patients with IBD from those with IBS...
December 19, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30561131/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-critically-ill-patient
#9
REVIEW
Berkeley N Limketkai, Steven Hendler, Peng-Sheng Ting, Alyssa M Parian
The gut microbiome has been implicated in a diversity of diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatic steatosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, and anxiety. Current research also suggests the presence of a bidirectional relationship between the composition of the gut microbiome and critical illness. In the critical care setting, multiple factors (eg, use of antibiotics, aberrant nutrition, bloodstream infections, bowel ischemia, and abnormal bowel motility) strongly contribute to intestinal dysbiosis...
December 18, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30535609/microbiome-and-gut-dysbiosis
#10
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30460770/probiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-where-are-we
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Barbara, Cesare Cremon, Fernando Azpiroz
We have only recently begun to understand how alterations of the intestinal microbial ecosystem lead to the disruption of host-microbial interactions and are associated with diseases, including functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although we are still far from understanding the human microbiome, gut microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host and may represent a therapeutic option for diseases characterized by dysbiosis such as IBS...
December 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30453528/intestinal-microbiome-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-before-and-after-gut-directed-hypnotherapy
#12
Johannes Peter, Camille Fournier, Bettina Keip, Nina Rittershaus, Nicola Stephanou-Rieser, Marija Durdevic, Clemens Dejaco, Maria Michalski, Gabriele Moser
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder with brain-gut-microbiome alterations. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (GHT) has been shown to improve quality of life and symptoms in IBS. This therapy targets psychological coping, central nervous processing and brain-gut interaction. Studies have also demonstrated effects of hypnosis on intestinal transit and the mucosal immune system. So far, no study has examined the effect of GHT on the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed at examining microbial composition, IBS symptoms, and psychological distress before and after GHT...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30444291/endocrine-regulation-of-gut-function-a-role-for-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Dervla O'Malley
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? Pathophysiological changes linked to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include stress and immune activation, changes in gastrointestinal microbial and bile acid profiles and sensitization of extrinsic and intrinsic gut neurons. This review explores the potential role for L-cells in these pathophysiological changes. What advances does it highlight? L-cells, which secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 in response to nutrients, microbial factors, bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, may sense IBS-related changes in the luminal environment...
November 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30423561/an-open-labeled-study-on-fecal-microbiota-transfer-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-reveals-improvement-in-abdominal-pain-associated-with-the-relative-abundance-of-akkermansia-muciniphila
#14
Rebeca M Cruz-Aguliar, Nina Wantia, Thomas Clavel, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Thorsten Buch, Monther Bajbouj, Dirk Haller, Dirk Busch, Roland M Schmid, Christoph K Stein-Thoeringer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The gut microbiota is altered in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and microbiota manipulations by diet or antibiotics can reduce its symptoms. As fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) in IBS is still controversial, we investigated the clinical and side effects of FMT in a cohort of IBS patients with recurrent, treatment refractory symptoms, and studied gut microbiota signatures. METHODS: Using an observational, prospective study design, we applied FMTs from one unrelated, healthy donor to 13 IBS patients...
November 13, 2018: Digestion
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30384950/development-of-the-pediatric-gut-microbiome-impact-on-health-and-disease
#15
Faith D Ihekweazu, James Versalovic
The intestinal microbiota are important in human growth and development. Microbial composition may yield insights into the temporal development of microbial communities and vulnerabilities to disorders of microbial ecology such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Discoveries of key microbiome features of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are lending new insights into possible therapies or preventative strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the development of the pediatric gastrointestinal microbiome, the influence of the microbiome on the developing brain through the gut-brain axis, and the impact of dysbiosis on disease development...
November 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30335629/irritable-bowel-syndrome-following-clostridium-difficile-infection
#16
Pete Dayananda, Mark H Wilcox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and the role of the gut microbiome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: PI-IBS is a recognized pathological entity and was estimated to affect 1 in 10 patients with infectious enteritis. CDI remains a major healthcare burden worldwide with a one in four chance of recurrence of symptoms following treatment...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30294792/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-prebiotics-probiotics-synbiotics-and-antibiotics-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Alexander C Ford, Lucinda A Harris, Brian E Lacy, Eamonn M M Quigley, Paul Moayyedi
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional bowel disorder. Disturbances in the gastrointestinal microbiome may be involved in its aetiology. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics in IBS. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched (up to July 2017). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting adults with IBS, comparing prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics or antibiotics with placebo or no therapy were eligible...
November 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30288077/the-role-of-inflammation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibs
#18
REVIEW
Qin Xiang Ng, Alex Yu Sen Soh, Wayren Loke, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex, functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. Despite the global prevalence and disease burden of IBS, its underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Inflammation may play a pathogenic role in IBS. Studies have highlighted the persistence of mucosal inflammation at the microscopic and molecular level in IBS, with increased recruitment of enteroendocrine cells. Substantial overlaps between IBS and inflammatory bowel disease have also been reported...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30189148/antibiotics-a-risk-factor-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-a-population-based-cohort
#19
Laura Rindom Krogsgaard, Anne Line Engsbro, Peter Bytzer
OBJECTIVES: Use of antibiotics affects the composition of the gut microbiome. The microbiome is thought to play a role in development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but antibiotics as a possible risk factor for IBS has not been clarified. We aimed to explore if antibiotics is a risk factor for IBS by investigating use of antibiotics and development of IBS in a cohort from the Danish background population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An internet-based web panel representative of the Danish background population was invited to participate in a survey regarding the epidemiology of IBS in 2010, 2011 and 2013...
September 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30148765/relationships-of-microbiome-markers-with-extraintestinal-psychological-distress-and-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-quality-of-life-in-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Emily B Hollister, Kevin C Cain, Robert J Shulman, Monica E Jarrett, Robert L Burr, Cynthia Ko, Jasmine Zia, Claire J Han, Margaret M Heitkemper
INTRODUCTION: Altered microbial diversity has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Less is known about the relationship of microbiome with extraintestinal pain and psychological distress symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in persons with IBS. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of fecal microbiota to GI symptoms, stool consistency, psychological distress, extraintestinal pain, and QOL in participants meeting Rome III criteria for IBS...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
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