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pediatric tobacco

David A White, Gautam M Anand, Omar Qayum, Chizitam F Ibezim, Ashley K Sherman, Geetha Raghuveer
Atherosclerosis promoting cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDrf) are highly prevalent among youth in the U.S. Determining which standard modifiable clinical measures (SMCMs) has the greatest impact on vascular structure and function is valuable for the health care provider to help identify children at highest risk. The aim of this study was to determine modifiable outpatient clinical predictors of vascular health in youth with CVDrf. Children and adolescents with CVDrf (n = 120, 13.1 ± 1.9 years, 49% female) were recruited from a pediatric preventive cardiology clinic...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Cardiology
Wei Jing, Wei Wang, Qingbin Liu
BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the effects of passive smoking on the severity of pediatric asthma and associated molecular mechanisms. METHODS: A total of 378 children with asthma were assigned into four groups according to asthma severity (from grades I to IV). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to analyze possible factors associated with asthma severity in children. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was measured via cotinine concentration in urine...
January 16, 2019: Pediatric Research
Molly Fitzpatrick, Andrea C Johnson, Kenneth P Tercyak, Kirsten B Hawkins, Andrea C Villanti, Darren Mays
INTRODUCTION: Hookah tobacco use is popular among youths and there is evidence that perceived risks and normative beliefs are associated with hookah use. The aim of this study was to further examine associations between perceived risks of hookah use, normative beliefs, and lifetime hookah use among youths. METHODS: Participants were adolescents aged 12 to 17 years (n = 257, mean [standard deviation] age, 14.9 [1.6] years, 40% nonwhite, 66% female) attending well-visit checkups at an urban pediatric clinic...
January 10, 2019: Preventing Chronic Disease
Maya Frank Wolf, Yael Bar-Zeev, Ido Solt
Smoking during pregnancy is a public health problem because of the many adverse effects associated with it. These include intrauterine growth restriction, placenta previa, abruptio placentae, decreased maternal thyroid function, preterm premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, perinatal mortality, and ectopic pregnancy. An estimated 5-8% of pre-term deliveries, 13-19% of term deliveries of infants with low birth weight, 23-34% cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 5-7% of preterm-related infant deaths can be attributed to prenatal maternal smoking...
December 2018: Harefuah
Hina Walia, Rebecca Miller, Dmitry Tumin, Joseph D Tobias, Roby Sebastian
Introduction: As the primary source of smoke exposure is in the home, the smoking behaviors of parents and other caregivers are key determinants of a child's exposure to secondhand smoke. The perioperative period offers an opportunity to discuss smoking cessation strategies. Methods: This prospective study included 97 parents or caregivers of patients undergoing dental surgery. Caregivers were surveyed in the dental waiting room during the preoperative phase. The primary aim was to determine the feasibility of using the preoperative encounter to offer smoking cessation resources to parents of pediatric patients...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
Inês Medeiros, Catarina Faria, Fábia Carvalho, Eloína Bravo
Introduction Adolescence is a time of social and self-affirmation, search of autonomy and pleasure. An early sexual debut and substance use are still public health problems. Objectives To assess the prevalence of illicit drug use and sexual behavior of adolescents, ages 15- 17, followed in a Portuguese Family Health Unit. Material and methods This was a cross sectional descriptive study of a random convenience sample. Data were obtained from an anonymous and confidential questionnaire, given to patients at adolescent consultation, between the months of May and July 2016...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Esther Melinda Mahabee-Gittens, Ashley L Merianos, Judith W Dexheimer, Gabe T Meyers, Lara Stone, Meredith Tabangin, Jane C Khoury, Judith S Gordon
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) may facilitate caregiver tobacco screening and counseling by pediatric urgent care (UC) nurses. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a CDSS to address caregivers' tobacco use and child tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). METHODS: We conducted a 3-month prospective study on caregivers screened using a CDSS. Nurses used the CDSS to advise, assess, and assist caregivers to quit...
October 19, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Siyan Yi, Sovannary Tuot, Khuondyla Pal, Vohith Khol, Say Sok, Pheak Chhoun, Laura Ferguson, Gitau Mburu
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with HIV experience worse HIV care outcomes compared to adults, especially during transition from pediatric to adult care. However, data regarding adolescents are limited. This paper describes and compares characteristics of male and female adolescents living with HIV preparing for transition from pediatric to adult care in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2016 among 328 adolescents aged 15-17, randomly selected from 11 antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics...
October 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, Philip Kum-Nji
IMPORTANCE: The role of tobacco-smoke exposure on serum vitamin D concentration in US pediatric population is not known. We hypothesized that tobacco smoke exposure would increase the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in US children. METHODS: Representative national data were accessed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 databank on 2,263 subjects of ages 3 to 17 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their age: children, if <10 years; and youth if 10 to 17 years...
2018: PloS One
Olivier Drouin, Jonathan P Winickoff, Anne N Thorndike
BACKGROUND: Adults tend to underestimate their personal risk of disease, but little is known about parents' perceptions of children's risk. METHODS: In total, 648 parents of children 0 to 18 years old attending 2 pediatric practices were surveyed about their children's exposure to smoking; 344 parents with children ≥2 years old also were asked about their children's sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and physical activity. Children were categorized as "at risk" or "not at risk" for each factor...
September 21, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Rahel Kasteler, Fabiën Belle, Christina Schindera, Jürg Barben, Fabienne Gumy-Pause, Eva M Tinner, Claudia E Kuehni
BACKGROUND: Smoking harms health, particularly that of childhood cancer survivors, who face risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases because of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the chest. This nationwide study assessed smoking habits and reasons for smoking in adolescent survivors and healthy peers. METHODS: As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to all Swiss resident survivors, who were aged 16-19 years. We compared smoking status and reasons for smoking between 511 survivors, 141 of their siblings, and 1,727 adolescents in a representative population-based study, the Tobacco Monitoring Switzerland (TMS)...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Bhavna T Pahel, Anne Rowan-Legg, Rocio B Quinonez
Orofacial growth and development is a complex process spanning the life course. This article provides an oral health overview in the context of overall growth, physical and social development from infancy through adolescence. It reviews oral health-specific developmental milestones during childhood (0-12 years) and adolescence (≥13 years). It examines issues particular to each age category or spanning multiple ages (eg, pediatric overweight and obesity, tobacco use, and dental trauma) in relation to oral health and development...
October 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Carolyn R Ahlers-Schmidt, Christy Schunn, Matthew Engel, Jolynn Dowling, Kim Neufeld, Stephanie Kuhlmann
Infant mortality remains a problem in the United States with sleep-related deaths accounting for a significant portion. Known risk reduction strategies include breastfeeding, avoiding tobacco use and following the American Academy of Pediatrics' safe sleep guidelines. The purpose of this project was to evaluate outcomes of Safe Sleep Instructor-led community baby showers, which included safe sleep promotion, breastfeeding promotion and tobacco cessation education. Certified Safe Sleep Instructors (n = 35) were trained on how to plan and host a Community Baby Shower to provide education to pregnant women of low socioeconomic status or with high risk of infant mortality...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Gil Gutvirtz, Tamar Wainstock, Daniella Landau, Eyal Sheiner
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term pediatric neurological morbidity of children born to mothers who reported smoking during pregnancy as compared with children born to non-smoking mothers. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing all deliveries of mothers who reported smoking during pregnancy and non-smoking mothers between 1991 and 2014 at a single tertiary medical center. Hospitalizations of the offspring up to the age of 18 years involving neurological morbidities were evaluated according to a predefined set of ICD-9 codes, including autism, development and movement disorders, cerebral palsy and more...
January 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Qingbin Liu, Wei Wang, Wei Jing
Indoor air pollution is associated with childhood asthma but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to explore the relationship between indoor air pollution and pediatric asthma, and the potential molecular mechanism. The serum level of miR-155 was measured by real-time qPCR in 180 Chinese children with asthma caused by air pollution (an asthma group). Meanwhile, 180 healthy subjects were selected as a control group. HCHO, NO2 , and particles (PM10 , PM2.5 , and PM1 ) were measured. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were analyzed to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthma risk...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Robert Zura, Sue C Kaste, Michael J Heffernan, William K Accousti, Dominic Gargiulo, Zhe Wang, R Grant Steen
Adult fracture nonunion risk is related to injury severity and surgical technique, yet nonunion is not fully explained by these risk factors alone; biological risk factors are also important. We test a hypothesis that risk factors associated with pediatric fracture nonunion are similar to adult nonunion risk factors.Inception cohort study in a large payer database of pediatric fracture patients (0-17 years) in the United States in calendar year 2011. Continuous enrollment in the database was required for 12 months, to allow time to capture a nonunion diagnosis...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Judith A Groner, Ana M Rule, Sharon A McGrath-Morrow, Joseph M Collaco, Angela Moss, Susanne E Tanski, Robert McMillen, Regina M Whitmore, Jonathan D Klein, Jonathan P Winickoff, Karen Wilson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between screening questions for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and biomarker results using hair nicotine levels. Our ultimate goal was to develop sensitive and valid screening tools in pediatric clinical settings for SHS exposure. METHODS: Investigators developed a core set of questions regarding exposure. Data from two separate ongoing studies of well children and those with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were used to assess the concordance between responses and hair nicotine levels...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Aleksandra Ratajczak, Karol Ratajczak, Wojciech Feleszko
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is considered an important public health issue in pediatric population. In this study, we aimed to investigate parents' knowledge on side effects of passive smoking and counseling for parental smoking among pediatricians and family practitioners. Participants were biological parents of pediatric patients up to the age of 18 years old who attended Pediatric Hospital of Medical University of Warsaw. The questionnaire included 28 questions and queries on environmental tobacco smoke in children's environment...
July 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Craig Tower, Arlene Butz, Cassia Lewis-Land, Meng Zhu, Mandeep S Jassal
BACKGROUND: The socio-structural barriers for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among children with asthma may be insurmountable for low-income caregivers. Health promoting financial incentives (HPFIs) are increasingly being used in the adult population to motivate and sustain tobacco-reduction behaviors. We assessed barriers to SHSe reduction and means to overcome them through the design of an HPFI-based, caregiver-targeted SHSe reduction study. METHODS: Using a mixed-methods design, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews among low-income primary caregivers of children with asthma residing in Baltimore City...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
Hongying Dai, Mark Clements
INTRODUCTION: The American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement to recommend screening all adolescents for tobacco and other drug use in 2011. This study sought to evaluate the trends of health professional screening and advice on youth tobacco use since then. METHODS: Data from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey were analyzed to report the changes in tobacco screening and advice among 46,554 U.S. middle and high school students. Logistic regressions were used to assess trends and factors associated with screening or advice on tobacco use and to examine whether screening or advice on tobacco use was associated with quit behaviors...
August 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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