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Natalie Kronebusch, Amy Damon
In this paper, we study the effect of Progresa, a conditional cash transfer program in Mexico, on the micronutrient and macronutrient consumption levels of program participants. Overall, we find that Progresa has a complicated effect on nutrition outcomes. We find that treatment households increase their vitamin consumption by 15 percent and mineral consumption by 7 percent. Our results indicate that conditional cash transfers may have important positive effects on vitamin A, iron, and possibly calcium, which are under-consumed by a vast majority of the Mexican population...
February 1, 2019: Economics and Human Biology
Pengtao Gao, Liang Guo, Jian Sun, Yi Wang, Zonglian She, Mengchun Gao, Yangguo Zhao
Recently, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge has drawn growing attention because large amounts of saline waste sludge were generated with the increase of saline wastewater discharge. In this study, thermophilic bacteria (TB) pretreatment was applied to accelerate the hydrolysis of saline waste sludge and the efficiency of hydrolysis at different salinities was evaluated. Compared with the group without salinity, the releasing of carbohydrate (up to a 67.0% decrease) in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was inhibited at the salinity ranging from 1...
March 12, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
In Young Lee, Jane Melissa Lim, Hyunchu Cho, Eunju Kim, Yeonsil Kim, Hye-Kyung Oh, Woo Seok Yang, Kyung-Hye Roh, Hyun Woo Park, Jung-Soon Mo, Je-Hyun Yoon, Hyun Kyu Song, Eui-Ju Choi
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway plays a central role in inflammatory and immune responses, with aberrant activation of NF-κB signaling being implicated in various human disorders. Here, we show that mammalian ste20-like kinase 1 (MST1) is a previously unrecognized component of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) receptor 1 signaling complex (TNF-RSC) and attenuates TNFα-induced NF-κB signaling. Genetic ablation of MST1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages potentiated the TNFα-induced increase in IκB kinase (IKK) activity, as well as the expression of NF-κB target genes...
March 21, 2019: Molecular Cell
Zehui Zhang, Ruiwei Li, Jude Juventus Aweya, Fan Wang, Mingqi Zhong, Yueling Zhang
The respiratory glycoprotein hemocyanin has been implicated in immune-related functions. Using lectin blotting, we show that the binding of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hemocyanin to concanavalin A decreases markedly with O-glycosidase treatment but not with PNGase F. Twelve O-glycosylation sites, 3 on the large hemocyanin subunit and 9 on the small hemocyanin subunit (HMCs), were identified by LC-MS/MS. Importantly, when the glycosylation sites at Thr-537, Ser-539 and Thr-542 on the C-terminal of HMCs were replaced with alanine, the resultant mutant hemocyanin had reduced carbohydrate content, coupled with a 4-fold reduction in bacterial agglutination and 0...
March 22, 2019: FEBS Letters
Shan Sun, Djanybek Adyshev, Steve Dudek, Amit Paul, Andrew McColloch, Michael Cho
Cell mechanics has been shown to regulate stem cell differentiation. We have previously reported that altered cell stiffness of mesenchymal stem cells can delay or facilitate biochemically directed differentiation. One of the factors that can affect the cell stiffness is cholesterol. However, the effect of cholesterol on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) remains elusive. In this paper, we demonstrate that cholesterol is involved in the modulation of the cell stiffness and subsequent adipogenic differentiation...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Juliana M Ansari, Christine Colasacco, Elli Emmanouil, Scott Kohlhepp, Olivia Harriott
Probiotic products are becoming more prevalent as awareness of the role of beneficial microbes in health increases. Ingredient labels of these products often omit identifications at the strain level, making it difficult to track down applicable published research. In this study, we investigated whether products labeled with the same species name contained different strains of those species. From 21 commercially available probiotic supplements and beverages, we cultured five main species: Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii...
2019: PloS One
Panpan Guo, Henan Zhu, Hongzhi Pan, Rennan Feng, Yichi Chen, Yan Wang, Xuemei Wang, Yong Li, Lei Yang, Beijia Zhou, Xin Wang, Yan Zhao
BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations between dairy intake and chronic metabolic diseases (CMDs) and evaluate the possible dose-response relationships in Chinese. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 6073 adults aged ≥18 y, enrolled from China. General characteristics were gathered by using a validated dietary questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dairy intake and CMDs. Restricted cubic spline models were used to exploring dose-response relationships between dairy intake and CMDs, and the possible dairy intake in prevention of CMDs...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Diabetes
Efstathia Pasmatzi, Christina Papadionysiou, Alexandra Monastirli, George Badavanis, Dionysios Tsambaos
Galectins are a family of soluble proteins that are widely distributed in nature and bind to a variety of glycoproteins and glycolipids bearing β-galactoside residues. They are involved in highly important processes at the molecular and cellular level in human cutaneous and extracutaneous tissues, and they exert biological effects of paramount importance through their interaction with cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins and the components of the cell surface and extracellular matrix. Galectin 1 (Gal 1), the first galectin isolated, is a noncovalent homodimeric protein with a 14 kDa monomer that contains one carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) and preferentially recognizes galactose-β1-4-N-acetyl-glucosamine sequences on N- or O-linked glycans...
March 2019: Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica
Yeon-Sook Kim, Abdimadiyeva Aigerim, Uni Park, Yuri Kim, Ji-Young Rhee, Jae-Phil Choi, Wan Beom Park, Sang Won Park, Yeonjae Kim, Dong-Gyun Lim, Kyung-Soo Inn, Eung-Soo Hwang, Myung-Sik Choi, Hyoung-Shik Shin, Nam-Hyuk Cho
The unexpectedly large outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome in South Korea in 2015 was initiated by an infected traveler and amplified by several "superspreading" events. Previously, we reported the emergence and spread of mutant Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus bearing spike mutations (I529T or D510G) with reduced affinity to human receptor CD26 during the outbreak. To assess the potential association of spike mutations with superspreading events, we collected virus genetic information reported during the outbreak and systemically analyzed the relationship of spike sequences and epidemiology...
June 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Byung-Gon Na, Sung-Sik Han, Yeong-Ah Cho, Gyung-Ah Wie, Ji-Yeon Kim, Jong-Mog Lee, Seung Duk Lee, Seong Hoon Kim, Sang-Jae Park
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the nutritional status of cancer patients according to site or treatment type. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the nutritional status of 1,588 patients based on cancer site and treatment type using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment tool. We also investigated length of stay (LOS), complication rates after surgery and quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: The patients with esophageal, pancreaticobiliary, and lung cancer had higher malnutrition rates than those with stomach, liver, and colon cancer (52...
March 22, 2019: Nutrition and Cancer
Victoria Dimakos, Hsin Y Su, Graham E Garrett, Mark S Taylor
Diphenylborinic acid serves as a cocatalyst for site- and stereoselective C-H alkylation reactions of carbohydrates under photoredox conditions using quinuclidine as the hydrogen atom transfer mediator. Products arising from selective abstraction of the equatorial hydrogens of cis-1,2-diol moieties, followed by C-C bond formation with net retention of configuration, are obtained. Computational modeling supports a mechanism involving formation of a tetracoordinate borinic ester, which accelerates hydrogen atom transfer with the quinuclidine-derived radical cation through polarity-matching and/or ion-pairing effects...
March 22, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ko-Hsuan Chen, Hui-Ling Liao, Jean-Philippe Bellenger, François Lutzoni
Bryophytes harbor microbiomes, including diverse communities of fungi. The molecular mechanisms by which perennial mosses interact with these fungal partners along their senescence gradients are unknown, yet this is an ideal system to study variation in gene expression associated with trophic state transitions. We investigated differentially expressed genes of fungal communities and their host Dicranum scoparium, across its naturally occurring senescence gradient using a metatranscriptomic approach. Higher activity of fungal nutrient-related (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur) transporters and Carbohydrate Active enZyme (CAZy) genes was detected toward the bottom, partially decomposed, layer of the moss...
March 22, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Jordyn M Wolfand, Carolin Seller, Colin D Bell, Yeo-Myoung Cho, Karl Oetjen, Terri S Hogue, Richard G Luthy
Urban-use pesticides are of increasing concern as they are widely used and have been linked to toxicity of aquatic organisms. To assess the occurrence and treatment of these pesticides in stormwater runoff, an approach combining field sampling and watershed-scale modeling was employed. Stormwater samples were collected at four locations in the lower San Diego River watershed during a storm event and analyzed for fipronil, three of its degradation products, and eight pyrethroids. All 12 compounds were detected with frequency ranging from 50 to 100%...
March 22, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Yun Gyoung Hur, Ji Young Hong, Dong Hwan Choi, Ahreum Kim, So Yeong Park, Minsuk Kwon, Kyungjoon Kang, Jeong Min Lee, Hazel M Dockrell, Yoonsuk Lee, Hoodon Joo, Sang Nae Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate ichroma™ IGRA-TB, a novel point-of-care platform for assaying IFN-γ release, and to compare it with QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 60 healthy subjects, and blood samples were obtained in QFT-GIT blood collection tubes. The blood collection tubes were incubated at 37°C, and culture supernatant was harvested after 18-24 hours...
April 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Dong Hun Lee, Kyeung Mi Lee, Sung Min Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Yong Soo Cho, Goeun Choi, Seong Woo Yun
PURPOSE: After trauma and surgery, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is the most common condition that can require massive transfusion (MT). The present study aimed to analyze and compare the prognostic performance of the Glasgow-Blatchford (GB), pre-endoscopy Rockall (PER), and modified early warning (MEW) scores for predicting MT in patients with unstable UGIB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study included patients with UGIB from March 2016 to February 2018...
April 2019: Yonsei Medical Journal
Jang Ho Cho, Hyun Ae Jung, Se-Hoon Lee, Jin Seok Ahn, Myung-Ju Ahn, Keunchil Park, Jong-Mu Sun
PURPOSE: We evaluated the predictive role of EGFR mutation on the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy in patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma while considering clinical factors such as PD-L1 expression, gender, and smoking status. METHODS: Patients were required to have available data for EGFR mutation, PD-L1 expression, and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. RESULTS: Among 178 patients with EGFR-mutant (n = 38) or wild-type (WT) (n = 140) tumors, the EGFR mutation group had a lower objective response rate (ORR) (15...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Clara Viñals, Carmen Quirós, Marga Giménez, Ignacio Conget
INTRODUCTION: To describe and compare the routine use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with and without continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in routine clinical practice and its relationship with glycemic outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective observational case-control study collecting routine use of CSII and CGM in T1D patients between January 2016 and December 2016. Patients with T1D using sensor augmented pump (SAP) were matched by sex and disease duration in a 1:3 ratio with those treated only with CSII...
March 21, 2019: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Chae Hong Lim, Seung Hyup Hyun, Seung Hwan Moon, Young Seok Cho, Joon Young Choi, Kyung-Han Lee
INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with N1 metastasis, N1 nodal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) status offers independent and incremental prognostic value. METHODS: We enrolled 106 NSCLC patients with pathology-confirmed N1 metastasis. N1 node FDG positivity, primary tumor maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax ), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were performed for cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS)...
March 21, 2019: European Radiology
Margaret M Fettis, Shaheen A Farhadi, Gregory A Hudalla
Galectins are attractive therapeutic candidates to control aberrant immune system activation because they can alter the phenotype and function of various innate and adaptive immune cells. However, use of exogenous galectin-1 ("G1") and galectin-3 ("G3") as immunomodulators is challenged by their high dosing requirements and dynamic quaternary structures. Here we report a chimeric assembly of G1 and G3 with enhanced extracellular activity ("G1/G3 Zipper"), which was created by recombinant fusion of G1 and G3 via a peptide linker that forms a two-stranded α-helical coiled-coil...
March 22, 2019: Biomaterials Science
Václav Profant, Christian Johannessen, Ewan W Blanch, Petr Bouř, Vladimír Baumruk
Glycosaminoglycans are linear carbohydrate polymers with essential roles in many biological processes. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of them, omnipresent in living organisms as an important structural component of cartilage. It provides much of its resistance to compression. Despite its biological importance, little is still known about the relation of the CS structure to chemical composition and interaction with the environment. We therefore measured Raman and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of five CS samples of different biological origin and variously sulfated CS building blocks (GlcA, GalNAc, and basic disaccharide units) in a wide frequency range between 200 cm-1 and 1800 cm-1 and analyzed them with respect to specific structure marker bands...
March 22, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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