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American football

Zachary M Gillen, Marni E Shoemaker, Brianna D McKay, Joel T Cramer
This study compared athletic performance differences among high school American football combine participants originating from states of different population sizes. High school-aged American football players (n=7,214) who had participated in athletic performance combines between March 2015 and January 2016 were included in this analysis. Data included combine date and location, school state of origin, football position, class, height, weight, 10-, 20-, and 40-yd dash times, pro-agility, L-cone drill, vertical jump, broad jump, and power push-up...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Rosa Maria De Santo, Luca Salvatore De Santo
In Italy in 2017 out of 2738 assessments of death, there was a 28.7% of oppositions of family members to the removal of organs post-mortem. This opposition is a serious limitation to the development of transplantation programs. There is a need to increase the number of transplants since transplantation grants the highest quality of life, a longer survival and at a lower cost for the society. We propose the use of Narrative Medicine (MN) to reduce this opposition. "Narrative Medicine - as Charon says - fortifies clinical practice with the narrative competence to recognize, absorb, metabolize, interpret, and be moved by the stories of illness"...
February 2019: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
S Nassir Ghaemi, Sivan Mauer, Bennet I Omalu
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a diagnosis recently discovered and described in the context of American football. It is a a neurodegenerative disease that is a consequence of repetitive brain injury such as concussion. Such injury most notably occurs in physically violent sports but can also occur in other settings, such as during military duty, where explosive blasts can cause subconcussive impacts to the head. The main clinical features of CTE involve three aspects: mood/impulsivity, suicide, and dementia...
February 12, 2019: Bipolar Disorders
Zachary Y Kerr, Susan W Yeargin, Yuri Hosokawa, Rebecca M Hirschhorn, Lauren A Pierpoint, Douglas J Casa
CONTEXT: Recent data on exertional heat illness (EHI) in high school sports is limited, yet warranted to identify specific settings with the highest risk of EHI. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of EHI in high school sports during the 2012/13-2016/17 academic years. SETTING: Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from athletic trainers working in high school sports in the United States (US). PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: High school athletes during the 2012/13-2016/17 academic years...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Jaclyn B Caccese, Ryan M DeWolf, Thomas W Kaminski, Steven P Broglio, Thomas W McAllister, Michael McCrea, Thomas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Repetitive head impacts in young athletes are potentially detrimental to later life (e.g., age 50 + years) neurological function; however, it is unknown what the short-term effects (e.g., age 20 years) are in collegiate student-athletes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the estimated age of first exposure to American tackle football participation on neurocognitive performance and symptom severity scores in collegiate student-athletes...
February 11, 2019: Sports Medicine
Rachel G Grashow, Andrea L Roberts, Ross Zafonte, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Herman Taylor, Aaron Baggish, Lee Nadler, Theodore K Courtney, Ann Connor, Marc G Weisskopf
Studies of professional American football players have shown that football-related activities lead to acute injuries and may have long-term adverse health outcomes including osteoarthritis, neurocognitive impairment, and cardiovascular disease. However, the full complement of what constitutes professional football exposure has yet to be effectively articulated. Most likely, professional football exposure encompasses a multifaceted array of experiences including head impacts and joint stresses, long-term pain medication use, dietary restrictions, and strenuous training regimens...
February 2019: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Robert A Christian, Ryan J Lubbe, Danielle S Chun, Ryan S Selley, Michael A Terry, Wellington K Hsu
PURPOSE: To evaluate return to play (RTP) and performance-based outcomes in professional athletes across 4 major North American team sports following hip arthroscopy. METHODS: Professional athletes of the National Football League, Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association, and National Hockey League (NHL) who underwent hip arthroscopy were identified using an established protocol of public reports. Sport-specific statistics were collected before and after hip arthroscopy for each athlete, leading to a performance score...
February 5, 2019: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Andrew S Bernhardson, Colin P Murphy, Zachary S Aman, Robert F LaPrade, Matthew T Provencher
BACKGROUND: Anterior and posterior shoulder instabilities are entirely different entities. The presenting complaints and symptoms vastly differ between patients with these 2 conditions, and a clear understanding of these differences can help guide effective treatment. PURPOSE: To compare a matched cohort of patients with anterior and posterior instability to clearly outline the differences in the initial presenting history and overall outcomes after arthroscopic stabilization...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Vanessa Hubertus, Niklas Marklund, Peter Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: When participating in contact sports, (mild) head trauma is a common incident-observed in both professional and amateur sports. When head trauma results in transient neurological impairment, a sports-related concussion has occurred. Acute concussion, repetitive concussions, as well as cumulative "sub-concussive" head impacts may increase the risk of developing cognitive and behavioral deficits for athletes, as well as accelerated cerebral degeneration. While this concept has been well established for classic contact sports like American Football, Rugby, or Boxing, there is still an awareness gap for the role of sports-related concussion in the context of the world's most popular sport-Soccer...
January 28, 2019: Acta Neurochirurgica
Kathleen E Bachynski
After World War II, organized tackle football programs for boys younger than high school age grew enormously in popularity in the United States, prompting concerns from pediatricians and educators about the sport's physical and emotional health effects. At the same time, sports medicine was emerging as a sub-specialty. Examining how American sports medicine doctors and football coaches established their professional authority on youth football safety in the 1950s and 1960s reveals how their justifications for this collision sport were connected to broader cultural trends...
January 12, 2019: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, Mitsuru Higuchi
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are associated with high risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. However, it is unknown whether this is the case in American collegiate football and rugby athletes. This study investigated the associations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and glucose profiles in male collegiate football athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (13 American football players and 21 collegiate rugby football players) aged 21 years were recruited...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ryan J McNeilan, Michael Rose, Braden Mayer, Martin Boublik
CASE: A 27-year-old right-hand-dominant National Football League (NFL) quarterback injured his right shoulder after falling with the elbow flexed and the shoulder flexed and slightly abducted. He noted an immediate onset of right anterior shoulder pain, but was able to continue playing and throwing without notable deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging of the chest revealed an isolated tear of the pectoralis minor tendon. The patient received nonoperative local treatment and was able to start as quarterback at the next game...
October 2018: JBJS Case Connector
Jason S Ferderber, Allan B Wolfson
BACKGROUND: Although "spear tackling" is known to be a risk factor for cervical spine injury due to axial loading of the neck, and although this technique was officially banned from American football in 1976, football-associated cervical spine injuries continue to be reported. This case highlights the importance of recognizing high-risk mechanisms for cervical spine injury, and specifically the danger of spear tackling among football players at all levels. CASE REPORT: A 16-year-old male high school football player presented to the pediatric emergency department for a neck injury sustained after spear tackling during a football game...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
William T Wilson, Graeme P Hopper, Paul A Byrne, Gordon M MacKay
The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary restraint to valgus angulation at the elbow. Injury to the UCL is increasingly common and can lead to instability, especially in athletes involved in overhead throwing. Conventional treatment is reconstruction using tendon autograft but performance levels are often restricted after long periods of rehabilitation. Modern surgical techniques have led to renewed interest in repair of the ligament, with the aim of restoring native anatomy. This has the benefit of retained proprioception and no graft harvest morbidity...
December 19, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann, Thorsten Schiffer
PURPOSE: Muscle mass, strength and power are important factors for performance. To improve these characteristics, periodized resistance training is used. However, there is no consensus regarding the most effective periodization model. Therefore the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of block (BLOCK) versus daily undulating periodization (DUP) on body composition, hypertrophy, strength, performance and power in adolescent American football players. METHODS: Forty-seven subjects participated in this study (M±SD age = 17±0...
December 20, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Kevin C Miller, Timothy A Di Mango, Grace E Katt
CONTEXT: Treatment delays can be contributing factors in the death of American football athletes from exertional heat stroke. Ideally, clinicians begin cold-water immersion (CWI) to reduce rectal temperature (Trec ) to <38.9°C within 30 minutes of collapse. If delays occur, experts recommend Trec cooling rates that exceed 0.15°C/min. Whether treatment delays affect CWI cooling rates or perceptual variables when football uniforms are worn is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To answer 3 questions: (1) Does wearing a football uniform and delaying CWI by 5 minutes or 30 minutes affect Trec cooling rates? (2) Do Trec cooling rates exceed 0...
December 18, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Sara P D Chrisman, Sarah Lowry, Stanley A Herring, Emily Kroshus, Teah R Hoopes, Shannon K Higgins, Frederick P Rivara
OBJECTIVE: To collect prospective data on concussion incidence, risk factors, duration of symptoms, and return to school and sport in 5- to 14-year-old American football participants. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study over 2 years collecting data during two 10-week fall seasons. Youth with concussion were followed to determine time to return to school, sport, and baseline level of symptoms. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion associated with baseline demographic factors...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Alegra I Mendez, Amelia A Miramonti, Zachary M Gillen, Brianna D McKay, Todd J Leutzinger, Joel T Cramer
Mendez, AI, Miramonti, AA, Gillen, ZM, McKay, BD, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Stature, body mass, and BMI in high school american football players: Appropriate determinants of obesity prevalence? J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3119-3126, 2018-The purpose of this study was to evaluate stature (HT), mass (BM), body mass index (BMI), and obesity prevalence based on BMI categories in a large sample (n = 7,175) of high school American football players enrolled as freshmen, sophomores, or juniors. Players were categorized by their positions: offensive linemen (OLs), defensive linemen (DLs), tight end, defensive end, linebacker, running back, quarterback, defensive back, and wide receiver...
November 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
David P Hedlund
Hedlund, DP. Performance of future elite players at the NFL scouting combine. J Strength Cond Res 32(11): 3112-3118, 2018-The purpose of this study is to examine players' physical and performance measures taken at the National Football League (NFL) Scouting Combine and compare these with their future performance in the NFL. From 2002 to 2016, 3 types of player data (N = 5,506) were collected from secondary data sources. Results of players earned on various NFL Scouting Combine drills and measurements (e.g., height, body mass, 40-yard dash time, vertical jump, bench press repetitions, shuttle run time, and 3-cone drill time), the position players play on the field (e...
November 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ciera Jones, Amanda J Visek, Mary J Barron, Mark Hyman, Avinash Chandran
The popular method of organising youth sport participants into age divisions, based solely on their birthdate, can result in an imbalance of the distribution of players. This is known as relative age effect (RAE), which inadvertently creates bias and is associated with deleterious short and long-term consequences. The overall purpose of this study was to examine how the potential for RAE is mitigated when simultaneously accounting for additional player criterion, supplementary to age. A mid-Atlantic American youth football registration database was acquired, including chronological (age), anthropometric (weight), and competency (skill) factors...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
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