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“synthetic control”

Fizza Naqvi, Saida Haider, Faizan Naqvi, Sadia Saleem, Tahira Perveen, Zehra Batool
Curcumin possesses wide spectrum of biological actions, on that account the current study was aimed to investigate the beneficial effectiveness of curcumin on memory and oxidative stress if any, over synthetic drug donepezil approved for the treatment of memory disorders. Eighteen Albino wistar (male) rats were divided into 3 groups namely vehicle control which received neutral oil orally and 0.9% saline intraperitoneally, curcumin which received curcumin orally dissolved in neutral oil at the dose of 100mg/ml/kg for seven days, donepezil which received donepezil intraperitoneally at the dose of 1mg/ml/kg for seven days...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mahboob Ahmad, Bilal Aslam, Faqir Muhammad, Mashkoor Mohsin, Ahmad Raza
Present study was planned to estimate the gastroprotective activity of Euphorbia prostrata plant against aspirin induced gastric ulcers in male adult albino rabbits. The ulcer was induced by oral administration of aspirin in all groups except normal control group. Gastric contents were used to estimate total acid output, gastric volume and gastric pH. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in gastric volume, total acid output, ulcer score and ulcer index in groups treated with extract of E. prostrata and it enhanced the pH of gastric mucosa...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kai-Mei Zhang, Yu Shen, Jing Yang, Xiang Miu, Prasanta C Bhowmik, Xiaoqi Zhou, Yan-Ming Fang, Bao-Shan Xing
According to the novel weapons hypothesis, root exudates are the inhibition factors for native species growth and development through invasive plants. It is hypothesized that antioxidant system (AOS) presents an effective role in plant defense system. The allelopathy indexes of P. multifida gametophyte biomass and sporogonium conversions rates turn negative with the dose and time effects, and the synthetical allelopathic effect index was -55.07% at 100% treatments under root exudates treatments. Under transmission electron microscopy, the cell structures turn burry...
February 14, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Wen Ding, Yuan-Yuan Fan, Cheng Zhang, Lin Fu, Xi Chen, De-Xiang Xu
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates genes involved in bile acid metabolism. Accumulating data demonstrate that FXR has an anti-inflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of obeticholic acid (OCA), a novel synthetic FXR agonist, on D-galactosamine (GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-evoked acute liver injury. All mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with GalN (300mg/kg) plus LPS (2.5μg/kg). Some mice were pretreated with OCA (10mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before GalN/LPS...
February 14, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Misery Mulele Nabuyanda, Johan van Bruggen, Peter Kelderman, Kenneth Irvine
There is critical concern over heavy metals because they are biotoxins. The best management option is elimination or at least minimization of effluence into the environment, but in several regions, mining wastewater or acid mine drainage (AMD) effluence into natural wetlands has continued. The ability of wetlands to attenuate heavy metals in mining wastewater and AMD has led to natural wetlands being used as recipients of these effluents in many parts of the world. Ten greenhouse-based laboratory-scale constructed wetlands (GLCW) were set up at IHE-Delft Institute for Water Education to understand the mechanisms and fate of heavy metals in three Zambian wetlands in attenuation of Co, Cu, and Pb...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Ebrahim Mahmoudi, Wei Lun Ang, Ching Yin Ng, Law Yong Ng, Abdul Wahab Mohammad, Abdelbaki Benamor
Graphene oxide (GO) has gained popularity in scientific research and industry due to its superior properties, which can be controlled by the synthesis method and graphite feedstock. Despite the availability of different graphite sources, most of the reported studies used natural graphite flake (NGF) as a source of oxidation for GO synthesis. The effect of various alternative graphite feedstocks on the GO properties has not been investigated systematically. This study investigated the influence of graphite feedstock (natural and synthetic) on the characteristics and properties of GO via modified Hummer's method...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bin Zhang, Victoria Kehm, Ron Gathagan, Susan N Leight, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Kelvin C Luk
The accumulation of intraneuronal inclusions containing misfolded alpha-synuclein (aSyn) within the central nervous system (CNS) is a common feature found in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging evidence indicates that aSyn amyloid fibrils, a configuration that is present within these characteristic inclusions, are capable of self-replicating by templating the conversion of endogenously expressed aSyn in neurons. Stereotaxic administration of synthetic α-synuclein preformed fibrils (PFFs) into the mouse brain has been shown to seed the formation of intracellular aSyn pathology reminiscent of Lewy body (LB) inclusions present in human PD and related synucleinopathies...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Won Chul Shin, Jae Hoon Jang, Jae Yoon Jeong, Kuen Tak Suh, Nam Hoon Moon
INTRODUCTION: Although various clinical applications of geneX® ds have been reported, no study has reported the clinical application of geneX® ds in osteoporotic hip fracture. The present study aimed to identify the clinical effect of the application of geneX® ds in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fracture treated using proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2014 to October 2017, 233 patients with intertrochanteric fracture (65 men and 168 women) were enrolled in this study...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Rumi Tanoue, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Belinda Huerta, Tamsin J Runnalls, Akifumi Eguchi, Kei Nomiyama, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe, John P Sumpter
There is concern that psychoactive drugs present in the aquatic environment could affect the behaviour of fish, and other organisms, adversely. There is considerable experimental support for this concern, although the literature is not consistent. To investigate why, fish were exposed to three concentrations of the synthetic opiate tramadol for 23-24 days, and their anxiolytic behaviour in a novel tank diving test was assessed both before and after exposure. The results were difficult to interpret. The positive control drug, the anti-depressant fluoxetine, produced the expected results: exposed fish explored the novel tank more, and swam more slowly while doing so...
February 6, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Amogha Tadimety, Yichen Zhang, Kasia M Kready, Timothy J Palinski, Gregory J Tsongalis, John X J Zhang
Here we present a gold nanorod-based platform for the sequence-specific detection of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) point mutations without the need for amplification or fluorescence labeling. Peptide nucleic acid probes complimentary to the G12V mutation in the KRAS gene were conjugated to gold nanorods, and the localized surface plasmon resonance absorbance through the sample was measured after exposure to synthetic ctDNA at various concentrations. Each step of the reaction was thoroughly controlled, starting from reagent concentrations and including conjugation, sonication, and incubation time...
January 29, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Genoa R Warner, Zhong Li, Madeline L Houde, Cassandra E Atkinson, Daryl D Meling, Catheryne Chiang, Jodi A Flaws
Phthalates are synthetic chemicals with widespread human exposure due to their use as additives in consumer products. Phthalate diesters are hydrolyzed in the environment and in the body to monoesters that may be more toxic than the parent compounds. This study tested the hypothesis that adult mouse antral follicles, but not neonatal ovaries, are able to metabolize an environmentally relevant mixture of phthalates. Whole neonatal ovaries and isolated adult antral follicles from CD-1 mice were cultured in media treated with vehicle control or 0...
February 15, 2019: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
JingHua Jiao, Yan Li, Shuang Xu, Jingyang Wu, Song Yue, Lei Liu
Background: To assess synthetically the association between polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene (FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: Pubmed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, Google-scholar and CBMDisc, CNKI and Chongqing VIP databases were searched. A meta-analysis was performed. Results: Six studies with 636 cases and 1,035 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The outcomes showed that the FokI polymorphism (F allele) of VDR gene had no statistical protective relationship with DR in overall studies...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Cansu Uluşeker, Jesús Torres-Bacete, José L García, Martin M Hanczyc, Juan Nogales, Ozan Kahramanoğulları
Escherichia coli have developed one of the most efficient regulatory response mechanisms to phosphate starvation. The machinery involves a cascade with a two-component system (TCS) that relays the external signal to the genetic circuit, resulting in a feedback response. Achieving a quantitative understanding of this system has implications in synthetic biology and biotechnology, for example, in applications for wastewater treatment. To this aim, we present a computational model and experimental results with a detailed description of the TCS, consisting of PhoR and PhoB, together with the mechanisms of gene expression...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Bin Jia, Yi Wu, Bing-Zhi Li, Leslie A Mitchell, Hong Liu, Shuo Pan, Juan Wang, Hao-Ran Zhang, Nan Jia, Bo Li, Michael Shen, Ze-Xiong Xie, Duo Liu, Ying-Xiu Cao, Xia Li, Xiao Zhou, Hao Qi, Jef D Boeke, Ying-Jin Yuan
The original version of this Article omitted a declaration from the Competing Interests statement, which should have included the following: 'J.D.B. is a founder and Director of the following: Neochromosome, Inc., the Center of Excellence for Engineering Biology, and CDI Labs, Inc. and serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the following: Modern Meadow, Inc., Recombinetics, Inc., and Sample6, Inc.'. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
February 14, 2019: Nature Communications
Paweł Borowiecki, Maciej Dranka
Compounds possessing propargylic (prop-2-ynylic) system are very important building blocks for organic chemistry. Among them, preparation of enantiomeric homopropargyl alcohols (but-3-yn-1-ols) constitutes a key-challenge for asymmetric synthesis and thus drawn tremendous attention from the synthetic community in the last few decades. In this work, the catalytic performance of a set of commercial lipases has been investigated for enantioselective transesterification of 1-phenylhomopropargylic alcohols under kinetically-controlled conditions...
February 11, 2019: Bioorganic Chemistry
Gaofeng Cui, Benshui Shu, Sethuraman Veeran, Haiqi Yuan, Xin Yi, Guohua Zhong
The β-carboline alkaloids are a large group of naturally occurring and synthetic indole alkaloids with remarkable pharmacological properties. Furthermore, these alkaloids have also been reported to be effective agents for controlling many pests and plant pathogenic nematodes. However, studies on these potential insecticidal components are scarce. The previous finding that these bioactive compounds can induce programmed cell death in cancer cell lines provided a new insight for exploration of their toxicological mechanisms on insects...
February 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Gonzalo Safont, Addisson Salazar, Luis Vergara
Alpha integration methods have been used for integrating stochastic models and fusion in the context of detection (binary classification). Our work proposes separated score integration (SSI), a new method based on alpha integration to perform soft fusion of scores in multiclass classification problems, one of the most common problems in automatic classification. Theoretical derivation is presented to optimize the parameters of this method to achieve the least mean squared error (LMSE) or the minimum probability of error (MPE)...
February 14, 2019: Neural Computation
Negin Ashoori, Marc Teixido, Stephanie Spahr, Gregory H LeFevre, David L Sedlak, Richard G Luthy
Stormwater is increasingly being valued as a freshwater resource in arid regions and can provide opportunities for beneficial reuse via aquifer recharge if adequate pollutant removal can be achieved. We envision a multi-unit operation approach to capture, treat, and recharge (CTR) stormwater using low energy, cost-effective technologies appropriate for larger magnitude, less frequent events. Herein, we tested nutrient, metal, and trace organic contaminant removal of a pilot-scale CTR system in the laboratory using biochar-amended woodchip bioreactors following eight months of aging under field conditions with exposure to real stormwater...
February 2, 2019: Water Research
Daniel Karami, Nathan Richbourg, Vassilios Sikavitsas
Cancer research uses in vitro studies for controllable analysis of tumor behavior and preclinical testing of therapeutics. Shortcomings of basic cell culture systems in recreating in vivo interactions have driven the development of more efficient and biomimetic in vitro environments for cancer research. Assimilation of certain developments in tissue engineering will accelerate and improve the design of these environments. With the continual improvement of the tumor engineering field, the next step is towards macroscopic systems such as scaffold-supported, flow-perfused macroscale tumor bioreactors...
February 11, 2019: Cancer Letters
David J Belton, Graham J Hickman, Carole C Perry
Calcium carbonate (E170) is a common food and pharmaceutical additive/ingredient. In addition to a source of calcium, the carbonate has uses including as a colour, acidity regulator and bulking agent. Globally, a range of regulatory agencies and pharmacopoeia control the analyses and specification of additives in food, supplements, pharmaceutical substances and excipients. Accordingly, a range of specifications and analyses exist for calcium carbonate depending on the application and market of the product. In this contribution, we analyse calcium carbonates from geological, synthetic and biogenic sources, focussing on acid insoluble impurities, a test required by current monographs...
February 14, 2019: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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