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Rohit Sarin, Neeta Singla, Vikram Vohra, Rupak Singla, M M Puri, Sushil Munjal, U K Khalid, V P Myneedu, Ajoy Kumar Verma, K K Mathuria
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline (BDQ) was approved for treatment of drug resistant TB (DR-TB) under Conditional Access Programme (CAP) of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and was also implemented in the National Institute of TB and Respiratory Diseases (NITRD). We present early efficacy and safety of BDQ containing regimens for DR-TB. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the early efficacy and safety of Bedaquline containing regimens in treatment of DR-TB. METHODS: BDQ containing regimens along with other drugs were designed as per WHO recommendations for DR-TB patients...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Vikram Mehraj, Rayoun Ramendra, Stephane Isnard, Franck P Dupuy, Rosalie Ponte, Jun Chen, Ido Kema, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecilia Costiniuk, Bertrand Lebouché, Réjean Thomas, Pierre Coté, Roger Leblanc, Jean-Guy Baril, Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Cécile Tremblay, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole F Bernard, Donald C Sheppard, Jean-Pierre Routy
BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from the gut to circulation contributes to immune activation during HIV infection and is usually assessed by measuring plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Gut fungal colonization increases during HIV infection and elevated systemic levels of the fungal polysaccharide (13)--D-Glucan (DG) have been reported in people living with HIV (PLWH). We assessed plasma DG in 146 early and chronic PLWH and investigated its contribution to systemic immune activation...
March 16, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Colleen M Heney, Boaz Arzi, Philip H Kass, David C Hatcher, Frank J M Verstraete
The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of dental radiography (DR) and 3 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) methods for the identification of predefined anatomic structures in cats. For 5 feline cadaver heads and 22 client-owned cats admitted for evaluation and treatment of dental disease, a total of 22 predefined anatomic structures were evaluated separately by use of the DR method and 3 CBCT software modules [multiplanar reconstructions (MPR), tridimensional (3-D) rendering, and reconstructed panoramic views (Pano)]...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Jennifer Berglund
Just 2 Miles northeast of sleek downtown skyscrapers, across the Buffalo Bayou River from the Houston Astros' Minute Maid Park, lies a landscape greener than most of the urban sprawl, but absent the charm of typical Southern suburbia. The Fifth Ward of Houston, TX, is dotted with a patchwork of homes with screenless windows, many desperately clinging to their beams, surrounded by twisted chain link fences patrolled by trotting packs of skeletal stray dogs. Broken roads are lined with piles of abandoned tires, and pools of stagnant, dirty water...
January 2019: IEEE Pulse
Rehana Khan, Sumeer Singh, Janani Surya, Tarun Sharma, Vaitheeswaran Kulothunga, Rajiv Raman
AIM: To compare the age of onset of diabetes with the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a rural population of India. METHODS: This is a population-based study for which 1,190 people with diabetes were recruited from rural areas of the districts of Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, India. The fundi of all patients were photographed using a 45°, four-field stereoscopic digital fundus camera. The diagnosis of DR was based on the Klein classification of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale...
March 14, 2019: Ophthalmic Research
Barbara Frigerio, Claudia Bizzoni, Gerrit Jansen, Christopher P Leamon, Godefridus J Peters, Philip S Low, Larry H Matherly, Mariangela Figini
Folate receptors and transporters and one-carbon metabolism continue to be important areas of study given their essential roles in an assortment of diseases and as targets for treatment of cancer and inflammation. Reflecting this, every 2 years, the Folate Receptor Society organizes an international meeting, alternating between North America and Europe, where basic and translational scientists, clinical oncologists and rheumatologists from both academia and industry convene in an informal setting. The 7th International Symposium on Folate Receptors and Transporters was held in Sant'Alessio Siculo (ME), Taormina, Italy from 1st to 5th of October 2018, organized by Dr...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Atsuto Mouri, Kyoichi Kaira, Ayako Shiono, Ou Yamaguchi, Yoshitake Murayama, Kunihiko Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kagamu
Whether primary prophylactic pegylated-granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF) should be administered immediately after the initiation of ramucirumab plus docetaxel (DR) to prevent the occurrence of febrile neutropenia (FN) is unclear. Our retrospective study aimed to elucidate whether PEG-G-CSF could control the occurrence of FN as a result of DR in patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer. Thirty-three patients with previously treated non-small-cell lung cancer who had received DR were eligible for our analysis...
March 11, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Neşe Yeldir, Esin Yildiz, Gökçe Dündar
OBJECTIVE: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men. Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography and serum prostate specific antigen represents a diagnostic triad for the detection of prostatic carcinoma. About 50 years ago, Dr. Donald Gleason created a grading system for prostate cancer based on its histologic patterns. Currently, this system maintains its validity with various changes. New updates were made in 2005 and 2014 by the International Society of Urological Pathology...
March 12, 2019: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
N Arej, J Antoun, R Waked, C Saab, M Saleh, N Waked
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Non-mydriatic fundus photography (NMFP) has been adopted as a screening tool for this disease. We aim to determine the prevalence of DR through this method in Lebanese diabetic patients and to evaluate the impact of such screening in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study explores data from an awareness and screening campaign conducted in Lebanon. Diabetic patients from multiple regions were referred by their endocrinologists to undergo NMFP using the Optomed SmartScope® handheld fundus camera...
March 8, 2019: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
J W Hoy
A recent Feature article, "Turning a Blind Eye to Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane in Australia" by Dr. Anthony J. Young, claims "The potential RSD plays a significant, industry-wide role in reduced yields and crop deterioration in Australia has been widely overlooked." As a result, "the industry has exhibited what amounts to an ideological attitude, repeatedly claiming the disease is economically managed." These statements are the basis for the provocative title of the article...
March 11, 2019: Plant Disease
Jennifer Collins, Katherine Shea, Sandeep Parsad, Kelly Plach, Pauline Lee
BACKGROUND: Posaconazole reduces the risk of invasive Aspergillus in transplant patients, but significantly inhibits tacrolimus metabolism. One study demonstrated that a three-fold dose reduction of tacrolimus was required to obtain therapeutic concentrations when used with posaconazole. However, with empiric dose reduction, there is a risk of subtherapeutic tacrolimus levels and subsequent graft failure or graft-versus-host disease. Overall, the existing data on the impact of posaconazole on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics is limited...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Sharana Mahomed, Nesri Padayatchi, Jerome Singh, Kogieleum Naidoo
Human genomic mapping has advanced molecular medicine health care and created a transformative paradigm shift towards Precision Medicine. In 2015, President Obama launched the PM initiative, encapsulated as "unique individualized data-driven treatments". Since then, this field is rapidly advancing both curative treatment and disease prevention by accounting for both individual and environmental variability. While a substantial evidence for accelerating adoption of Precision Medicine in other spheres of medicine exists, application of Precision Medicine in infectious diseases is far more complex...
March 5, 2019: Journal of Infection
Christopher S G Murray, Tariq Siddiqui, Norma Keller, Solaiman Chowdhury, Tamanna Nahar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Just over four decades ago, the management of coronary artery disease (CAD) witnessed a major breakthrough with the advent of minimally invasive treatment modalities like angioplasty followed by coronary stenting. Dr. Andreas Gruentzig pioneered this field in 1977 by adding a balloon to the Dotter catheter. From its inception, he was cognizant of the need for measuring pressures before and after balloon inflation in the treated coronary artery, device placement in the treated coronary artery...
March 7, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Colleen M Heney, Boaz Arzi, Philip H Kass, David C Hatcher, Frank J M Verstraete
The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of dental radiography (DR) and 3 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) software modules for the identification of 32 pre-defined dentoalveolar lesions in cats. For 5 feline cadaver heads and 22 client-owned cats admitted for evaluation and treatment of dental disease, 32 predefined dentoalveolar lesions were evaluated separately and scored by use of dental radiography and 3 CBCT software modules [multiplanar reconstructions (MPR), tridimensional (3-D) rendering, and reconstructed panoramic views]...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Vikram Mehraj, Rayoun Ramendra, Stéphane Isnard, Franck P Dupuy, Bertrand Lebouché, Cecilia Costiniuk, Réjean Thomas, Jason Szabo, Jean-Guy Baril, Benoit Trottier, Pierre Coté, Roger LeBlanc, Madéleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Ido Kema, Yonglong Zhang, Malcolm Finkelman, Cécile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy
Background: CXCL13 is preferentially secreted by Follicular Helper T cells (TFH ) to attract B cells to germinal centers. Plasma levels of CXCL13 have been reported to be elevated during chronic HIV-infection, however there is limited data on such elevation during early phases of infection and on the effect of ART. Moreover, the contribution of CXCL13 to disease progression and systemic immune activation have been partially defined. Herein, we assessed the relationship between plasma levels of CXCL13 and systemic immune activation...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Jonathan B Lin, Joseph B Lin, Howard C Chen, Teresa Chen, Rajendra S Apte
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major cause of blindness in working adults in the industrialized world. In addition to vision loss caused by macular edema and pathological angiogenesis, DR patients often exhibit neuronal dysfunction on electrophysiological testing, suggesting that there may be an independent neuronal phase of disease that precedes vascular disease. Given the tremendous metabolic requirements of the retina and photoreceptors in particular, we hypothesized that derangements in metabolic regulation may accelerate retinal dysfunction in diabetes...
March 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Qi Sheng You, Yukun Guo, Jie Wang, Xiang Wei, Acner Camino, Pengxiao Zang, Christina J Flaxel, Steven T Bailey, David Huang, Yali Jia, Thomas S Hwang
PURPOSE: To evaluate wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for detection of clinically unsuspected neovascularization (NV) in diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: This prospective observational single-center study included adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of nonproliferative DR. Participants underwent a clinical examination, standard 7-field color photography, and OCTA with commercial and prototype swept-source devices. The wide-field OCTA was achieved by montaging five 6 × 10-mm scans from a prototype device into a 25 × 10-mm image and three 6 × 6-mm scans from a commercial device into a 15 × 6-mm image...
March 4, 2019: Retina
Sergo A Vashakidze, Jordan A Kempker, Nino A Jakobia, Shota G Gogishvili, Ketino A Nikolaishvili, Leila M Goginashvili, Matthew J Magee, Russell R Kempker
BACKGROUND: Post-treatment morbidity among subjects withdrug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is unclear. METHODS: A cross-sectionalstudyof cavitary DR-TB subjects with an outcome of cure from Tbilisi, Georgia. Participants had a chest x-ray (CXR), St. George Respiratory Quality (SGRQ) survey and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) performed. We examined correlations between SGRQ and PFT results andfactors associated with pulmonary impairment. RESULTS: Among 58 subjects, median age 31 years, 40% used tobacco, 59% had prior TB, and 47% underwent adjunctive surgical resection...
March 4, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Joshua D Hutcheson, Craig J Goergen, Frederick J Schoen, Masanori Aikawa, Peter Zilla, Elena Aikawa, Glenn R Gaudette
The first successful heart transplant 50 years ago by Dr.Christiaan Barnard in Cape Town, South Africa revolutionized cardiovascular medicine and research. Following this procedure, numerous other advances have reduced many contributors to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; yet, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally. Various unmet needs in cardiovascular medicine affect developing and underserved communities, where access to state-of-the-art advances remain out of reach. Addressing the remaining challenges in cardiovascular medicine in both developed and developing nations will require collaborative efforts from basic science researchers, engineers, industry, and clinicians...
2019: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
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