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Elvyra Staneviciute, Wasef Na'amnih, Povilas Kavaliauskas, Ruta Prakapaite, Martynas Ridziauskas, Lukas Kevlicius, Agne Kirkliauskiene, Vaidotas Zabulis, Jurgita Urboniene, Vytautas Triponis
PURPOSE: To develop a new in vitro model of prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI) and evaluate antimicrobial and biofilm-disrupting efficacy of 0.1% octenidine dihydrochloride, 10% povidone-iodine and 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate against biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). METHODOLOGY: The effect of antiseptics on the microscopic integrity and antimicrobial effect on S. aureus biofilms was tested by growing biofilms on glass coverslips, in the modified Lubbock chronic wound pathogenic biofilm (LCWPB) model and on the surface of vascular grafts using qualitive and quantitative methods as well as by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Matthew E Wand, Shirin Jamshidi, Lucy J Bock, Khondaker Miraz Rahman, J Mark Sutton
The multidrug resistant (MDR) opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae has previously been shown to adapt to chlorhexidine by increasing expression of the MFS efflux pump smvA. Here we show that loss of the regulator SmvR, through adaptation to chlorhexidine, results in increased resistance to a number of cationic biocides in K. pneumoniae and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates which lack smvA and smvR also have an increased susceptibility to chlorhexidine. When smvA from Salmonella and K...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Günter Kampf
Some biocidal agents used for disinfection have been described to enhance antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative species. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effect of 13 biocidal agents at sublethal concentrations on antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive species. A MEDLINE search was performed for each biocidal agent on antibiotic tolerance, antibiotic resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and efflux pump. Most data were reported with food-associated bacterial species. In cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride, a new resistance was most frequently found to ampicillin (seven species), cefotaxime and sulfamethoxazole (six species each), and ceftazidime (five species), some of them with relevance for healthcare-associated infections such as Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis ...
February 1, 2019: Antibiotics
Vojtěch Pavlík, Martin Sojka, Mária Mazúrová, Vladimír Velebný
OBJECTIVES: The majority of human chronic wounds contain bacterial biofilms, which produce proteases and retard the resolution of inflammation. This in turn leads to elevated patient protease activity. Chronic wounds progressing towards closure show a reduction in proteolytic degradation. Therefore, the modulation of protease activity may lead to the faster healing of chronic wounds. Antimicrobials are used to control biofilm-based infection; however, some of them also exhibit the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and bacterial proteases...
2019: PloS One
Eyüp Aydoğan, Betül Kozanhan
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasonography-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) applications are important in the practice of the anesthesiology and algology in our country as well as in the world. Despite the positive effect on the patient care of the UGRA, there is concern that ultrasound probes may be used repeatedly and assume a vector role in pathogen transport. There is no standard protocol in our country to provide basic hygiene before UGRA techniques, which is a part of the daily practices of anesthesiologists...
January 2019: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
Htet Lin Htun, Pei Yun Hon, Matthew T G Holden, Brenda Ang, Angela Chow
OBJECTIVES: With the widespread use of antiseptics in healthcare facilities for the prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission, there are concerns for antiseptic tolerance and resistance. We sought to understand the use of chlorhexidine and octenidine, qac genes carriage and reduced antiseptic susceptibilities. METHODS: A serial cross-sectional study was conducted in an acute care hospital and three extended-care facilities of a healthcare network in June-July, 2014-2016...
January 6, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Günter Kampf
Biocidal agents used for disinfection are usually not suspected to enhance cross-resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effect of 13 biocidal agents at sublethal concentrations on antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative species. A medline search was performed for each biocidal agent on antibiotic tolerance, antibiotic resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and efflux pump. In cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride a new resistance was most frequently found to ampicillin (eight species), cefotaxime (six species), and sulfamethoxazole (three species), some of them with relevance for healthcare-associated infections such as Enterobacter cloacae or Escherichia coli ...
December 14, 2018: Antibiotics
Klára Michalíková, Lucie Linhartová, Martin Ezechiáš, Tomáš Cajthaml
Personal care product consumption has increased in the last decades. A typical representative ingredient, i.e., triclosan, was identified in the scientific literature as an endocrine disruptor, and its use is restricted in several applications. Oral hygiene formulations contain various compounds, including synthetic phenol derivatives, quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), various amides and amines, or natural essential oils containing terpenes. The aim of this paper was to explore possible endocrine-disrupting effects of these most-used compounds...
November 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Sabine Messler, Ingo Klare, Frank Wappler, Guido Werner, Uwe Ligges, Samir G Sakka, Frauke Mattner
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) is emerging in German intensive care units (ICUs). On a 32 bed surgical ICU at a university hospital increasing numbers of nosocomial cases occurred despite enforcement of hand hygiene and environmental disinfection. AIM: Introduction of universal octenidine-based bathing in order to reduce the burden of VRE. METHODS: Between 1/2012 and 3/2014 patients were screened for VRE on admission and twice weekly...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Sören L Becker, Fabian K Berger, Susanne K Feldner, Irem Karliova, Manfred Haber, Alexander Mellmann, Hans-Joachim Schäfers, Barbara Gärtner
Three German patients developed nosocomial pneumonia after cardiac surgery and had Burkholderia cepacia complex detected in respiratory specimens. Two patients died of septic multi-organ failure. Whole-genome sequencing detected genetically identical B. cepacia complex strains in patient samples, from a batch of octenidine mouthwash solution, which had been used for nursing care, as well as in samples obtained from the manufacturer during production. Contamination of medical products during manufacturing may lead to international outbreaks...
October 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Ojan Assadian, Gerhard Kammerlander, Claudia Geyrhofer, Gerlinde Luch, Stefan Doppler, Felix Tuchmann, Thomas Eberlein, David Leaper
OBJECTIVE: The influence of different irrigation solutions, in conjunction with wet-to-moist cleansing, on the reduction of sessile, non-planktonic bacteria which colonise wounds, has not been investigated. In this study, the antibacterial effect of different irrigation solutions, during a 20-minute wet-to-moist cleansing, has been evaluated in chronic wounds. METHODS: This study was designed as a prospective cohort study with 12 study arms and was conducted between June 2011 and April 2016...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
Maurice Kok Leong Chan, Seok Hwee Koo, Qingyao Quek, Wan Sia Pang, Boran Jiang, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Si Huei Tan, Thean Yen Tan
PURPOSE: The emergence of antiseptic resistance and/or antiseptic-resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may result in failure of decolonization treatments. Plasmid-encoded efflux pump genes qacA/B and qacC (smr) confer tolerance to chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a multiplex real time-PCR assay for detection of antiseptic-resistance genes, apply the assay on 200 MRSA isolates and explore if carriage of these genes was associated with resistance to topical antibiotics...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Pretty Ponnachan, Vivek Vinod, Unnimaya Pullanhi, Parvathy Varma, Sanjeev Singh, Raja Biswas, Anil Kumar
Outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant Candida auris have emerged as a large threat to modern medicine. Since skin colonization and environmental contamination have been identified as a precursor for outbreaks, we evaluated the antifungal activity of ultraviolet-C light using mercury vapor lamp with a peak emission of 254±2 nm and octenidine dihydrochloride against C. auris clinical isolates. Octenidine dihydrochloride was found effective at significantly lower concentrations (0.00005-0.0004%) than those currently used in the clinical setting (0...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Masashi Yamamoto, Reiko Matsumura, Yoshihiko Hirata, Hideaki Nagamune
New bis-quaternary ammonium compounds (bis-QACs) 3-(3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-{[(1-dodecylpyridinium-3-yl)oxy]methyl}propoxy)-1-dodecylpyridinium dibromide (3HHDMP-12) and 3,3'-[1,4-phenylenebis(oxy)]bis(1-dodecylpyridinium) dibromide (3PHBO-12) were compared with commonly-used antiseptics such as benzalkonium chloride (BAC), octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), to evaluate their potential to cause skin irritation. The cytotoxicity of these compounds in various cultured cells, as well as their effect on the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes such as IL-1α were evaluated...
September 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
A Chow, P Y Hon, G Tin, W Zhang, B F Poh, B Ang
Intranasal octenidine, an antiseptic alternative to mupirocin, can be used for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) decolonisation in the prevention of nosocomial transmission. A controlled before-after study was conducted in three extended-care hospitals in Singapore. All inpatients with >48 h stay were screened for MRSA colonisation in mid-2015(pre-intervention) and mid-2016(post-intervention). Hospital A: universal daily chlorhexidine bathing throughout 2015 and 2016, with intranasal octenidine for MRSA-colonisers in 2016...
September 4, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
L Tschelaut, O Assadian, R Strauss, J Matiasek, M Beer, G Angerler, D Berger-Grabner, E Presterl
BACKGROUND: Various measures are considered to reduce the risk of surgical site infection (SSI), including preoperative decolonization. Details of preoperative decolonization practices in surgical departments have not been investigated in Austria. AIM: To analyse the current situation of pre-surgical patient decolonization in national hospitals and to assess the current knowledge on this procedure among surgeons of different surgical disciplines. METHODS: A 12-point structured questionnaire was distributed to all Austrian hospitals with at least one surgical department...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Johannes Matiasek, Philip Kienzl, Lukas W Unger, Christoph Grill, Rupert Koller, Bela R Turk
Hypertrophic scar formation because of surgical procedures is associated with higher levels of pain, a lower quality of life, and poor cosmetic outcome and requires more resources in follow-up management. An octenidine-based hydrogel has been shown to modulate immunological function in an in vitro wound model, suggesting an improved scar formation. In this prospective, randomised, observer-blinded, and intra-patient-controlled study, 45 patients who underwent abdominoplasty or mastectomy with transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap reconstruction were given both a standard postoperative wound dressing on one wound side and an octenidine-based hydrogel with transparent film dressing, covered with standard postoperative dressing on the other side...
December 2018: International Wound Journal
Cameron A Stewart, Jenny H Hong, Benjamin D Hatton, Yoav Finer
Most dental resin composite restorations are replacements for failing restorations. Degradation of the restoration-tooth margins by cariogenic bacteria results in recurrent caries, a leading cause for restoration failure. Incorporating antimicrobial agents in dental adhesives could reduce interfacial bacterial count and reduce recurrent caries rates, inhibit interfacial degradation, and prolong restoration service life, while minimizing systemic exposure. Direct addition of antimicrobial compounds into restorative materials have limited release periods and could affect the integrity of the material...
August 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Katherine Hardy, Katie Sunnucks, Hannah Gil, Sahida Shabir, Eleftheria Trampari, Peter Hawkey, Mark Webber
Hospital-acquired infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and regimes to prevent infection are crucial in infection control. These include the decolonization of vulnerable patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage using antiseptics, including chlorhexidine and octenidine. Concern has been raised, however, regarding the possible development of biocide resistance. In this study, we assembled a panel of S. aureus isolates, including isolates collected before the development of chlorhexidine and octenidine and isolates, from a major hospital trust in the United Kingdom during a period when the decolonization regimes were altered...
May 29, 2018: MBio
M J Shepherd, G Moore, M E Wand, J M Sutton, L J Bock
BACKGROUND: Octenidine is frequently used for infection prevention in neonatal and burn intensive care units, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa has caused nosocomial outbreaks. AIM: To investigate the efficacy and impact of using octenidine against P. aeruginosa. METHODS: Seven clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were exposed to increasing concentrations of octenidine over several days. Fitness, minimum bactericidal concentrations after 1 min, 5 min and 24 h, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of a variety of antimicrobials were measured for the parental and octenidine-adapted P...
November 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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