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senescence ,senesce

Kara Gonzales, Ruth Yanai
Resorption, the process of withdrawing foliar nutrients prior to leaf abscission, is one of the most important nutrient conservation mechanisms in trees. Along with foliar nutrient concentrations, foliar resorption can be used to infer nutrient limitation. We collected green and senesced leaves of five species in early successional stands in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. In unmanipulated controls, foliar N:P ratios ranged from 20 to 31 and litter N:P ratios ranged from 19 to 36. These values suggest P limitation, although this forest type has been assumed to be N-limited...
February 15, 2019: Oecologia
(no author information available yet)
Large cell size affects multiple cellular processes, inhibits proliferation, and accelerates aging.
February 15, 2019: Cancer Discovery
Thomas Brand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: EMBO Journal
Alexander A Tokmakov, Ken-Ichi Sato
Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) serves as a marker of senescence in aging somatic cells. However, little is known about SA-β-gal dynamics in aging gamete cells. To address this issue, here we investigated activity and intracellular localization of SA-β-gal in freshly obtained and aging oocytes and eggs of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Data base mining revealed the presence of several homologous β-galactosidase sequences in the annotated Xenopus genome. Some of them were predicted to contain an N-terminal signal peptide sequence, suggesting enzyme translocation to cellular organelles...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Zhihua Gong, Qingzhu Jia, Junying Chen, Xinwei Diao, Jianbao Gao, Xinxin Wang, Bo Zhu
INTRODUCTION: Whether the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors declines with senescence remains controversial for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Responsiveness to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy is thought to rely on neoantigen exposure and immune elements in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we explored the features of the tumor immune microenvironment in elderly patients with treatment-naïve LUAD. METHODS: Transcriptome profiles and clinical characteristics of patients with LUAD were retrieved from TCGA as a discovery cohort...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Daniel Munro, Cécile Baldy, Matthew E Pamenter, Jason R Treberg
Naked mole-rats (NMRs) are mouse-sized mammals that exhibit an exceptionally long lifespan (>30 vs. <4 years for mice), and resist aging-related pathologies such as cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, cancer, and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this exceptional longevity and disease resistance remain poorly understood. The oxidative stress theory of aging posits that (a) senescence results from the accumulation of oxidative damage inflicted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) of mitochondrial origin, and (b) mitochondria of long-lived species produce less ROS than do mitochondria of short-lived species...
February 15, 2019: Aging Cell
Eduardo Anitua, Mar Zalduendo, María Troya
AIM: This study investigated the use of the autologous technology of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a human-based substitute to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture of human dental pulp stem cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Stem cell characterization was performed. Analysis of isolation, proliferation, migration, trilineage differentiation, senescence and cryopreservation were compared between FBS and PRGF. RESULTS: Human dental pulp stem cell cultures isolated and maintained with PRGF showed a significantly higher number of cells per explant than FBS cultures...
February 15, 2019: Regenerative Medicine
Sulin Zeng, Wen H Shen, Li Liu
Senescence is a double-edged sword that can function in opposite directions. It is a potential mechanism for a cell to avoid malignant transformation. However, senescence can also promote cancer development by altering the cellular microenvironment through a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). At least, three types of cellular stress such as activation of oncogenes, loss of tumor suppressor genes, and chemo/radiotherapy can induce cell senescence. Oncogene-induced senescence can be intertwiningly associated with the replicative senescence...
May 2018: Cancer Translational Medicine
Ying Wang, Jun Liu, Xiaowei Ma, Chao Cui, Philip R Deenik, Paul K P Henderson, Ashton L Sigler, Lina Cui
Detection of cellular senescence is important not only in the study of senescence in various biological systems, but also in various practical applications such as image-guided surgical removal of senescent cells, as well as the monitoring of drug-responsiveness during cancer therapies. Due to the lack of suitable imaging probes for senescence detection, particularly in living subjects, we have developed an activatable near-infrared (NIR) molecular probe with far-red excitation, NIR emission, and high "turn-on" ratio upon senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SABG) activation...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Bertolo, Martin Baur, Julien Guerrero, Tobias Pötzel, Jivko Stoyanov
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are used in cell therapies, however cellular senescence increases heterogeneity of cell populations and leads to uncertainty in therapies' outcomes. The determination of cellular senescence is time consuming and logistically intensive. Here, we propose the use of endogenous autofluorescence as real-time quantification of cellular senescence in human MSC, based on label-free flow cytometry analysis. We correlated cell autofluorescence to senescence using senescence-associated beta-galactosidase assay (SA-β-Gal) with chromogenic (X-GAL) and fluorescent (C12 FDG) substrates, gene expression of senescence markers (such as p16INK4A , p18INK4C , CCND2 and CDCA7) and telomere length...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Valentino Bezzerri, Francesco Piacenza, Nicole Caporelli, Marco Malavolta, Mauro Provinciali, Marco Cipolli
Pulmonary disease is the main cause of the morbidity and mortality of patients affected by cystic fibrosis (CF). The lung pathology is dominated by excessive recruitment of neutrophils followed by an exaggerated inflammatory process that has also been reported to occur in the absence of apparent pathogenic infections. Airway surface dehydration and mucus accumulation are the driving forces of this process. The continuous release of reactive oxygen species and proteases by neutrophils contributes to tissue damage, which eventually leads to respiratory insufficiency...
February 14, 2019: Respiratory Research
Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Shayenthiran Sreetharan, Antone L Brooks, Douglas R Boreham
The linear no-threshold (LNT) model is currently used to estimate low dose radiation (LDR) induced health risks. This model lacks safety thresholds and postulates that health risks caused by ionizing radiation is directly proportional to dose. Therefore even the smallest radiation dose has the potential to cause an increase in cancer risk. Advances in LDR biology and cell molecular techniques demonstrate that the LNT model does not appropriately reflect the biology or the health effects at the low dose range...
November 29, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yusong Ye, Zhuoqin Yang, Jinzhi Lei
In human tissues, the replicative potential of stem cells is limited by the shortening of telomere, limitless replicative potential is a hallmark of cancer. Telomere length changes stochastically during cell division mainly due to the competition between the end replication problem and telomerase, short telomere can lead to replicative senescence and cell apoptosis. Here, we investigate how stochastic changes of telomere length in individual cells may affect the population dynamics of clonal growth. We established a computational model that couples telomerase-regulated stochastic telomere length changes with the replicative potential of clones...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Ken Yoshimura, Kaori Ono, Junji Shindo, Shin-Ichi Iwasaki, Ikuo Kageyama
We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, foliate, and vallate) and their underlying connective tissue cores (CTCs) in Abyssinian black-and-white colobus monkeys using light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongues of both juvenile and senescent individuals were relatively short in the rostro-caudal direction, with a rounded apex. Lingual tori were absent. Numerous filiform papillae were distributed over the entire tongue, except at the lingual root. A pair of foliate papillae was present on both the lateral and caudal margins of the corpus...
February 14, 2019: Anatomical Science International
Hui-Jie Wei, Li Liu, Fang-Lian Chen, Dong Wang, Liang Wang, Zeng-Guang Wang, Rong-Cai Jiang, Jing-Fei Dong, Jie-Li Chen, Jian-Ning Zhang
Hyperglycemia reduces the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, accelerates their senescence and impairs their function. However, the relationship between blood glucose levels and endothelial progenitor cells in peripheral blood of patients with traumatic brain injury is unclear. In this study, 101 traumatic brain injury patients admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital or the Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, China, were enrolled from April 2005 to March 2007...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Hsiang-Hao Chuang, Pei-Hui Wang, Sheng-Wen Niu, Yen-Yi Zhen, Ming-Shyan Huang, Michael Hsiao, Chih-Jen Yang
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that facilitates tumor aggressiveness. The effects of FAK inhibition include arresting proliferation, limiting metastasis, and inhibiting angiogenesis. PF-573228 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of FAK. Treating lung cancer cells with PF-573228 resulted in FAK inactivation and changes in the expressions of lamin A/C and nuclear deformity. Since lamin A/C downregulation or deficiency was associated with cellular senescence, the senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) assay was used to investigate whether PF-573228 treatment drove cellular senescence, which showed more SA-β-gal-positive cells in culture...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Graham Pawelec
T cell "exhaustion" describes a state of late-stage differentiation usually associated with active prevention of functionality via ligation of negative signaling receptors on the cell surface, and which can be reversed by blocking these interactions. This contrasts with T cell "senescence," which has been defined as a state that is maintained by intrinsic internal cell signaling (caused by DNA damage or other stresses) and which can be reversed pharmacologically. Interventions to alleviate these two different categories of inhibitory pathways may be desirable in immunotherapy for cancer and possibly certain infectious diseases, but reciprocally inducing and maintaining these states, or some properties thereof, may be beneficial in organ transplantation and autoimmunity...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Federica Sotgia, Marco Fiorillo, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we discuss the expected hallmark(s) of the cancer cell of origin and how this may be related to a new tumor cell phenotype, namely "energetic" cancer stem cells (e-CSCs). e-CSCs show many features that would be characteristic of the cancer cell of origin, including the over-expression of p21-WAF (CDKN1A), a key marker of senescence. It is tempting to speculate that the cancer cell of origin and e-CSCs are closely related entities. e-CSCs possess a hybrid phenotype, sharing key hallmarks of senescence, "stemness" and cancer...
February 13, 2019: Aging
Danijela Maksimović-Ivanić, Mirna Bulatović, David Edeler, Christian Bensing, Igor Golić, Aleksandra Korać, Goran N Kaluđerović, Sanja Mijatović
Extraordinary progress in medicinal inorganic chemistry in the past few years led to the rational design of novel platinum compounds, as well as nonplatinum metal-based antitumor agents, including organotin compounds, whose activity is not based on unrepairable interaction with DNA. To overcome poor solubility and toxicity problems that limited the application of these compounds numerous delivering systems were used (Lila et al. in Biol Pharm Bull 37:206-211, 2014; Yue and Cao in Curr Cancer Drug Targets 16:480-488, 2016; Duan et al...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Jennifer Beauvarlet, Paul Bensadoun, Elodie Darbo, Gaelle Labrunie, Benoît Rousseau, Elodie Richard, Irena Draskovic, Arturo Londono-Vallejo, Jean-William Dupuy, Rabindra Nath Das, Aurore Guédin, Guillaume Robert, Francois Orange, Sabrina Croce, Valerie Valesco, Pierre Soubeyran, Kevin M Ryan, Jean-Louis Mergny, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny
G-quadruplex ligands exert their antiproliferative effects through telomere-dependent and telomere-independent mechanisms, but the inter-relationships among autophagy, cell growth arrest and cell death induced by these ligands remain largely unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that the G-quadruplex ligand 20A causes growth arrest of cancer cells in culture and in a HeLa cell xenografted mouse model. This response is associated with the induction of senescence and apoptosis. Transcriptomic analysis of 20A treated cells reveals a significant functional enrichment of biological pathways related to growth arrest, DNA damage response and the lysosomal pathway...
February 13, 2019: Nucleic Acids Research
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