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Sodium intake in hypertension

Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Anne Sillars, Rosemary Brown, Lauren Sweeney, Claudia Troncoso, Antonio García-Hermoso, Ana María Leiva, María Adela Martínez, Ximena Diaz-Martínez, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Alex Garrido-Mendez, Ximena Cataldo, José Iturra Gonzalez, Carlos Salas, José Lara, Stuart R Gray, Carlos Celis-Morales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile. DESIGN: Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka's formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression...
February 14, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Vincenzo Panuccio, Patrizia Pizzini, Giovanna Parlongo, Graziella Caridi, Rocco Tripepi, Angela Mafrica, Sebastiano Cutrupi, D'Arrigo Grazia, Porto Gaetana, Carlo Garofalo, Michele Provenzano, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Mario Plebani, Carmine Zoccali
Background Excessive sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the risk for kidney failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods We tested the diagnostic performance and the feasibility of an inexpensive method based on urine chloride strips for self-monitoring sodium intake in a series of 72 CKD patients. Results Twenty-four hour urinary chloride as measured by the reactive strips and 24 h urinary sodium were interrelated (r=0.59, p<0.001). Forty-nine out of 72 patients (78%) had a 24 h urinary sodium >100 mmol/24 h, i...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Hee-Sook Lim, Hee-Seon Kim, Jin Kuk Kim, Mooyong Park, Soo Jeong Choi
As the incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension increases, complications such as decreased renal function are also increasing in many patients. Nutritional management in hemodialysis patients is a very important factor for prognosis and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in nutritional status and dietary management according to hemodialysis duration. A total of 145 patients were divided into 4 groups according to hemodialysis duration: less 1 year (D1), 1-5 years (D2), and above 5 years (D3)...
January 2019: Clinical Nutrition Research
Rosanna P Watowicz, Randell K Wexler, Rick Weiss, Sarah E Anderson, Amy R Darragh, Christopher A Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition counseling for patients with hypertension, provided in a grocery store setting. DESIGN: Single-arm pretest-posttest design implementing a 12-week dietary intervention. SETTING: Grocery store. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty adults with hypertension recruited from a primary care practice. INTERVENTION: Registered dietitian nutritionists provided counseling based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet...
February 2019: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Bartosz Uchmanowicz, Anna Chudiak, Izabella Uchmanowicz, Grzegorz Mazur
Background: Hypertension is considered to be the most common condition in the general population. It is the most important risk factor for premature deaths in the world. Treatment compliance at every stage is a condition for successful antihypertensive therapy, and improving the effectiveness of treatment is a major goal in preventing cardiovascular incidents. Treatment noncompliance and lack of cooperation stem from numerous problems of older age, including frailty syndrome. Objective: To evaluate the effect of frailty syndrome on treatment compliance in older patients with hypertension...
2019: International Journal of Hypertension
Aihua Wu, Martin Wolley, Michael Stowasser
Renal salt handling has a profound effect on body fluid and blood pressure (BP) maintenance as exemplified by the use of diuretic medications to treat states of volume expansion or hypertension. It has recently been proposed that a low potassium (K+ ) intake turns on a "renal K+ switch" which increases sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl- ) reabsorption, causing salt-retention, and in susceptible individuals, this causes hypertension. A signaling network, involving with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases, underpins the switch activity to coordinate aldosterone's two essential actions (K+ secretion and Na+ retention)...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Human Hypertension
Tymoteusz Żera, Artur Nowiński, Agnieszka Segiet, Paweł Smykiewicz
High salt diet alters cardiovascular control by increasing concentration of sodium ions (Na+ ) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is a risk factor for hypertension. Hypernatremic conditions activate microglia and upregulate renin-angiotensin system in the brain. Thus, we checked if chronic elevation of CSF Na+ affects neural control of circulatory system via microglia and brain angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). Normotensive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received two-week intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of either isoosmotic saline (0...
January 6, 2019: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Shuji Gamoh, Tatsuo Shiba, Donald J DiPette, Ryuichi Yamamoto
Many hypertensive animal models have been developed and used to elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension and to develop antihypertensive drugs. Among them, the spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR), deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-treated and high salt intake rat (DOCA-salt), and high sodium-fed Dahl salt-sensitive rat (HS) models are commonly used. Multiple studies have been conducted; however, elevation in blood pressure in these models due to the reactivity of adrenergic vasoconstriction has not been well characterized in a centralized experiment...
January 29, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Allison W Peng, Lawrence J Appel, Noel T Mueller, Olive Tang, Edgar R Miller, Stephen P Juraschek
Lightheadedness after standing contributes to adverse clinical events, including falls. Recommendations for higher sodium intake to treat postural lightheadedness have not been evaluated in a trial setting. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial (1998-1999) tested the effects of the DASH diet and sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP). Participants were randomly assigned to DASH or a typical Western diet (control). During either diet, participants ate three sodium levels (50, 100, 150 meq/d at 2100 kcal) in random order for 30-days, separated by 5-day breaks...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Yue Ma, Ho Yu Cheng, Li Cheng, Janet W H Sit
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension is a global health issue. Electronic health (eHealth) is a potential alternative for managing hypertension and modifying hypertension-related self-care set of behaviour. This review aims to identify the delivery mode and strategies used by current eHealth interventions and examine the effectiveness of eHealth on blood pressure control, self-care behavioural outcomes and psychosocial well-being. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis...
December 31, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Lorraine R Buis, Katee Dawood, Reema Kadri, Rachelle Dawood, Caroline R Richardson, Zora Djuric, Ananda Sen, Melissa Plegue, David Hutton, Aaron Brody, Candace D McNaughton, Robert D Brook, Phillip Levy
BACKGROUND: African Americans shoulder significant disparities related to hypertension (HTN), which is a serious public health problem in the city of Detroit, Michigan, where more than 80% of the population is African American. Connectivity through smartphones, use of home blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and newly developed mobile health (mHealth) interventions can facilitate behavioral changes and may improve long-term self-care for chronic conditions, but implementation of a combined approach utilizing these methods has not been tested among African American patients with uncontrolled HTN...
January 25, 2019: JMIR Research Protocols
Heather M Johnson, Lisa Sullivan-Vedder, KyungMann Kim, Patrick E McBride, Maureen A Smith, Jamie N LaMantia, Jennifer T Fink, Megan R Knutson Sinaise, Laura M Zeller, Diane R Lauver
Young adults (18-39 year-olds) with hypertension have a higher lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. However, less than 50% of young adults achieve hypertension control in the United States. Hypertension self-management programs are recommended to improve control, but have been targeted to middle-aged and older populations. Young adults need hypertension self-management programs (i.e., home blood pressure monitoring and lifestyle modifications) tailored to their unique needs to lower blood pressure and reduce the risks and medication burden they may face over a lifetime...
January 21, 2019: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Rafael Lavourinha Pinto, Bárbara da Silva Nalin de Souza, Rosangela Alves Pereira, Rosely Sichieri, Edna Massae Yokoo
Background Excessive sodium intake is a risk factor for developing systemic arterial hypertension. Increased blood pressure during childhood increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Assessing sodium intake across different eating places is important, as the meals offered in different places can influence dietary quality. Objective This study aimed to assess the contribution of different food groups to the mean of sodium intake of school-attending adolescents in the city of Niterói, a metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Şahbender Koç, Sadettin Selçuk Baysal
BACKGROUND: Salt is important in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HT). Salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) accounts for about half of all HT cases. In SSH, sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+ /K+ -ATPase) activity is impaired. Impaired Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity in the lens epithelium results in cortical opacities in the peripheral equator of the lens. We investigated the sensitivity of cortical lens opacities in detecting SSH. METHODS: The study included 191 SSH and 159 non-SSH, salt-resistant HT (SRH) patients (350 HT patients total), aged 40-80 years...
January 22, 2019: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
K Afshaan Fathima, Madhavi Bhargava
Introduction: Hypertension is an important noncommunicable disease of global significance. Low-sodium salt substitutes (LSSS) are increasingly being used for hypertensive persons. The sodium content of these salts is reduced by substituting varying proportion of sodium with potassium. Materials and Methods: The present study was done to assess the awareness of ideal salt intake, knowledge of the availability of LSSS, their indications, and contraindications among 165 doctors of Mangalore, Dakshina Kannada...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Chloe Clifford Astbury, Tarra L Penney, Jean Adams
BACKGROUND: Despite inconclusive evidence, the idea that a lack of home food preparation and skills is a limiting factor in achieving a healthy diet is widespread. Cooking skills interventions proliferate, and several countries now mention cooking in their dietary guidelines. The aim of this study was to determine whether substantial consumption of home-prepared food is necessary for high dietary quality by exploring whether individuals can eat healthily while eating little home-prepared food...
January 17, 2019: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
K H Koh, L H Wei-Soon, L Jun, L N Lui-Sian, C T Hui-Hong
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of blood pressure (BP) reduction with salt restriction in CKD subjects and its sustainability is not well established. METHODS: We enrolled 75 hypertensive patients with CKD into one-month salt restricting diet. 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium was measured to verify their salt intake followed by 1½ year follow-up. RESULTS: Their creatinine clearance was 43 ± standard deviation 33ml/min/1.73m2. Urinary Na excretion (24HUNa) was 173±129mmol/day, reducing to 148±81 by 31±6 day...
December 2018: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Joanna L Dunlop, Alain C Vandal, Mark R Marshall
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the leading cause of death in dialysis patients, and strongly associated with fluid overload and hypertension. It is plausible that low dialysate [Na+] may decrease total body sodium content, thereby reducing fluid overload and hypertension, and ultimately reducing CV morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: This review evaluated harms and benefits of using a low (< 138 mM) dialysate [Na+] for maintenance haemodialysis (HD) patients...
January 16, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mitsuhiro Nishimoto, Hiroshi Ohtsu, Takeshi Marumo, Wakako Kawarazaki, Nobuhiro Ayuzawa, Kohei Ueda, Daigoro Hirohama, Fumiko Kawakami-Mori, Shigeru Shibata, Miki Nagase, Masashi Isshiki, Shigeyoshi Oba, Tatsuo Shimosawa, Toshiro Fujita
Excessive dietary salt intake can counteract the renoprotective effects of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In rodents, salt loading induces hypertension and renal damage by activating the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) independently of plasma aldosterone levels. Thus, high salt-induced resistance to RAS blockade may be mediated by MR activation. To test this, a post hoc analysis of the Eplerenone Combination Versus Conventional Agents to Lower Blood Pressure on Urinary Antialbuminuric Treatment Effect (EVALUATE) trial was conducted...
January 11, 2019: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Yang Liu, Mengyao Shi, Jacquelyn Dolan, Jiang He
Hypertension is an enormous public-health challenge in the world due to its high prevalence and consequent increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Observational epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated a causal relationship between sodium intake and elevated blood pressure (BP). However, BP changes in response to sodium intervention vary among individuals-a trait called sodium sensitivity. This paper aims to review the recent advances in sodium-sensitivity research in Chinese and other populations...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Human Hypertension
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