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Contextual factor

Darrell P Wheeler, Sheldon D Fields, Geetha Beauchamp, Ying Q Chen, Lynda M Emel, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Christopher Hucks-Ortiz, Irene Kuo, Jonathan Lucas, Manya Magnus, Kenneth H Mayer, LaRon E Nelson, Craig W Hendrix, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Steven Shoptaw, Phaedrea Watkins, C Chauncey Watson, Leo Wilton
INTRODUCTION: Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, limited research has examined initiation and adherence to PrEP among Black MSM (BMSM) in the United States (US) who are disproportionately represented among newly HIV infected and late to care individuals. This research reports on the HIV Prevention Trials Network 073 (HPTN 073) study aimed to examine PrEP initiation, utilization and adherence among Black MSM utilizing the theoretically principled, culturally informed and client-centered care coordination (C4) model...
February 2019: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Jane W Njeru, Jennifer L Ridgeway, Gladys B Asiedu, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Jean M Gunderson, Onelis Quirindongo-Cedeño, Michael W OʼBrien, Tara M Nelson, Ron Buzard, Mark L Wieland
Community health worker (CHW) programs can act as bridges between patients and health care teams, but the complexity and variability of program components and outcomes make them difficult to evaluate. This evaluation used a realist approach to identify underlying mechanisms and contextual factors associated with successful implementation of a community-placed CHW program affiliated with a primary care practice in the Midwest United States. The analysis identified mechanisms by which stakeholders built trust, self-efficacy, and empowerment to improve patient-centered outcomes and experiences...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Ambulatory Care Management
Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Praveetha Patalay
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there are ethnic differences in referral route to youth mental health services. METHOD: This was an analysis of national routinely collected data from N = 14,588 young people (mean [SD] age = 12.28(3.75) years, 54% female; 64% White British) accessing mental health services in the UK. Ethnicity was self-reported by young people and carers and referral route was recorded by services. RESULTS: After accounting for service-level variation and controlling for age, gender, problem type, and contextual factors, ethnicity was significantly associated with referral route...
January 4, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
C B Hayes, M P O'Shea, C Foley-Nolan, M McCarthy, J M Harrington
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the implementation of school based diet and physical activity interventions with respect to the barriers and facilitators to adoption, implementation and sustainability; supportive actions required for implementation and recommendations to overcome identified barriers. Two interventions rolled out nationally in Ireland were chosen; Food Dudes, a programme to encourage primary school children to consume more fruit and vegetables and Green Schools Travel (GST), an active travel to school programme in primary and secondary schools...
February 15, 2019: BMC Public Health
Vishwa Mohan, Julia R Gomez, Patricia F Maness
Neuron-Glia related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is a candidate autism risk factor that promotes axon guidance through cytoskeletal linkages in developing brain but its role in limbic circuitry has not been investigated. In situ hybridization (ISH) and immunofluorescence staining showed that NrCAM is expressed in the developing amygdalar pathway of mouse embryos during outgrowth of projections in the stria terminalis, a major limbic tract that interconnects the central amygdala (CeA) with key targets in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)...
2019: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Stanford Mandlenkosi Phehlukwayo, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni
Background: The global shift from institution-based to community-based care for chronic mental illness (CMI) care resulted in the de-institutionalization of clients with CMI. However, health systems which have been originally designed for acute hospital-based care do not seem to be appropriately transformed to manage CMI care at a community level. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how contextual factors influenced care coordination for chronic mental illness care within the eThekwini District...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Vahid Reza Askari, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Amin Assaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Inflammation is defined as a defensive response of the body against either the endogenous or exogenous triggers, while this process becomes chronic leading to various disorders such as asthma, cancers, and multiple sclerosis. Recently, pharmacological properties of different constituents of F. szowitsiana have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of F. szowitsiana root on human isolated lymphocytes. The effects of either F...
February 14, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yingna Wang, Renana Nerwen, Carla Gabris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the current literature on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with particular focus on racial and ethnic factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Limited research exists with respect to ACEs and certain racial and ethnic groups. In this article, we highlight the unique challenges specific populations may face in their lives. Further research on ACEs in these and other racial and ethnic groups is needed to help clinicians contextualize their cases in the clinical setting...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Peter Yao, Sunday Clark, Kriti Gogia, Baria Hafeez, Hanson Hsu, Peter Greenwald
BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer telemedicine is becoming part of mainstream medicine, but questions exist regarding the quality of care provided. We assessed antibiotic stewardship, one measure of quality, by comparing antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) between patients seen by telemedicine and patients seen in-person in two urban emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: In two urban EDs where low-acuity patients in the ED have the option of being seen by telemedicine rather than in-person, we analyzed telemedicine and in-person visits of patients ≥18 years who received ARI diagnoses between July 2016 and September 2017...
February 14, 2019: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Anthony D Mancini
Human beings are routinely exposed to varying forms of acute adversity. Our responses take varying forms too, ranging from chronic distress to resilience. Although this pronounced variability is widely recognized, one possible outcome of acute adversity has been invariably, though understandably, ignored: an improvement in psychological and social functioning. In this analysis, I argue that, under some conditions, people can experience marked psychological improvement after acute adversity. I describe this response pattern as psychosocial gains from adversity (PGA) and define it as favorable and reliable change on an index of psychological functioning from before to after exposure to adversity...
February 14, 2019: Psychological Review
Laura Nabors, Cathy Odar Stough, Katlyn Garr, Ashley Merianos
OBJECTIVES: The current cross-sectional study examined whether children who are overweight experience greater levels of parent-reported bullying behaviors and victimization using a national sample. Additionally, the relations among child (mental health), family (parent-child sharing of information), and contextual factors (neighborhood safety, school engagement) and risk of victimization in children who are overweight were assessed. METHODS: Caregivers provided data via the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health...
February 14, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Pilar Ferré, Montserrat Comesaña, Marc Guasch
Research into the effects of emotion on source memory (i.e., memory for certain contextual details of a stimulus, such as its location, color, or temporal context) has yielded inconsistent findings. Mather and her co-workers tried to account for such inconsistencies by pointing out the relevance of the characteristics of the feature examined. Specifically, they distinguished between intrinsic and extrinsic features (Mather, 2007) and between goal-relevant and goal-irrelevant information (Mather and Sutherland, 2011)...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Ivan Fernandez-Lamo, Daniel Gomez-Dominguez, Alberto Sanchez-Aguilera, Azahara Oliva, Aixa Victoria Morales, Manuel Valero, Elena Cid, Antal Berenyi, Liset Menendez de la Prida
The proximodistal axis is considered a major organizational principle of the hippocampus. At the interface between the hippocampus and other brain structures, CA2 apparently breaks this rule. The region is involved in social, temporal, and contextual memory function, but mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we reveal cell-type heterogeneity and a characteristic expression gradient of the transcription factor Sox5 within CA2 in the rat. Using intracellular and extracellular recordings followed by neurochemical identification of single cells, we find marked proximodistal trends of synaptic activity, subthreshold membrane potentials, and phase-locked firing coupled to theta and gamma oscillations...
February 12, 2019: Cell Reports
Chloe Gui, Jonathan C Lau, Suzanne E Kosteniuk, Donald H Lee, Joseph F Megyesi
BACKGROUND: An important aspect in the management of patients with diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGGs) involves monitoring the lesions via serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, radiological interpretations of LGG interval scans are often qualitative and thus difficult to use clinically. METHODS: To contextualize these assessments, we retrospectively compared radiological interpretations of LGG growth or stability to volume change measured by manual segmentation...
February 13, 2019: Acta Neurochirurgica
Kristen P Mark, Christine E Leistner, Minhao Dai
Sexual desire contributes to overall sexual and relational health among long-term romantic partnerships. However, little research has examined the nuances of partner-level sexual desire and behavior on a daily level, despite evidence that it ebbs and flows and is more of a state than a static characteristic. Additionally, daily sexual behavior and desire may impact women differently than men. Therefore, understanding individual and partner-level dynamics among men and women may provide a more nuanced understanding of sexual desire as a situational state in the context of long term couples...
February 12, 2019: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Susan J Curry, Alex H Krist, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, David C Grossman, Alex R Kemper, Martha Kubik, C Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng, John B Wong
Importance: Perinatal depression, which is the occurrence of a depressive disorder during pregnancy or following childbirth, affects as many as 1 in 7 women and is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period. It is well established that perinatal depression can result in adverse short- and long-term effects on both the woman and child. Objective: To issue a new US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on interventions to prevent perinatal depression...
February 12, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Elizabeth Donovan, Patricia Case, Jeffrey P Bratberg, Janette Baird, Dina Burstein, Alexander Y Walley, Traci C Green
Drug overdose is the leading cause of unintentional death in the USA and the majority of deaths involve an opioid. Pharmacies are playing an increasingly important role in getting naloxone-the antidote to an opioid overdose-into the community. The aim of the current study was to understand, from the perspective of those who had obtained naloxone at the pharmacy, whose drug using status and pain patient status was not known until the interviews were conducted, as well as those who had not obtained naloxone at the pharmacy but were at risk for overdose, factors that impact the likelihood of obtaining pharmacy-based naloxone (PBN)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Miyong To Kim, Kim Byeng Kim, Jisook Ko, Nicole Murry, David Levine, Ju-Young Lee
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as well as poor glycemic control among T2DM patients, yet comparative studies of its association among ethnic minority populations are scarce. Using baseline data from a behavioral intervention study of Korean Americans (KAs) with T2DM (N = 250 KAs) and the NHANES data set, we explored differential roles of vitamin D on HbA1C level or T2DM control in several racial groups. Significantly more KAs (55.2%) were vitamin D-deficient (U...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
A R Links, W Callon, C Wasserman, J Walsh, M C Beach, E F Boss
OBJECTIVE: Unexplained medical terminology impedes clinician/parent communication. We describe jargon use in a pediatric surgical setting. METHODS: We evaluated encounters between parents of children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB; n = 64) and otolaryngologists (n = 8). Participants completed questionnaires evaluating demographics, clinical features, and parental role in decision-making via a 4-point categorical item. Two coders reviewed consultations for occurrence of clinician and parent utterance of medical jargon...
February 3, 2019: Patient Education and Counseling
Jennie Haw, Jessica Polzer, Dana V Devine
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (CB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells that are used to treat blood- and immune-system disorders. Public CB banks aim to build inventories with high-quality CB units to meet healthcare needs. While research has noted the influence of broader contextual factors on donor recruitment and CB collection processes, to date, no published study has identified the specific contextual factors and challenges to donor recruitment and CB collection...
February 11, 2019: Transfusion
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