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Cognitive pitfall

William Conkright, Patricia A Deuster
Modern-day warfare and operational tempo require Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel to be ready and able to perform optimally on the battlefield at all times. To do this, US Special Operations Command has invested in high-performance training centers and human performance staff, including performance dietitians. Performance dietitians are critical, because it is widely recognized that nutrition affects all aspects of health and performance, particularly for the SOF Operator. These aspects include everything from physical and sensory to psychosocial and cognitive factors, as well as environmental exposures and genetic predispositions...
2019: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Jaiganesh Selvapandiyan
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) an evidence-based psychotherapy is practiced across the globe with a common cognitive and behavioral fidelity. The focus of this review is about the status of CBT in India based on the analysis of published research on CBT from India. Publication of papers related to CBT in the Indian population is scarce. Among the published researches, the observed practice defects could compromise the overall response from the globally proven CBT interventions. Hence, quality control measures should be put into practice to regulate the application of CBT in India...
February 23, 2019: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Christine J Ko, Irwin Braverman, Richard Sidlow, Eve Lowenstein
Dermatologic diagnosis relies on vision primarily and auditory and verbal input secondarily. Accurate dermatologic diagnosis is predicated on 1) seeing and perceiving a skin finding, 2) categorizing and naming the finding correctly, and 3) comparing the visual data and data obtained from the totality of the clinical encounter (i.e., from other sensory modalities) with one's working mental database of dermatologic diagnoses. The baseline assumption - which is false - is that a dermatologist is expert at each of the aforementioned steps and transitions sequentially between them seamlessly in an error-free fashion...
February 21, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jona Sassenhagen, Dejan Draschkow
Cluster-based permutation tests are gaining an almost universal acceptance as inferential procedures in cognitive neuroscience. They elegantly handle the multiple comparisons problem in high-dimensional magnetoencephalographic and EEG data. Unfortunately, the power of this procedure comes hand in hand with the allure for unwarranted interpretations of the inferential output, the most prominent of which is the overestimation of the temporal, spatial, and frequency precision of statistical claims. This leads researchers to statements about the onset or offset of a certain effect that is not supported by the permutation test...
January 18, 2019: Psychophysiology
Anna Maria Tartaglione, Sara Schiavi, Gemma Calamandrei, Viviana Trezza
Impairments in social interaction and verbal and non verbal communication are among the main features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The causes of ASD are still unknown but the research efforts of the last decade have identified a number of factors (rare gene mutations, gene variations and adverse environmental events) that, interacting in complex ways, affect early brain development. The clinical evidence that prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic drug valproate (VPA) is associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay, cognitive deficits and autism in children, has drawn the attention of scientists on VPA as a tool to unravel the environment contribution to ASD risk in children...
January 9, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Moritz E Wigand, Nathalie Oexle, Tobias Staiger, Tamara Waldmann, Nicolas Rüsch
Many people with mental illness struggle with stigma. Secrecy is one coping mechanism to deal with mental illness stigma but has some major pitfalls. In this study with 301 unemployed persons with mental health problems, we assessed whether disease concepts are associated with secrecy. We found that genetic and neurobiological disease models are significantly associated with more secrecy. This might be due to a cognitive bias called genetic essentialism. Critical awareness of biogenetic disease models and programmes helping with disclosure decisions might be helpful...
December 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Diego Vidaurre, Nicholas E Myers, Mark Stokes, Anna C Nobre, Mark W Woolrich
In this article, we propose a method to track trial-specific neural dynamics of stimulus processing and decision making with high temporal precision. By applying this novel method to a perceptual template-matching task, we tracked representational brain states associated with the cascade of neural processing, from early sensory areas to higher order areas that are involved in integration and decision making. We address a major limitation of the traditional decoding approach: that it relies on consistent timing of these processes over trials...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Thomas T Hills
There are well-understood psychological limits on our capacity to process information. As information proliferation-the consumption and sharing of information-increases through social media and other communications technology, these limits create an attentional bottleneck, favoring information that is more likely to be searched for, attended to, comprehended, encoded, and later reproduced. In information-rich environments, this bottleneck influences the evolution of information via four forces of cognitive selection, selecting for information that is belief-consistent, negative, social, and predictive...
November 29, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Mark Jit
Background: Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a structured decision-making process that offers greater flexibility to incorporate multiple objectives than cost-effectiveness analysis or benefit-cost analysis. Conclusions: The flexibility of MCDA requires careful consideration of its methodological underpinnings, analytical forms and cognitive biases that may arise in eliciting trade-off. The methodology of MCDA should ideally incorporate both deliberative and technical processes...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Fabien Huet, Mariama Akodad, Eran Kalmanovitch, Jerome Adda, Audrey Agullo, Pascal Batistella, Camille Roubille, François Roubille
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have been the cornerstone for the treatment of heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction for decades. According to recent and promising studies, sacubitril/valsartan (SV) might be efficient in alternative indications in the area of HF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, chronic kidney disease, and so on. This review briefly summarizes these promising therapeutic options regarding SV and the potential limits and pitfalls for its use in routine practice (due to cognitive uncertainties)...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Stephanie B Jilcott Pitts, Shu Wen Ng, Jonathan L Blitstein, Alison Gustafson, Mihai Niculescu
OBJECTIVES: (i) To determine the current state of online grocery shopping, including individuals' motivations for shopping for groceries online and types of foods purchased; and (ii) to identify the potential promise and pitfalls that online grocery shopping may offer in relation to food and beverage purchases. DESIGN: PubMed, ABI/INFORM and Google Scholar were searched to identify published research. SETTING: To be included, studies must have been published between 2007 and 2017 in English, based in the USA or Europe (including the UK), and focused on: (i) motivations for online grocery shopping; (ii) the cognitive/psychosocial domain; and (iii) the community or neighbourhood food environment domain...
October 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Phil Hutchinson, Daniel E Moerman
In 2002, Dan Moerman outlined three candidate explanations for the "placebo response": the "conditioned stimulus-response," Irving Kirsch's "response-expectancy" explanation, and the "meaning response." The meaning response, Moerman argued, was the only one of the three candidate explanations that could cover all the data, gained from decades of RCTs and centuries of historical record. Moerman went so far as to propose replacing the term "placebo effect/response" with the term "meaning response," because people are not responding to placebos, since there is nothing to respond to; people are responding to meanings...
2018: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Anna Lena Bercht, Nanda Wijermans
Social-ecological systems (SES) research underlines the tremendous impact of human behaviour on planet Earth. To enable a sustainable course of humanity, the integration of human cognition in SES research is crucial for better understanding the processes leading to and involved in human behaviour. However, this integration is proving a challenge, not only in terms of diverging ontological and epistemological perspectives, but also-and this has received little attention in SES research-in terms of (lacking) precision of communication regarding cognition...
September 22, 2018: Ambio
Elizabeth S Collier, Rebecca Lawson
Can higher level cognition directly influence visual spatial perception? Many recent studies have claimed so, on the basis that manipulating cognitive factors (e.g., morality, emotion, action capacity) seems to directly affect perception. However, Firestone and Scholl (Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 39, 1-77, 2016) argued that such studies often fall prey to at least one of six pitfalls. They further argued that if an effect could be accounted for by any of these pitfalls, it is not a true demonstration of a top-down influence of cognition on perception...
September 20, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Julia Lühnen, Anke Steckelberg, Susanne Buhse
BACKGROUND: Health information often includes different categories of pictures. This study comprises: A) exploration of the perception of photos presented in a brochure on the prevention of osteoporosis and B) a systematic review on the effects of pictures in health information. METHODS: A) We conducted four focus groups. Participants with heterogeneous cultural and educational background were included. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis...
September 11, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Filip Majer, Lenka Piherova, Martin Reboun, Veronika Stara, Ondrej Pelak, Patricia Norambuena, Viktor Stranecky, Alice Krebsova, Hana Vlaskova, Lenka Dvorakova, Stanislav Kmoch, Tomas Kalina, Milos Kubanek, Jakub Sikora
Danon disease (DD) is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene (Xq24). DD is characterized by cognitive deficit, myopathy, and cardiomyopathy in male patients. The phenotype is variable and mitigated in females. The timely identification of de-novo LAMP2 mutated family members, many of whom are heterozygous females, remains critical for their treatment and family counseling. DD laboratory testing builds on minimally invasive quantification of the LAMP2 protein in white blood cells and characterization of the specific mutation...
September 8, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Caroline J Charpentier, John P O'Doherty
Interactions with conspecifics are key to any social species. In order to navigate this social world, it is crucial for individuals to learn from and about others. From learning new skills by observing parents perform them to making complex collective decisions, understanding the mechanisms underlying social cognitive processes has been of considerable interest to psychologists and neuroscientists. Here, we review studies that have used computational modelling techniques, combined with neuroimaging, to shed light on how people learn and make decisions in social contexts...
December 2018: Social Neuroscience
Inga Zerr, Peter Hermann
Rapidly progressive dementia is a syndrome caused by numerous disease entities. Accurate diagnosis is crucial as substantial proportion of these diseases is highly treatable. Others might implicate specific hygienic problems. Still, differential diagnosis remains challenging because of a huge overlap of clinical presentations. Areas covered: The paper reviews PubMed-listed research articles with a focus on diagnosis and treatment of diseases showing rapid cognitive decline such as inflammatory diseases, rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases, toxic-metabolic encephalopathies and prion diseases...
October 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Victor G B Liem, Sanne E Hoeks, Felix van Lier, Jurgen C de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This narrative review will discuss what value Big Data has to offer anesthesiology and aims to highlight recently published articles of large databases exploring factors influencing perioperative outcome. Additionally, the future perspectives of Big Data and its major pitfalls will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The potential of Big Data has given an incentive to create nationwide and anesthesia-initiated registries like the MPOG and NACOR. These large databases have contributed in elucidating some of the rare perioperative complications, such as declined cognition after exposure to general anesthesia and epidural hematomas in parturients...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Karin Gmitterová, Joanna Gawinecka, Franc Llorens, Daniela Varges, Peter Valkovič, Inga Zerr
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) share a couple of clinical similarities that is often a source of diagnostic pitfalls. We evaluated the discriminatory potential of brain-derived CSF markers [tau, p-tau (181P), Aβ1-42 , NSE and S100B] across the spectrum of Lewy body disorders and assessed whether particular markers are associated with cognitive status in investigated patients. The tau CSF level, amyloid β1-42 and p-tau/tau ratio were helpful in the distinction between DLB and PDD (p = 0...
August 6, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
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