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Cerebral hypoperfusion injury

Tayana Silva de Carvalho, Eduardo H Sanchez-Mendoza, Luiza M Nascentes Melo, Adriana R Schultz Moreira, Maryam Sardari, Egor Dzyubenko, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Dirk M Hermann
Malnutrition predisposes to poor stroke outcome. In animal models, undernutrition protected against ischemic injury in some, but not in other studies. In view of diverse stroke models and food restriction paradigms, the consequences of undernutrition are poorly understood. Herein, we exposed mice to energy-reduced and protein-energy-reduced diets for 7-30 days and subsequently induced intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Undernutrition phase dependently influenced ischemic injury. Short-lasting 7 days of protein-energy undernutrition, but not energy undernutrition, decreased post-ischemic brain leukocyte infiltration and microglial activation and reduced brain Il-1β mRNA, but did not protect against ischemic injury...
March 18, 2019: Translational Stroke Research
Thu Nga Nguyen, Wen Wu, Ermias Woldermichael, Vladislav Toronov, Steve Lin
Two-thirds of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, who survive to hospital admission, die in the hospital from neurological injuries related to cerebral hypoperfusion. Therefore, noninvasive real-time monitoring of the cerebral oxygen metabolism in cardiac arrest patients is extremely important. Hyperspectral near-infrared spectroscopy (hNIRS) is a noninvasive technique that measures concentrations of the key chromophores in the brain, such as oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, and cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), an intracellular marker of oxygen consumption...
March 2019: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Halinder S Mangat, Xian Wu, Linda M Gerber, Justin T Schwarz, Malik Fakhar, Santosh B Murthy, Philip E Stieg, Jamshid Ghajar, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HTS) and mannitol are effective in reducing intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, their simultaneous effect on the cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and ICP has not been studied rigorously. OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in effects of HTS and mannitol on the combined burden of high ICP and low CPP in patients with severe TBI. METHODS: We performed a case-control study using prospectively collected data from the New York State TBI-trac® database (Brain Trauma Foundation, New York, New York)...
March 16, 2019: Neurosurgery
Shunsuke Magami, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Yuji Ueno, Kenichiro Hira, Ryota Tanaka, Kazuo Yamashiro, Hidenori Oishi, Hajime Arai, Takao Urabe, Nobutaka Hattori
Oligodendrocytes (OLGs) differentiate from oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells (OPCs) for myelination in white matter. This differentiation is maintained by cell-cell interactions through trophic factors such as brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF). However, differentiation is impaired when white matter injury occurs in a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model. Thus, we examined the effects of the interaction between astrocyte and oligodendrocyte lineage cells on myelination regarding the mechanism of impairment...
March 10, 2019: Neuroscience
Francesco Bonsante, Duksha Ramful, Christine Binquet, Sylvain Samperiz, Sandrine Daniel, Jean-Bernard Gouyon, Silvia Iacobelli
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in preterm infants, and the identification of early markers of renal hypoperfusion is a chief challenge in neonatal intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between early markers of cardiovascular function and renal perfusion with AKI occurrence in a cohort of preterm infants < 32 weeks' gestation. METHODS: 128 infants were prospectively included from birth to discharge...
January 15, 2019: Neonatology
Hakseung Kim, Hack-Jin Lee, Young-Tak Kim, Yunsik Son, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Dong-Joo Kim
OBJECTIVEFailure of cerebral autoregulation and subsequent hypoperfusion is common during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The cerebrovascular pressure-reactivity index (PRx) indirectly reflects cerebral autoregulation and has been used to derive optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). This study provides a method for the use of a combination of PRx, CPP, and intracranial pressure (ICP) to better evaluate the extent of cerebral hypoperfusion during the first 24 hours after TBI, allowing for a more accurate prediction of mortality risk...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Yu Wang, Li Li, Tianlong Wang, Lei Zhao, Hua Feng, Qian Wang, Long Fan, Xuexin Feng, Wei Xiao, Kunpeng Feng
There has been no gold standard for intraoperative monitoring in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) till now. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the value of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring in CEA and explore the thresholds for intraoperative cerebral hypoperfusion. Eighty-four consecutive patients who underwent CEA surgery in Xuan Wu Hospital of Capital Medical University from August 2015 to June 2016 were enrolled in this study. All patients were intraoperatively monitored by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and NIRS...
December 14, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Abbas Al-Qamari, Ibukunoluwa Adeleke, Adam Kretzer, Charles W Hogue
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Central pulse pressure (PP), a marker of vascular stiffness, is a novel indicator of risk for perioperative morbidity including ischemic stroke. Appreciation for the mechanism by which vascular stiffness leads to organ dysfunction along with understanding its clinical detection may lead to improved patient management. RECENT FINDINGS: Vascular stiffness is associated with increased mortality and neurologic, cardiac, and renal injury in nonsurgical and surgical patients...
February 2019: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Yue-Hua Wang, Ying-Lin Yang, Xiao Cheng, Jun Zhang, Wan Li, Guan-Hua Du
Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction has been widely used to treat stroke and sequelae of stroke. We have previously shown that the active fractions of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction attenuate cerebral ischemic injury. However, the global protein profile and signaling conduction pathways regulated by Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction are still unclear. This study established a two-vessel occlusion rat model by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Rats were intragastrically administered 50 or 150 mg/kg Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction for 4 consecutive weeks...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEIt has been reported that microRNA-195 (miR-195) protects against chronic brain injury induced by chronic brain hypoperfusion. However, neither the expression profile of miR-195 nor its potential role during acute ischemic stroke has been investigated. In this study, the authors' aim was to verify the mechanism of miR-195 in acute ischemic stroke.METHODSThe plasma levels of miR-195 expression were assessed using real-time PCR in 96 patients with acute ischemic stroke, and the correlation with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was evaluated...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Catharina Conzen, Katrin Becker, Walid Albanna, Miriam Weiss, Annika Bach, Nyanda Lushina, André Steimers, Sarah Pinkernell, Hans Clusmann, Ute Lindauer, Gerrit A Schubert
Clinical presentation and neurological outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is highly variable. Aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) is hallmarked by sudden increase of intracranial pressure (ICP) and acute hypoperfusion contributing to early brain injury (EBI) and worse outcome, while milder or non-aneurysmal SAH with comparable amount of blood are associated with better neurological outcome, possibly due to less dramatic changes in ICP. Acute pressure dynamics may therefore be an important pathophysiological aspect determining neurological complications and outcome...
November 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Ailing Yu, Leilei Mao, Fangfang Zhao, Baoliang Sun
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has become a crucial factor contributing to neurological disorders and cognitive deficits. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) transplantation has been widely used to repair central nerve systems (CNS) injury, however, whether this intervention has therapeutic effects on CCH-induced cognitive dysfunction and brain damages is still unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the potential therapeutic effects of OECs transplantation on CCH. Two days after the establishment of 2VO rat model, OECs or its medium transplantation were performed via intrastriatal injection...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Caixia Yin, Yuanyuan Deng, Yuangui Liu, Jianmei Gao, Lingli Yan, Qihai Gong
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is regarded as a high-risk factor for cognitive decline of vascular dementia (VD) as it is conducive to induce beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation. Icariside II (ICS II), a plant-derived flavonoid compound, has showed neuroprotective effect on animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by decreasing Aβ levels. Here, we assessed the effect of ICS II on CCH-induced cognitive deficits and Aβ levels in rats, and the possible underlying mechanisms were also explored. It was disclosed that CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) caused cognitive deficits, neuronal injury and increase of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels in the rat hippocampus, while oral administration of ICS II for 28 days abolished the above deficits in the hippocampus of BCCAO rats...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dan-Dan Liu, Xia Yuan, Shi-Feng Chu, Chen Chen, Qian Ren, Piao Luo, Mei-Yu Lin, Sha-Sha Wang, Tian-Bi Zhu, Qi-di Ai, Ying-da Zang, Dong-Ming Zhang, Xin He, Zhi-Hua Huang, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng, Nai-Hong Chen
Vascular dementia (VD) results from accumulated damage in the vascular system, which is characterized by progressive impairments in memory and cognition and is second only to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prevalence among all types of dementia. In contrast to AD, there is no FDA-approved treatment for VD owing to its multiple etiologies. In this study, we investigated whether CZ-7, a new derivative of Claulansine F (Clau F) with verified neuroprotective activity in vitro, could ameliorate the cognitive impairment of rats with permanent occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO) and its potential mechanisms of action...
October 31, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Brian L Brooks, Trevor A Low, Vickie Plourde, Shane Virani, Zeanna Jadavji, Frank P MacMaster, Karen M Barlow, R Marc Lebel, Keith Owen Yeates
OBJECTIVES: The long-term effects of concussion in youth remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the association between history of concussion and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in youth. METHODS: A total of 53 children and adolescents with a history of concussion (n = 37) or orthopaedic injury (OI; n = 16) were considered. Measures included pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging to quantify CBF, post-concussion symptoms, psychological symptoms, and cognitive testing...
October 31, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jiahuan Hao, Yuxue Chen, Ensheng Yao, Xinghua Liu
Cerebral ischemic stroke is associated with a high rate of incidence, prevalence and mortality globally. Carotid artery stenosis, which is mainly caused by atherosclerosis plaque, results in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and predominantly increases the risk of ischemic stroke. In the present study, we used bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model by placing microcoils of 0.18 mm diameter encompassing both common carotid arteries respectively, to mimic the pathogenesis of carotid artery atherosclerosis and intensively explore the pathology...
November 15, 2018: Brain Research
Mattia Pacetti, Domenico Tortora, Pietro Fiaschi, Alessandro Consales, Gianluca Piatelli, Marcello Ravegnani, Armando Cama, Marco Pavanello
Introduction: Moyamoya disease is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology involving the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and the proximal portions of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries with associated collateral vascular network. When the vascular pattern is associated with a particular condition (e.g., Type 1 neurofibromatosis, Down syndrome), it is defined as moyamoya syndrome (MMS) (or quasi-moyamoya). Among different indirect bypass techniques used to prevent ischemic injury by increasing collateral blood flow to hypoperfused areas of the cortex, multiple burr holes technique is an easy and diffuse indirect revascularization approach in the treatment of moyamoya...
July 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Zachary A Vesoulis, Steve M Liao, Amit M Mathur
Post-resuscitation reperfusion following hypoxic-ischemia (HIE) is associated with secondary brain injury in neonates. &#13; &#13; Objective: To quantify the association between perfusion exceeding autoregulatory limits and brain injury.&#13; &#13; Methods: Continuous mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data were prospectively collected from infants with HIE. Cerebral oximetry index (COx) was calculated as a moving correlation coefficient between MABP and NIRS...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Zoe K Sarafis, Aaron K Monga, Aaron A Phillips, Andrei V Krassioukov
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in the devastating loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function. After SCI, the interruption of descending sympathoexcitatory pathways disrupts supraspinal control of blood pressure (BP). A common clinical consequence of cardiovascular dysfunction after SCI is orthostatic hypotension (OH), a debilitating condition characterized by rapid profound decreases in BP when assuming an upright posture. OH can result in a diverse array of insidious and pernicious health consequences...
September 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Crystal Jing Jing Yeo, George J Hutton, Steve H Fung
Balo concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare, atypical demyelinating disease, which may rapidly progress to become severe and fatal. Advanced neuroimaging has proven helpful for early diagnosis, classification, prognostication, and monitoring of progression in multiple sclerosis, but has not been fully explored in BCS. We present the case of a 27-year-old woman with BCS in whom advanced neuroimaging was used to correlate the evolution of disease with clinical findings over the course of 1 year. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and arterial spin labeling cerebral perfusion were obtained at presentation (Day 0), and at Day 67 and Day 252...
October 2018: Radiology Case Reports
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